Volume 18, Number 3 May 1996

Inside this issue:

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The Polish Studies Center joins many American Polish cultural organizations across the country to celebrate the Polish Nation on May 3, 1996. The year 1996 marks twenty years of our exchange with Warsaw University and of the founding of our twinned centers (with the American Studies Center at WU.) The date of May 3 was chosen because, 205 years ago, Poland adopted a democratic constitution, the first formal constitution in Europe, and since that time--especially during times of occupation and communist domination--Poles everywhere have seen May 3 as their "real national holiday," as opposed to official state holidays that were imposed on them. IU President Myles Brand will visit Poland later this month to take part in ceremonies marking our 20th academic anniversary at Warsaw University. On May 3, join friends of Polish Studies for a reception and cultural evening in State Room East, Indiana Memorial Union, at 7:30.

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The Polish Studies Center and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs (SPEA) sponsored a conference entitled "Environmental Protection in Poland and the Region," March 31-April 2, 1996. Sessions were held at IUB at SPEA and at the Union Conference Center, and following the Bloomington sessions, conference participants spoke to university and community audiences in Indianapolis and South Bend. The conference continued at the Hudson Institute, Indianapolis, on April 2, where sessions were joined by people from state agencies and private environmental firms and organizations. Several faculty from Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis and from Butler University also took part, and the Hudson session was officially greeted by IUPUI Chancellor Gerald L. Bepko, who spoke about his own travels in Poland and Russia. Later that week, two Polish specialists from the conference visited Indiana University South Bend and spoke at a community forum and to graduate students in environmental policy.

At the conference, experts from Poland, Russia and the US discussed the environmental situation in the region from economic, political and social perspectives. In many cases, similar topics were discussed from all three perspectives, providing interesting and effective debate regarding the real issues underlying environmental protection in the region. The conference sessions were pegged to various audiences, with some sessions designed for the general public and for educators. To increase our outreach to high school and college teachers in the state, Polish Studies joined forces with the Russian and East European Institute on March 29 to host an East European Environmental Seminar, which was attended by more than forty people. An educational packet with several related lesson plans on communist/post-communist politics and environmental issues was prepared for this session.

The first formal conference session was held in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs (SPEA) on March 31. Four SPEA Masters students gave lively presentations drawn from their field work in Eastern Europe and the NIS, providing an introduction to the issues discussed during the rest of the conference. Natalia Kocheleva discussed environmental problems in the Moscow region of Russia and Alexey Zlotin gave an overview of the current environmental situation in the Russian Arctic. Lynn Richards, former Peace Corps Environmental Program Director provided an introduction to foreign assistance and grassroots organization in the NIS. And finally, Suzanne Veaudry discussed empowerment in non-governmental organizations in Poland, which she observed and took part in directly as a Peace Corps volunteer for three years.

Following the Sunday afternoon session, SPEA Dean A. James Barnes, formerly with the US Environmental Protection Agency, hosted a reception for all conference presenters and participants. After this, the conference's opening ceremonies took place over dinner at the Indiana Memorial Union's Frangipani Room. Polish Studies Center Director Timothy Wiles welcomed conference-goers and participants and in some introductory remarks provided an interdisciplinary framework for the conference.

Jerzy Sleszynski of the Warsaw Ecological Economics Center, Warsaw University and Piotr Poborski of the Institute of Ecology and Industrial Areas in Katowice spoke next, suggesting the links between economic transition and environmental protection.

Monday's sessions were divided into five main sessions. The first session, moderated by Kerry Krutilla, IU SPEA, provided an overview of environmental protection efforts in the region from a variety of perspectives. Speakers included Michael Toman, Resources for the Future (who discussed American perspectives on the environmental and economic reforms in the CEE), Daniel Cole, IU School of Law-Indianapolis and conference co-organizer (who discussed structural improvements for environmental protection from political, economic and policy perspectives), and Roman Zlotin, IU Central Eurasian Studies (who surveyed environmental concerns and environmental protection in Russia).

