Other collaborative efforts, although not as tangible, were valuable not only to the host scholars, but to other faculty members and students who had the opportunity to work with and study under the visiting fellows. A Tokyo medical expert analyzed data and observed larynges and vocal cords at the IU Speech and Hearing Clinic. Indiana University South Bend faculty members in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs hosted an expert in labor law. IUB faculty members conversed and collaborated with visiting fellows on topics ranging from issues of gender and genre (Department of French and Italian) to ethnomethodological concerns (Department of Sociology). Finally, a renowned animal researcher explored similarities between human and rodent male sexual behavior at the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction and the IUB psychology department. These diverse and truly collaborative and concentrated efforts in many fields of study, fostered by the IAS, have strengthened scholarship at Indiana University. Like the forms that creative activity itself can take, the benefits, while not always readily apparent, and often requiring years of ongoing empirical research, continue to grow.
Eric Nordgulen and Patrick Dougherty
As those who have seen the massive sculpture on the front lawn of the Herron School of Art on the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) campus can attest, thinking big has its advantages. Caught in the Act is a nearly 100-foot-long, 20-foot-high sculptural installation composed entirely of twigs, saplings, and natural materials. It certainly catches people's attention. The project began over a year ago when Eric Nordgulen, an assistant professor at the Herron School of Art, chaired the Visiting Artists Committee there. He recalls, "We wanted something out in front of the school. We wanted to build something that would draw attention to the Herron School of Art." Nordgulen then nominated sculptural artist Patrick Dougherty as an external academic fellow in the Institute for Advanced Study. Because Dougherty always designs and creates pieces specifically for their proposed sites, he made a preliminary visit to Indianapolis last May to survey the proposed area and to discuss with Nordgulen and others information about the gallery, its traffic patterns, and their expectations for the sculpture. In consultation with Dougherty, the group decided that an outdoor installation would have the most impact and would pique the curiosity of bystanders and draw them in.
"We hoped that the emphasis would be that people would be able to drive down the street and see the sculpture well from both directions,"Dougherty says. The shape of the sculpture, he explains, "is kind of an excited one, [stretching] from the street toward the building." Dougherty from the start was enthusiastic about designing a distinctive piece for Herron's front lawn. The artist, surprised that the space had not been used previously for art, suggested that perhaps no one had recognized the potential of the space. He notes of the collaboration, "We started hashing out a potential sculpture that might do something interesting, that would use the space well, [and] that took into account the concerns and the safety . . . of everyone involved."
Although Dougherty generally works alone on his sculptures, he is accustomed to and delights in working in public and in a forum he calls "cultural exchange." The sheer size and work involved in gathering materials and developing the Herron sculpture required much help from and collaboration with students, faculty, and staff. Nordgulen and Dougherty both point out that even onlookers and passersby who had some time to give started to pitch in as the deadline approached. Referring to the many people who witnessed the work in progress, Dougherty recalls, "We've had the neighbors across the street, and people up and down the street, and people who have gone by on their way to work stop in the evening to see the progress." The artist also suggests that the sculpture's snakelike form invites people to imagine what it might be like to go inside. That visitors can explore Caught in the Act inside and out illustrates Dougherty's assertion that "some of our commitment is to the normal passerby."
"In some ways, a sculpture can be an excuse for a lot of community," Dougherty reflects, referring favorably to the "constant interchange" with Herron faculty, students, and staff members who helped install the large piece. He recalls that people would often come up with new ideas about how the elements of the sculpture should interact with one another. Dougherty is open to new perspectives, even if they sometimes alter his original vision. "People will say things and they have good ideas. If you're attentive to that, you can realize the value of suggestion, and you might change the direction or some aspects of the piece," Dougherty notes. He further says of the Herron installation, "We took advantage of accident a lot of times." He recalls that the wind was blowing the day the group started the sculpture; thus, all of the sticks now lean in one direction.
People driving by or passing on the street lean from their car windows or stray from the sidewalk, perhaps noticing the massive sculpture for the first time. With a collective smile of satisfaction at having pulled off this very large-scale project, Nordgulen and others enjoy seeing new faces "caught in the act" of discovering art.
