The Taino Indians were the first people Columbus encountered after landing on a island he called San Salvador in 1492. They numbered in the millions and had developed a network of small cities ruled by chieftains.
Last week, archaeologists found one of those cities, in the eastern-most part of the Dominican Republic. On March 20 researchers exploring around a sinkhole in the country’s East National Park found three large ceremonial plazas and the remains of a substantial settlement that appears to have been home to thousands of people.
There is a strong possibility that the city is the same one whose brutal destruction in 1503 is described in an account by the missionary Bartolome de Las Casas. The incident was one of the first conflicts in what would become the conquest of a continent.
"This is going to give us more insight into the Taino than has ever been known before, "said Charles Beeker, director of the Underwater Science Program at Indiana University. The find was announced Friday at a meeting in Rohnert Park of the Society for California Archaeology.
With Beeker were Geoff Conrad of Indiana University’s Mathers Museum, California State archaeologist John Foster and three East National Park consulting archaeologists.
"Nobody’s ever going to encounter a whole new world again, not on the face of this Earth," Conrad said. "That’s just never going to happen again. "And this is where it happened first."
Though the Taino are all but forgotten today, certain aspects of their culture live on. The English word barbecue comes from the Taino term for the rock slabs they used to cook bread. The hammock is also a Taino invention discovered by the Spanish upon their arrival in the New World.
At the site , known as La Aleta, the archaeologists found three plazas lined by five foot tall limestone blocks. The plazas were 75 yards long and 15 yards wide, and would have been used for ceremonies and the playing of a soccer like game that was common in America.
"They could have just walked off last week," Beeker said.
So far, the site is not the largest Taino city ever discovered. One site in Puerto Rico has seven plazas to La Aleta’s three. Butt there is no telling how many plazas archaeologist will find when they return in July, Conrad said.
So far, the 115-foot-deep well is the most impressive find, said University of Texas archaelogist Sam Wilson, because it is the first ceramoninial cenote ever discovered at a Taino site. The Maya of Central America are known to have put ceremonial offerings, including human sacrifices, into natural wells. But until now it was not known that the Taino also engaged in the practice.
No bodies have been found in the cenote at the Taino site.
According to the missionaries account, it all began when the Taino were loading bread onto a Spanish ship. Under a treaty with the Spanish, the Indians supplied bread to the nearby colony of Santo Domingo. A Spanish officer standing nearby had an attack dog on a leash, and when the animal began acting up another officer joked about setting the dog on the Indian chief.
"Tomalo," he said, meaning, "take him". The dog lunged, overpowered his handler and soon disemboweled the chief.
The Indians retaliated a few months latter by killing a few Spaniards. That led the colony of Santo Domingo to lead an expedition against the city. One of the officers sent on the mission was Ponce De Leon, who would later roam Florida in search of the Fountain of Youth.
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Last updated: 31 March 1997
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