Energy policy, air quality, rural and urban ecologies was the topic of the second session, moderated by William Hojnacki, SPEA, IU South Bend. Presenters included Lech Ryszkowski, Director of Research Center for Agricultural and Forest Environments at the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Robin Bates, Principal Economist from the World Bank, and Piotr Poborski.

Some country-wide problems and some dramatic turnarounds were addressed in this session, including the issues of sustainable agriculture and water shortage (Ryszkowski), and energy issues in Krakow which involve the more efficient supply of home heating accompanied by reduced emissions (Robin Bates' project with the World Bank). Piotr Poborski reported on a new project at the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas in Katowice, the establishment of a Risk Abatement Center for East and Central Europe (RACE). Its mission: "To develop, adapt, and transfer to decision makers environmental risk management strategies and tools for application via environmental policy in Central and Eastern European countries."

This is a far-sighted project which will address pollution problems at the front end, rather than after the damages occur, and it is significantly located in the middle of Silesia, the center of a heavy-industry region that spreads over several formerly communist countries. Poborski shared the podium with a representative of the RACE project's American partners, Amy Evans, Manager, International Environmental Programs, the Science Applications International Corporation. SAIC is a private consulting and facilitating firm which has contracted with the Department of Energy for this project. Evans and Poborski pointed out that this is the first time that D.O.E., a U.S. Department, has contracted directly with an independent research institute (an NGO) in Poland to work on risk abatement. We are pleased that our IU conference was one of the first public forums at which this cooperation was announced.

Matthew Auer, SPEA Bloomington, moderated the third session on environmental law and economic instruments. Jerzy Jendros'ka, Research Group on Environmental Law, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wrocaw, and Jerzy Sleszynski, Warsaw University, discussed some recent developments in legal reform and enforcement, and the use of instruments like fines and charges, incentives for clean-up (i.e., forgiveness of fines), and some debt-for-nature swap arrangements which are currently in effect between Poland and some Scandinavian countries and also the U.S.--but which, it turns out, Germany has not yet agreed to join.

Daniel Cole moderated the fourth session on privatization and the environment from economic, legal and business perspectives. Speakers included Boguslaw Fiedor, Oskar Lange Academy of Economics, Wroclaw, Ruth Greenspan Bell, Legal Analyst with the US EPA, and Susan Cummings, from Creditanstalt-SCG, Warsaw. The arrangement of the afternoon sessions took the shape of widening the circle of involvements, as panelists asked, How would we affect the Polish environment [and other postcommunist economies' natural environments] if, first, we added a stronger legal and regulatory framework to the problem, and also added economic incentives that would prompt more wholesome and sustainable practices? Next we asked, How would we affect the Polish environment if we added more money, by restructuring the economy via privatization and other salutary market practices, by means of international aid when it can be gotten, and in general, by improving the business climate along environmentally-friendly lines? In our last session, we added the ultimate secret ingredient--people.

This final session focused more centrally than hitherto on the dimension of society. The main topics were environmentalism, related social movements and dynamics within postcommunist society, and sustainable development, which sometimes registers as the new ideology of the environmentally-conscious economic thinking in Poland, and sometimes seems like a new social contract for the emerging postsocialist society. (It also turns out to be a concept which is virtually impossible to define or get consensus on a definition, which led to much lively discussion at the conference.) Barbara Hicks, University of North Carolina, Political Science, moderated presentations by Piotr Glinski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Warsaw (on "the Polish Greens as a Social Movement," the topic and title of his recent book), and by Zbigniew Bochniarz and Richard Bolan from the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota. Bolan delivered their paper, titled "Institutional and Policy Reforms for Sustainable Development in Poland.

Monday evening, participants gathered for a panel discussion regarding some of the issues and questions raised during the day's presentations. Timothy Wiles moderated this discussion which began with a presentation by Randall Baker, Director of SPEA-International Programs. Discussion centered around the topic of sustainable development and what it really entails, economically, politically and socially.