Moya Andrews and Hiroya Yamaguchi
Julia Wood, an Indiana University voice student and a graduate student in the Department of Speech and Hearing, shows little nervousness as she waits patiently for her nasoendoscope exam, which, she is told, will allow her to see her larynx and its function while she is singing. Most people might balk at the thought of having a tube inserted in their nose, but Julia and other singers welcome the opportunity to learn about their own physiology. Julia keeps her eyes on Hiroya Yamaguchi, director of otolaryngology at the Tokyo Senbai Hospital, as he prepares the assembled equipment. In a matter of moments, Yamaguchi inserts the flexible nasoendoscope's long, thin tube into the singer's nostril and positions it so that, with the aid of a stroboscopic light source, he and Julia can view a picture of her larynx on a video monitor. Good-natured throughout, Julia assures him that she is still comfortable and anxious to start singing and watch her vocal cords in action. Yamaguchi follows the examination with a full explanation of what the stroboscopic assessment revealed. As a result, Julia walks away with a greater understanding of her instrument.
IUB faculty members also benefited from the recent visit by the eminent Tokyo physician and researcher. Yamaguchi's visit, sponsored by the Institute for Advanced Study, provided an opportunity for consultation and collaboration with IUB faculty members. Since IUB does not have an otolaryngology department, working closely with this medical researcher was invaluable for IU faculty members Moya Andrews, a professor of speech and hearing sciences, associate dean (Office of the Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs and Dean of the Faculties), and director of the Voice Laboratory at IUB; Charles Schmidt, a professor of music; Ann Fennel, a clinical assistant professor of speech and hearing sciences; Roy Samuelson, a professor of music; Virginia Botkin, a visiting professor of voice; and their students. "Yamaguchi's knowledge of the physiological processes and his medical perspective were just what we needed," Andrews says. "He was also interested in our data on the perceptual and psychodynamic factors affecting the voice. We looked at the ways trained singers monitor and modify specific laryngeal maneuvers and make vocal tract adjustments. As we study how vocal control develops in healthy young singers, it sheds light on how we can help persons with voice problems." Yamaguchi was also enthusiastic about his two-week visit. "I came here to watch and learn," he says. "Voice therapy is in its infancy in Japan, and I wanted to see the work done here in Andrews' program." Perhaps most remarkable about Yamaguchi's visit was how many people benefited from his consultations and demonstrations. Besides faculty members and students, he also interacted with David Montgomery, the Department of Speech and Hearing's electronic expert, and Cathy Snyder, a university physician from the IU Health Center.
Yamaguchi and the IU research team study physiological, perceptual, and acoustic indicators of vocal health. The human vocal cords are small, only about half an inch long in women and three-quarters of an inch long in men, yet they produce an amazing range of sounds. Japanese researchers such as Yamaguchi have been in the forefront of developing the expertise to photograph the rapid movements of the cords. These researchers' physiological and histological studies have identified, for instance, how even the undulating waves in the mucosal cover of the cords affect voice quality.
According to Andrews, "There are great variations in the sounds people can make, since the actual vibrations produced by the vocal cords are further modified by vocal tract adjustments above the level of the larynx. Also, different individuals have varied attitudes and approaches to voice production. Most people, for example, do not think much about their voices unless something is wrong with them. Others, such as serious singers, are extremely sensitive to even subtle changes."
Voice researchers in the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences and in the IUB School of Music combine their skills and perspectives to study normal voice production as well as those factors that create unusual vocal behaviors. "We have been engaged in a series of studies of voice modification and training," says research team member Charles Schmidt, a professor of music. "Classical training not only allows a singer to create beautiful aesthetic results, it also provides a protection to voice breakdown."
For some years, clients seen in the IU Voice Clinic have had the opportunity to view the action of their vocal cords on video as they speak and sing. Voice teachers in the music school frequently recommend that students in their studios obtain a baseline videotape of their vocal production at the beginning of their voice studies. Professor of Music Virginia Botkin is convinced that students who view and understand the vocal process physiologically can have optimal musical results.