Tuesday, many of the conference participants traveled to the Hudson Institute in Indianapolis for a panel discussion moderated by John Clark of the Hudson Institute. Robin Bates and Susan Cummings gave brief overviews of energy policy and privatization, respectively. Participants then discussed these issues in more depth in order to draw some conclusions from the conference and the many discussions over the course of the conference.

These conclusions, and the papers presented, will be compiled into a book by conference co-organizers Daniel Cole and Timothy Wiles and John Clark.

The Polish Studies Center wishes to thank all the presenters and participants, the School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Office of International Programs, and the Kosciuszko Foundation for making this conference so successful.

Our Polish Studies Center is celebrating some milestones this spring. IU and Warsaw University have reached the twentieth anniversary of our exchange agreement and academic partnership, and this will be celebrated at Warsaw University by President Myles Brand and WU Rector Wlodzimierz Siwinski later this month. They will be the chief speakers at a symposium on the role of American and Polish Studies in our exchanges, and other speakers were chosen to represent some of the key aspects of this linkage--including myself, Timothy Wiles, and my partner-director at WU's ASC, Krzysztof Michalek, and also two founding fathers of our programs, WU historian Andrzej Bartnicki and the key USIA "godfather" throughout our two decades, Leonard Baldyga. Dean Patrick O'Meara and WU Vice Rector Jacek Holowka will represent the international programs dimension, crucial as a facilitator and as a sign of an "open door," particularly before Poland achieved independence. Several IU faculty will give lectures in Warsaw on related engagements, including Paul Marer (Business) and Peggy Zeglin Brand (Philosophy)-- and Peg will also search out some of her Polish roots on this trip.

Along with our 20 years of exchange work (I made my first consulting trip to Poland for IU in 1975), Polish Studies and Your Director are celebrating some other milestones. I've just completed my third big conference for Polish Studies, and it was probably the most successful, since the theme of Environmental Protection in Poland and the Region is focused, contemporary, and relevant--in fact, it's probably more crucial and fruitful than some of the themes we'd been discussing for the previous 45 years, like, Should or Shouldn't Poland have Communism? (You could substitute the word "independence" at the end of that last sentence with the same results.) More seriously, for me this topic shows some of the new directions for our field, which include:
-- being more interdisciplinary (including more linkages with professional schools),
-- being more open to applied projects,
-- and being more concerned with Poland's future than with her past. European Poland is arguably 1030 years old, since the advent of Christianity there in 966, but I think that we'll be devoting more and more attention to the six short years that have just passed, as we come to the end of this century and millennium.

I hope that a good book of essays will grow out of the Polish Environment conference, and the co-organizers are working hard on the editing process. I know that several IU faculty, particularly in the professional schools, took good advantage of the visits of several environmental experts from Poland, and some of them have already started communi-cating by fax and e-mail about joint research projects.

I've reached a personal milestone in this office too. This year, I am completing the fifth year of my three-year appointment as Director of Polish Studies. This will be a year of transition for the Center, as we look for new managerial talent. The Center will also move locations, to a building of its own on Atwater Avenue later this year. New space, new personnel, new linkages with related area studies centers, and new directions within our parent division (the Office of International Programs), all signal a period of growth and transformation for Polish Studies. OIP is also expanding its outreach much more into international teaching, training, and contract research, and the Polish Studies Center should be open to all of these opportunities. First of all, they are learning opportunities (Not just "earning opportunities.")

I will enjoy being an "elder statesman" for the PSC during the next director's term in office and I hope I'm invited to be one. I will miss dozens of people, but on the other hand, I'm not going anywhere, and so I'll be seeing you, too. I don't know how I will get through one single day of work "as a civilian" when I don't have Lois Plew at hand, for technical support and for her good humor on all occasions. Also, I'm still working, so I'll be around the office this fall and I haven't announced my goodbye party yet--I'm waiting until we're all less busy.