William Hojnacki and Andrzej Swiatkowski
For students, faculty, and researchers alike, the difference between having an eminent scholar discuss Poland's political changes and labor issues in person and reading about them is like "the difference between visiting Mt. Rushmore and seeing it in a book." So says William P. Hojnacki, an associate professor and assistant dean of the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University South Bend (IUSB), when speaking of a visit by Andrzej Swiatkowski, a labor relations expert and professor of law at Jagiellonian University, in Krakow, Poland. Hojnacki is the Institute for Advanced Study host for Swiatkowski's during his visit to IUSB. A renowned scholar in the field of labor law, Swiatkowski's current research focuses on the legal rights of workers in a transitional economy moving from a planned to a market structure. His primary interest in visiting the heartland of the United States (and the IUSB campus for the second time) is to gain what he terms "prime international exposure" to America's labor market system and the political theories behind it. Swiatkowski, who in 1992 was a visiting professor at IUSB, also spent a year as a distinguished fellow at the National Institute of Public Management in Washington, D.C. Therefore, while he is intimately aware of the needs of laborers and of the political climate in Poland, he has also had several opportunities to observe labor practices and related issues in the United States. He says, "We [in Poland] are talking about the social security system, and we don't have enough experience in terms of American structure." Hojnacki's research, which delves into comparative civil service systems, dovetails with Swiatkowski's in that both ask the same questions, yet the scholars seek answers from different perspectives. Hojnacki, for example, probes the role that civil servants have in a transitional society and asks of a situation such as Poland's, How have political changes affected the bureaucracy and how do workers work? What Swiatkowski can offer, states Hojnacki, is "an insight and knowledge of subtle factors in changes being made there." As a researcher, Hojnacki says he wants "to have a more complete picture . . . to know what people [in Poland] are doing, as well as what the government reactions are."
Hojnacki and Swiatkowski recognize that while there are broad and obvious political changes taking place in Poland, there are also more subtle changes occurring at the subnational and municipal levels that they and others are observing as Poland privatizes. Hojnacki hones in on the impact that changes have on the entire structure of government and society, while Swiatkowski, collecting data from American sources, is primarily interested in researching labor law, industrial relations, social security, and social policy. He is the editor of The Yearbook of Polish Labor Law and Social Policy, to which Hojnacki, who visited Swiatkowski in Krakow in 1993, recently contributed. The two hope to publish papers together in the future. Clearly, they will continue their transcontinental dialogue. Commenting on their different perspectives, Hojnacki describes his work with Swiatkowski by stating, "It is also a question of looking at macro and micro, on occasion," but adds, "the salient factor is that the transition [to privatization in Poland] continues. The pendulum is swinging back and forth, and we're observing that." Swiatkowski plans to write a book on American industrial relations with an eye toward helping Poland make the transition. Swiatkowski asserts of Poland's current status that some services should stay public and points out that his research with Hojnacki allows the scholars to compare ideas about how the situation can be handled in the future.
On behalf of his colleagues at IUSB, Hojnacki says of Swiatkowsi, "We expect to tap [his expertise] in a number of different ways." Hohnacki and Swiatkowski note that faculty such as Keith D. Knauss, a professor of labor studies at IUSB's School of Continuing Studies, as well as faculty members on other campuses, including Jean Poulard, an associate professor of political science at IUN, and Philip Ruttledge, a professor emeritus of public and environmental affairs at IUB and Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, have expressed interest in Swiatkowski's and Hojnacki's research. Likewise, students at IUSB and other IU campuses also benefited from Swiatkowski's stay. While in the United States collecting data for his research, Swiatkowski spoke to IUSB students in the labor studies program on liberation and grievance procedures and gave a lecture entitled "Transformations in Industrial Relations" on the Bloomington campus. Swiatkowski also discussed Poland's current political climate with a class of political science students at IUN. Commenting on the significance of Swiatkowski's visit for IUSB, Hojnacki states, "For us, on this campus, our students and even our faculty simply do not get a lot of exposure [to international ideas and visitors]. This was an opportunity for us to put a real face, name, and emotions behind what is occurring in Poland."
Margaret Gray and Anne S. Freadman
Indiana University Bloomington Associate Professor of French Margaret Gray recalls that it was during a conversation in 1992 "over a fabulous potato omelette in Paris" that she was first inspired to develop a project based on the concept of "feminine excess" in the literature of six French writers. The forthcoming book explores what Gray describes as "the ways in which something that might be called an excessive feminine--a feminine that somehow goes too far--takes shape in these various narratives." Except for the conclusion, Gray had completed her draft when she realized that she needed to pursue a level of theory that was very different from her own text. A friend introduced Gray to the work of Anne S. Freadman, a professor of French at the University of Queensland in Australia. With such a vast geographical distance between them, Gray and Freadman communicated with one another by e-mail for about a year before the Institute of Advanced Study named Freadman an external academic fellow and brought her to the Bloomington campus for several weeks in the fall of 1995.
As a result of their dialogue across the miles and an interest in pursuing ideas together, Gray and Freadman, through the IAS, finally met face to face. As Freadman describes it, and Gray concurs, both are interested in comparing questions concerning "the contributions of feminist literary theory to the questions you can ask in general in literary scholarship." The two have discovered that, while they do not always agree on specific matters of study, their collegiality and respect for one another allow for the healthy flow of ideas and opinions. Describing exchanges she and Freadman share and how they have affected her work, Gray says, "I see it as a widening of perspective. . . . I had been thinking about my various texts very much in specific terms and [Freadman] has provided a perspective that has allowed me to step back and look at them in a very different kind of light." Freadman remarks that the visit was beneficial for her as well. She notes of her three-week visit to IUB that "it was too short for me to undertake new research, [which] allowed me time to just sit and think about the issues raised by my current research" and converse with others interested in pursuing these ideas. Freadman adds, "I think the institute is a wonderful invention. I've gained a great deal." While discussing theories and concerns with Gray, Freadman finds that their discourse often challenges her to ask new questions and enriches her scholarship. Freadman states, "[Gray's] questions to me have been tremendously helpful." During her visit to the Bloomington campus, Freadman gave a lecture titled "Reflections on Gender and Genre: The Case of La Princesse de Clèves," which Gray says was highly praised and well attended by faculty and students in French and other fields. Reflecting on the various departmental disciplines represented in Freadman's audience, Gray muses, "There were some people from English, and of course, from semiotics and folklore and comparative literature." She adds, "In our department, this was something of a first to have a lecture that brought the discussion of gender and genre to such a sophisticated level. . . . [Freadman's] lecture was . . . an inaugural moment for us as a department." Gray enthusiastically expresses that Freadman's visit had a "catalytic effect." She contends, "the very excited response to [Freadman's] lecture suggests that we as a department are eager to hear more of this sort of discourse." Gray remarks, "I am hopeful that this is the beginning of a direction that we will make a commitment to pursue."
Douglas Maynard and John Heritage
For Douglas Maynard, a professor of sociology at Indiana University Bloomington, the old adage, "no news is good news," does not apply. In Maynard's case, even bad news may lead to good news. Maynard's inquiry into what he terms "the delivery of diagnostic news" between doctors and patients led him to a productive collaboration under the auspices of the Institute for Advanced Study with John Heritage, a professor of sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. The author of Garfinkel and Ethnomethodolgy, Heritage is an internationally recognized leader in the areas of ethnomethodology, or the study of "members' methods" involved in assembling the everyday social world, and its counterpart, conversation analysis, which is "now a burgeoning interdisciplinary area in its own right," according to Maynard. Over a period of several years, Maynard and Heritage had independently collected data on the types of interactions and conversational encounters that take place between doctors and patients when they discuss diseases, diagnosis, and treatment. Two years ago, the colleagues, who have known one another since 1984, realized that their research interests were converging. They discovered that although doctors and patients talk with one another every day, the methods by which they communicate had not been widely studied. Consequently, Maynard and Heritage decided to co-edit a book of conversation analysis studies of the phases in the medical interview.
While pursuing data on the medical encounter, Maynard and Heritage realized that previous research on the topic either focused on abstractly coded aspects of these interactions or was based in medicine and the teaching of medical students. Heritage describes the situation as "having a giant missing piece, and [we] have the piece that exactly fits." The missing piece is the actual, "real-time" vocal and nonvocal interaction between patient and doctor. Maynard states, "We have a theory and a methodology that are distinctive in this area, a theory of interaction as well as a method for investigating interaction that is totally unique and represents a real departure from previous studies."