This is a good time to thank everyone for being Friends of Polish Studies and for supporting our efforts over the last five years.


Tim Wiles

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This year the Polish Studies Center worked with the Sustainable Development and Environmental Equity Working Group of the Indiana Center on Global Change and World Peace. The PSC staff and several conference participants were invited to the April 3 meeting of this Working Group. Lynn Richards, Piotr Glinski and Jerzy Sleszynski gave brief overviews of their perspectives on foreign assistance, sustainable development and economic instruments necessary to bring about change. The Working Group, co-chaired by Keith Caldwell and Philip Rutledge focused this session on Poland and the region in accordance with the PSC and SPEA sponsored conference. Timothy Wiles moderated the session. The Working Group meets regularly to discuss issues of sustainable development and environmental equity.

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At the close of the environmental conference, two Polish experts visited Indiana University-South Bend to discuss Polish environmental matters with campus and community audiences. Jerzy Sleszynski and Piotr Glinski met with two groups on Thursday, April 4, and accompanied by Timothy Wiles, they toured Chicago's architecture and Polish neighborhoods on April 5. Their host in South Bend was William Hojnacki, Assistant Dean, SPEA, who arranged for a community round table discussion on environmental developments in Poland, and brought Sleszynski and Glinski as guest lecturers to Rick Brown's class on Environmental Policy at IUSB.

Speaking to SPEA graduate students at IUSB, the environmental economist Jerzy Sleszynski outlined his department's activities in consulting, particularly at the Warsaw Environmental Economics Center which has assisted several national parks in Poland in planning their economic futures. Sleszynski also discussed economic instruments as a means of steering environmental policy in post-communist Poland, where industries, both state-owned and private ones, are responsible in theory for paying fines and charges, and paying for their own clean-ups. The good news is that all of this money is put back directly into environmental funds, not into the general budget. Bad news is that certain industries, such as coal-mining, are practically non-compliant (because they are also virtually non-profit). It is also surprising to learn where most of the funds for environmental projects come from. Poland had $937 million in environmental investments in 1994, the last year for which figures are available; this is 1.4% of GDP. Less than 10% came from government sources in 1994 (from direct budget allocations by the Polish government and from foreign assistance), and so the rest is earned, in one way or another, from these sources:

State Budget 5%
Foreign Assistance 4%
National Environment Fund 22%
Provincial Environment Funds 15%
Municipal Environment Funds 4%
Enterprises 31%
Municipalities 19%

Piotr Glinski, a sociologist at the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, is Poland's leading expert on the environmental movement and on the growth of non-governmental organizations as a social force in the country. His book on "The Polish Greens as a Social Movement" recently appeared in Poland. He discussed the history of the movement, which originated following the stifling of Solidarity at the imposition of Martial Law in 1981. It continued as one of the main avenues that was permitted for social protest during the 1980s, and following 1989, it has blossomed into hundreds of regional and national organizations. Still, it is cut off from direct political involvement in the government, Glinski feels, partly by activists' own choices and partly due to a disdain of "counter cultural types" on the government side, at the Ministry for Environmental Protection, etc.. The next stage of progress will involve some NGO leaders taking a more active role in politics and in government, Glinski feels. In his chronology of the movement since the fall of communism, Glinski noted some outright successes--such as the defeat of a nuclear power project (Poland remains nuclear-free today), but some partial failures, such as the movement's inability to stop a controversial dam on the Vistula River (certain ecological modifications were secured due to Green Party pressure, however). Among Piotr Glinski's own visible achievements was to establish Earth Day in Warsaw as an annual event, which he organized in partnership with Suzanne Veaudry, a Peace Corps volunteer with three years experience in Poland. Currently, Suzanne studies at IUB in the graduate program at SPEA. Glinski acknowledge that Peace Corps volunteers in both the Environmental division and the English-teaching Corps have been important role-models for volunteerism among young people and have taught some very vital organizing skills since the Peace Corps came to Poland in 1990. Several Peace Corps volunteers from recent stints in Poland and the NIS took part in the recent conference, including Suzanne Veaudry, Lynn Richards, and Eric Martin.

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A frequent partner in IU Polish Studies projects returned to the midwest this winter, Lech Garlicki, Professor of Law at Warsaw University, and a judge of the Constitutional Tribunal, Poland's Supreme Court. Garlicki taught for a month at St. Louis University, and he also lectured at DePaul University in Chicago. Here he was honored by Dean of International Programs John Kordek, a former USIA officer in Warsaw, who invited Polish Studies representatives from around the midwest for a dinner talk given by Garlicki. Lech Garlicki taught on the IU-WU exchange in 1990 shortly after taking part in Poland's Round Table Talks which led to the fall of communism; subsequently, he directed the American Studies Center in 1992-94 before departing for a seat on Poland's highest court. He organized a conference
on comparative constitutional traditions in Warsaw in 1993 at which IU Professor of Law Patrick Baude was a speaker.

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Followers of recent Polish literature are having the opportunity to see it in the making this year. More precisely, we've had the wonderful opportunity to hear some new translations of recent work, at several readings offered by Bill Johnston. Johnston, a visiting member of the Applied Linguistics Department, is a skilled translator of Polish fiction and poetry, with several major literary publications current and forthcoming. On April 10 he presented a reading at the Sassafras Room in the IMU. He read selections from his translation of Andrzej Szczypiorski's Autoportret z kobieta (Self-Portrait with Woman), which was published in Bill's translation by Grove Press in 1995. This established fiction writer creates a self-deprecating persona that may be speaking more to Western readers than to Polish ears, Bill suggested. In contrast, Bill offered a poem that he had translated from Krzysztof Koehler which more directly engaged the rhetoric of revolution in postcommunist Poland. These works illustrated the paradox found in the title of Bill Johnston's talk about this new writing from the other Europe: he called it "New times, new enemies: Translating Polish literature after 1989." Bill went on to read from several younger novelists who comprise a "Polish Generation X" (it seemed to one American's ears), including Tomek Tryzna, Olga Tokarczuk, Manuela Gretkowska, and Jerzy Pilch. These excerpts were all newly-translated by Bill for the occasion, and copies are available at the Center. He concluded with an aptly-named poem by Herbert (in Bill's translation): "The Dinosaurs' day out."

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The Polish Studies Center and the Russian and East European Institute presented a lecture by Andrzej Swiatkowski, Professor of Law at the Jagellonian University in Krakoacute;w. Professor Swiatkowski discussed "The Transformation of Industrial Relations in Poland and Central Europe since 1989." He is a specialist in labor relations in contemporary Poland, the changing role of labor as the state transforms to a democracy, and how labor is responding to new difficulties caused by the pressures of a market economy.

During February 1996, Professor Swiatkowski held an appointment as Fellow of the Institute for Advanced Study at IU, during which he lectured at several campuses, including IU Bloomington and IU South Bend where his host was William Hojnacki, Assistant Dean at SPEA. He was joined by his wife Marcela Swiatkowska, Professor of French Linguistics, who conferred with several linguistics experts during her stay at IU.

In his lecture at IU, Swiatkowski discussed employee and employer associations and the legal and governmental frameworks necessary to make these relationships as "social partners" as efficient and effective as possible. This is especially important as the state begins its attempts to become less involved in markets and regulation and more involved in providing a setting in which these relationships can flourish.

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In February, 1996, The Polish Studies Center and the Russian and East European Institute sponsored a lecture by Krzysztof Frysztacki, Director of the Institute of Sociology at Jagellonian University, Kraków. This lecture took place during a class of Dr. Kathy Byers, School of Social Work, who has been working with Frysztacki on a joint project in social work education.