The book the two are working on will examine the phases of the medical interview, including the opening, discussion of the reason for the patient's visit, patient's "folk" explanations of their diseases, physical exam, diagnostic informing, prescription dispensement, and closing. Maynard explains, "We will have a set of studies that will be very particularistic in looking at how the openings work, how the patient gives the complaint, and [how] the doctor responds to that complaint." Each phase of the medical encounter is likely to yield its own chapter of the book, which will include transcripts of doctor-patient interactions. Describing the ongoing work, Maynard says, "On the one hand, it includes very detailed studies and analyzes small pieces of the medical encounter. On the other hand, there will be the possibility for generalization in a way that builds on the particulars of these episodes or encounters."
Ultimately, Maynard and Heritage hope their findings will improve understanding of the methods medical practitioners currently employ when communicating with patients. Commenting on what led the two to study the conversations between doctors and patients, Heritage says that the two asked themselves, "Is there any way [we] can study how people behave in their everyday lives?" Both recognize that the success of the book is dependent on their ability to reach two distinct audiences--the medical and the sociological. The colleagues would like their research to bridge the gap between the two disciplines. "It's a matter of making sure that the ideas you develop in one environment will fly in another," Heritage notes. Maynard adds, "To the degree that this is successful, and I think it will be, we're going to bring them together in a new way." Improved interaction between patients and doctors would clearly be good news for everyone involved.
John Bancroft and Benjamin Sachs
While most people accept that the moral and social aspects of human sexuality are fraught with controversy and uncertainties, they often assume that the physiological aspects of human sexuality are clear and easily understood. John Bancroft, director of Indiana University's Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, suggests otherwise. He notes, "We know very little about the central mechanisms that control sexual response. We know quite a lot about how people behave sexually, but the basic biology is still a pretty gray area." Bancroft, who is also a professor of clinical psychiatry at the IU School of Medicine, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, says he had been interested in collaborating with other departments and researchers at IU since becoming director of the Kinsey Institute in May 1995. He especially wanted to work with faculty members in the psychology department to further his research in human sexual behavior, specifically as it applies to nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) in human males.
The resultant multidisciplinary research study links Bancroft's research on male sexual response with the research of Dale Sengelaub, a professor of psychology at Indiana University Bloomington, and Benjamin Sachs, a noted animal researcher and professor emeritus of psychology at the University of Connecticut. As an IAS external academic fellow, Sachs visited the Bloomington campus for three weeks in October and spent most of his time in the laboratory of the psychology department working with Sengelaub on NPT research in rats. What makes the phenomenon interesting to researchers, Bancroft explains, is that NPT occurs not just during sleep, but during a specific phase of sleep. "While we have known that this occurs only during rapid eye movement [sleep], nobody has ever addressed the question of why."
Bancroft states, "As we were wanting to pursue the phenomenon in humans and do further studies on that, it was a very attractive idea to try to get some parallels [established] in rats." He and Sachs have known each other for several years, having met through scientific symposiums, and Bancroft describes his colleague as "one of the few animal researchers, particularly rodent researchers, who is and has been particularly interested in the relevance of his work to the human situation." Typically, a scientific study begins with animal models, and the data gathered are later applied to the human situation. As Sachs points out, the current study yields an unusual reversal. He notes about NPT, "Here, we have a [phenomenon] that occurs in humans and . . . we can take that [phenomenon] and systematically see whether it occurs in other species, including the rat, and then be able to explore this animal model in turn to instruct us about humans and a range of other species."
To gather the data needed for research, Sachs explains that researchers must measure both penile erection and REM sleep in the monitored animals. During his three-week visit to IU, Sachs demonstrated for Sengelaub and others the intricate surgical procedure he performs to implant a tiny radio transmitter in a laboratory rat. The transmitter allows researchers to detect NPT activity in the rodent without actually seeing it. In addition, researchers can determine the various stages of sleep with an electroencephalograph which produces a visual depiction of the electric forces or waves in the rodent's brain. The transmitters are costly and elaborate and, largely due to their small size, the implantation and monitoring of them requires advanced modern medical technology. Sachs states, "I'm grateful to the university for its investment" in what he and Bancroft believe is groundbreaking research in sexual behavior in males.
Both researchers realize that what they have accomplished through Sach's visit is a strong start on a project that could take years to complete. Bancroft states, "I hope that [Sachs] and I, over the next year or two, will help each other make some useful conceptual advances in this area. I very much look forward to it."
--Mary Cox Barclay