Professor Frysztacki discussed the development of civil society in Poland during the post-1989 economic, political and social transition. The major issue Frysztacki stressed was the fundamental difference between the Polish views of "nation" and "state." While "nation" is still considered sacred and is embedded with notions of family, pride, culture and religion, "the state" is still considered something to distrust. Many Poles consider their formal government or "state" to be a hostile, unnecessary "other."

Frysztacki predicts that the transformation and development of an effective civil society may change the Polish understanding of "state" and "nation" as non-governmental organizations begin to have more of a political and economic influence in the affairs of the nation, while still representing the needs of the state. He predicts the NGOs to make a logical leap to increased order and power, lobbying, and really becoming an effective voice for Polish society.

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As part of an on-going cooperation with the School of Social Work, representatives from four Polish universities are visiting Indiana University to observe the methods of teaching social work at both IUPUI and IUB. The third partner in this project is the Indiana University Center on Philanthropy, which has secured some of its funding and which, at the School of Philanthropic Studies, is keenly interested in the development of social services and the non-governmental sector in postcommunist Europe. Already, a team of leading Polish faculty in the social work education field has visited Indiana, for a three-week residency in Spring 1995, and this spring, four of their younger instructors from sociology departments at Gda sk, Katowice, Warsaw, and Kraków (the Jagiellonian University) spent several weeks at IU campuses. The team visited IUB in March, met with Timothy Wiles and staff of the Polish Studies Center, and talked with Social Work faculty and visited classes in the Bloomington program. (Undergraduate courses in Social Work are offered in Bloomington; IUPUI houses the main program and offers the graduate degree.)

School of Social Work Dean Roberta Greene met with Polish faculty and IU International Programs officers this spring in the course of planning the next phase of this cooperative exchange, which will be a conference of IU and Polish specialists to be held at the Jagiellonian University in September. A planning conference for this event took place in Gda sk in November 1995, with two IU faculty making presentations, Katherine Byers (Coordinator of Bloomington Programs, Social Work), and Marguerite Grabarek (IUPUI).

The four Polish visitors this spring included junior faculty from three of the partner universities, Dr. Piotr Czekanowski, University of Gda sk, Dr. Lucjan Mi , Jagiellonian University-Kraków, and Krzysztof Ryszard Stadler, M.A., Silesian University-Katowice. Warsaw University is the fourth partner in the exchange. Joining them from Warsaw was Danuta Raczkiewicz-Kar owicz, Public Relations Officer in the Cultural Program of the Stefan Batory Foundation, a cooperating partner in Poland.

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Jerzy Durczak
, Professor of American Literature at the English Institute, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin, gave two talks on transnational literary topics at IU on March 21-22. This year he holds a Fulbright Fellowship at Michigan State University, where he is doing research on autobiography and multicultural prose. Durczak visited IU at the invitation of John Eakin, English, an Americanist and specialist in autobiography, who lectured for Durczak's students in Lublin in 1993 while on the IU exchange program. Jerzy Durczak presented some fascinating glimpses of "how the other side sees us" in two lectures, one on "American Literature in Poland: Before, Under, and After Communism," a study of literary reception, popularity among mass readership, and attitudes toward American "literary heroes;" and a second talk on the controversial Polish emigre writer Jerzy Kosinski, whose recent biography is a current topic of dispute in terms of Kosinski's mythologizing of his Holocaust-era youth, and of his own authorship of some of his novels.

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In April, 1996, Janine Wedel, a visiting Professor in the Departments of Sociology and Anthropology at George Washington University, gave two presentations, sponsored by the Polish Studies Center, REEI, Political Science Department and the Economics History Workshop.

The first of these two lectures discussed informal economic relationships in Eastern Europe. The second discussed the process of US assistance in Central and Eastern Europe. She discussed some of the sociol implications of this assistance and critiqued the model used for this assistance process.

Dr. Wedel's recent publications include "US Aid to Central and Eastern Europe: Results and Recommendations," in Problems of Post-Communism (1995) and "The Unintended Consequences of Western Aid to Post-Communist Europe," Telos (1992).

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Mark Hooker
, an expert in Russian and East European military subjects is currently a visiting scholar with REEI. Hooker is a retired army officer and he worked in the Defense Attaché's office at the U.S. Embassy in Warsaw in 1984-86. His interests are varied but his latest projects include the translation of three of the most interesting novellas about the Soviet experience in Afghanistan, which he identified while researching his book Military Uses of Literature.

Hooker is also translating a book entitled Limited Contingent (Ogranicheny kontingent) by General B.V. Gromov, the last commander of the 40th Army and last Soviet military man to leave Afghanistan. The book is his story of the war based on his recollections and official records.

Hooker is currently involved in an evaluation of the availability of sources in the U.S. for a study of the Soviet military during the interwar period (1921-1941).

His book, The Military Uses of Literature (Praeger Publishing Company) is expected in August, 1996. The book is a study of a little-known, made-to-order genre of Soviet literature that was written to fill the order for socialist-realist fiction about the armed forces placed by the Main Political Directorate of the Army and Navy. The book is divided into two parts. The first is a historical study of the order placed by the MPD for military fiction. The second is a composite picture of how life in the post-war, peacetime Soviet military was depicted in this genre.

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Matthew R. Auer
joined the faculty at SPEA in January, having completed his doctorate in Environmental Studies at Yale University. His dissertation dealt with pollution reduction in the Nordic pulp industry and had a Baltic area focus. Matt's interests in Poland and Eastern Europe date to his employment as an Environmental Officer at US AID in 1990-91, where he helped design urban environmental programs for the CEE. Matt took an active role in the Environmental Protection conference and he has contacted some of the Polish participants who deal with pollution abatement about collaborative projects. At SPEA, his research areas include comparative industrial environmental policy, energy efficiency, and women in development. He will offer graduate and undergraduate courses in environmental policy analysis and comparative and international environmental policy.

Jack Bielasiak (Political Science, IUB) presented "Political Parties and Parliamentary Development in the East European Democratic Transitions" at the Midwest Political Science Association Annual Meeting in Chicago, April, 1996.

The first year of our exchange of distinguished visiting faculty from Warsaw University is completed. Making a very successful conclusion to this series, Professor Hanna Komorowska spent the month of April at IUB in affiliation with the Applied Linguistics Department, and she also conferred with several IU administrators since she is Vice Rector for Student Affairs at WU. She met with Richard McKaig, Vice Chancellor for Student Affairs and Dean of Students, and from International Programs she held discussions with Patrick O'Meara and Susan Carty. Vice Rector Komorowska noted that as Polish universities adopt such innovations as credit hours and tuition-paying students a whole infrastructure of service offices on the American model will have to be adopted, and adapted to local conditions. In addition to sharing ideas with IU administrators, she visited and spoke at several classes in her field of theory of second language instruction, which as it happened, are taught at IU by linguists with strong Polish connections, including Bill Johnston (former British Council officer in Wroc aw) and Beverly Hartford (Fulbright, Pozna University, 1976). In her spare time, Professor Komorowska completed two articles, using resources of the ERIC file in the Education library.

Boz`ena Shallcross (Slavics, IUB) received a summer faculty fellowship in support of full-time writing for her project entitled "Journey of the Poet's Eye: Zbigniew Herbert as Art Critic." Shallcross will highlight the double role of a poet as an art critic, best exemplified in Herbert's essays, which show that, unlike professional art critics, the Polish poet envisions his art criticism in the spirit of synesthesia that sanction the blending of different media, avoiding the typical thematic approach to the visual arts. Herbert fashions his essays as a structural/textual equivalent of the artifacts he evokes.

Mary Ellen Solt, Professor of Comparative Literataure and founder of the Polish Studies Center (1977-1984), will take part in the twentieth anniversary celebration of the IU-WU exchange in Warsaw this May.

Martin Spechler (Economics, IUPUI) reviewed David Good's recent book, Eastern Europe, in The Journal of Economic History 55:4 (1995); 942-43.

Timothy Wiles (Director, Polish Studies, IUB) presented a talk at the IU Cultural Studies Conference on February 16 on "National Museums, National Victims: The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, The National Museum of the American Indian, and their Constituents."

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Anne Czupryna
will study in Kraków this summer at the Jagiellonian University. She will take courses in Polish language and culture at the university's renowned Summer Institute of Language and Culture. Anne has completed her first year of undergraduate study at IU, where she plans to take a double major in Health, Physical Education and Recreation and Polish Studies.

Jacek Dalecki (Political Science) successfully defended his dissertation, "The Political Evolution of Polish Oppositionist Adam Michnik," on April 24, 1996.

Gregory Keller was awarded the exchange fellowship to study at Warsaw University next year. He will do research for his MA thesis at REEI on business culture in Poland's emerging entrepreneurial class. In 1994-95, Greg taught business English courses at the Department of Management, Warsaw University, and he also wrote for the Warsaw Business Journal.

Rebecca Pasini (Political Science) contributed "Piety amid Politics: The Roman Catholic Church and Polish Abortion Policy" to Problems of Post-Communism 43:2 (March-April 1996): 35-47.

Maria Stalnaker is completing her MA thesis at REEI this summer. Her topic is negative aesthetics in Marek Bienczyk's 1994 novel Terminal, which she is translating. She argues that it is only through negation that Bienczyk can represent Jewish presence or identity. Next fall, Maria will enter the doctoral program in Slavics at the University of North Carolina, with a focus on Polish literature.

Tracie Wilson will complete her MA at REEI this spring. Wilson's thesis title is "Rewriting History and Identity: The German Minority in Modern Poland." She begins work on a PhD at the Folklore Institute in fall of 1996. This summer Wilson will conduct archival research in Warsaw and Prague on representations of Jews in Polish and Czech folklore.

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Keith Crane
is Director of Research at PlanEcon, Inc., a Washington research institute specializing in investment advisory services, market research, and economic assessments of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet republics. During his IU years, his experience was in Hungary and Poland, where he met his wife Bo ena, who works as a Polish teacher. Their Christmas letter this year was full of fascinating stories as usual, including a family canoe trip in the Boundary Waters, and Bozena's work with a high school exchange program, World Experience. Professionally, Keith reports that "My most bizarre project has been a marketing study for International Harvester and Detroit Diesel to see if they can make money putting diesel engines into Russian trucks. We interviewed about 200 trucking companies and dealers throughout Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. If anyone want to buy a Soviet truck, please let me know and I will see what I can do."

Jane Leftwich Curry (Political Science, MA 1972) is president of the Polish Studies Association.

Peter Holquist (BA, History and REEI certificate, 1986) received his PhD from Columbia University, and he has received a tenure track position teaching Russian history at Cornell University. Peter was a student in one of Timothy Wiles' first Polish Studies courses, on Culture of the Solidarity Era, in 1984.

Peter Wozniak (History, PhD, 1987) Associate Professor of History at Auburn University at Montgomery, has just published an article entitled "Professionalization and Nationalism in a Career Group: Secondary School Teachers in Galicia, 1849-1914." The article appeared in the book Professions in Modern Eastern Europe, edited by Charles McClelland, Stephan Marl and Hannes Siegrist, and published by Duncker and Humbolt in Berlin.

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About this Newsletter

The Polish Studies Center Newsletter is a periodic publication of news and events of the Polish Studies Center, Indiana University. It is produced by Eric Martin, Polish Studies Research Assistant, and edited by Timothy Wiles, Director. For more information about the Polish Studies Center go