Indiana University      Research & Creative Activity      January 2000 Volume XXII Number 3


From Inquiry to Publication

Books by Indiana University Faculty Members

 

Aumente, Jerome, Peter Gross, Ray Hiebert, Owen V. Johnson, and R. Dean Mills. Eastern European Journalism Before, During and After Communism. Cresskill, New Jersey: Hampton Press, 1999, 222 pp., $49.50 cloth, $21.95, paper.
This book is a comparative study of five related themes:
• the roots of journalism in East Central Europe and the former Soviet Union;
• the role and effects of journalism leading up to the events of 1989;
• journalism in the transition period from 1989 to 1996;
• the contributions, trials, and tribulations of journalism in the transition period;
• and the state of journalism education in the regions under consideration.
The goal is to identify patterns describing official and unofficial media systems during the Communist period, and the roles and effects of Communist and alternate or underground mass media and journalism both in the pre-1989 era and after the demise of the Communist systems. This work seeks to discern patterns in the roles and effects of new media and their journalism during the post-Communist transition. Johnson is an associate professor of journalism at IUB.

Chicago, Judy, and Edward Lucie-Smith. Women and Art: Contested Territory. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1999, 192 pp., $35.00, cloth.
Over the centuries, male artists and critics have laid claim to a gender monopoly on artistic “greatness.” Yet many female artists have produced art of great power despite widespread hostility and practical obstacles. Some have received critical recognition; many more have remained obscure. One far-reaching consequence of this is that some of most famous images of women have been produced by artists with no direct knowledge of the female experience. Why has so much art by women continued to find so little public recognition? Are women’s depictions of women different from those by men? Have male artists ever succeeded in portraying women realistically, and not as their own projections? Are their attempts invalidated by their sex, or is it possible to transcend gender and look purely with the artist’s eye? How do men and women differ in their approaches to similar subjects? In this book, the authors have selected and analyzed images of women by both male and female artists from the whole of Western art history. The works presented—from the prehistoric Venus of Wilendorft to Michelangelo’s Pietà, and from paintings by such artists as Picasso and Cassatt to photographic records of visceral performance pieces—are, by turn, beautiful, subtle, explicit, confrontational, and sometimes shocking. Chicago was a visiting professor at IUB in 1999.

Christ, Matthew R. The Litigious Athenian. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998, 317 pp., $39.95, cloth.
The democratic revolution that swept Classical Athens transformed the role of law in Athenian society. The legal process and the popular courts took on new and expanded roles in civic life. Although these changes occurred with the consent of the “people” (demos), Athenians were ambivalent about the spread of legal culture. In particular, they were aware that unscrupulous individuals might manipulate the laws and the legal process to serve their own purposes. Indeed, throughout the Classical period, Athenians regularly discussed, debated, and complained about legal chicanery, or sukiphantia. This book explores what this ancient discussion reveals about how Athenians conceived of and responded to problematic aspects of their collective legal experience. Christ is an associate professor of classical studies at IUB.

Farlow, James O., and M. K. Brett-Surman, eds. The Complete Dinosaur. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, 752 pp., $35.00, paper, $59.95, cloth.
What did dinosaurs eat? How did they care for their young? Will it ever be possible to isolate dinosaur DNA? The answers to these questions and hundreds more are to be found in the pages of this book, a celebration of dinosaurs and of our ongoing fascination with them. In the past decade, dinosaur paleontology has experienced an explosive growth. So rapidly has the field expanded that no individual can hope to master all its aspects. The editors have brought together forty-seven experts in subjects ranging from functional morphology and paleobiology to biogeography and systematics to present a thorough survey of dinosaurs from the earliest discoveries through the contemporary controversies over their extinction. Where contention exists, as over the question of whether dinosaurs were warm-blooded or cold-blooded, the editors let the experts agree to disagree. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum, and a glossary defines less familiar terms. Farlow is a professor of geology at IPFW.

Friedman, Lawrence J. Identity’s Architect: A Biography of Erik H. Erikson. New York: Scribner, 1999, 592 pp., $35.00, cloth.


Drawing on private materials and interviews with Erikson’s family, students, and closest colleagues around the world, Friedman illuminates the relationship between Erikson’s personal life and his groundbreaking ideas. This book explores the identity crisis that was at the root of Erikson’s lifelong quest to discover who his father was. Friedman shows how Erikson’s famous eight-stage model of the human life cycle grew from the birth of his third son, who was born developmentally handicapped. Even Erikson’s acclaimed studies of Luther, Gandhi, Jefferson, and Jesus were inseparable from his life circumstances. Erikson’s writing and ideas have had a lasting influence on our culture. His fascination with Gandhi earned him the Pulitzer Prize for his book Gandhi’s Truth and foreshadowed the contemporary West’s growing interest in Eastern thought. Trained in Vienna by Sigmund and Anna Freud, Erikson came to depart from psychoanalytic orthodoxy in deeply innovative ways—insisting that social circumstances were no less important than the inner psyche in determining human personality. Friedman is a professor of history at IUB.

Gieryn, Thomas F. Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility On the Line. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999, 398 pp., $58.00, cloth; $21.00, paper.
Why is science so credible? Usual answers center on scientists’ objective methods or their powerful instruments. Gieryn argues that a better explanation for the cultural authority of science lies downstream, when scientific claims leave laboratories and enter courtrooms, board rooms, and living rooms. On such occasions, we use “maps” to decide who to believe—cultural maps demarcating “science” from pseudoscience, ideology, faith, or nonsense. He looks at episodes of boundary-work: Was phrenology good science? How about cold fusion? Is social science really scientific? Is organic farming? After centuries of disputes like these, he finds no stable criteria that absolutely distinguish science from non-science. Science remains a pliable cultural space, its boundaries flexibly reshaped to claim credibility for some beliefs while denying it to others—exactly what is happening now in the “science wars,” which are described in an epilogue. Gieryn is a professor of sociology at IUB.

Iadicola, Peter, and Anson Shupe. Violence, Inequality, and Human Freedom. Dix Hills, New York: General Hall, Inc., 1998, 377 pp., $28.00, paper.
This book tells the story of violence that harms people throughout the world. It tells the story of the violence that most people think of when they hear the word: murder and rape. But it also tells the story of other forms of violence: the products of institutional actions (family, economic, state, and religious violence) and the product of the very organization of societies (structural violence). The book focuses on these other, more devastating forms of violence. Iadicola is professor of sociology and chair, Department of Sociology and Anthropology. Shupe is a professor of sociology. Both are at IPFW.

Kern, Paul Bentley. Ancient Siege Warfare
. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, 419 pp., $35.00, cloth.
Siege warfare was the most brutal form of war in the ancient world. It engulfed whole urban societies and was a form of total warfare that often ended in the sack of a city and the massacre or enslavement of entire populations. Assyrian emperors, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, and the future Roman emperor Titus all commanded great sieges that ended in fearsome slaughters. This book examines how siege warfare was able to unleash such unrestrained violence. It shows how the methods of siege warfare devalued the skills of traditional warriors, along with the shared values of honor and prowess that limited the violence of traditional field battles. Kern is a professor of history at IUN.

Levesque, Roger J. R. Sexual Abuse of Children: A Human Rights Perspective. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, 350 pp., $39.95, cloth.
The world community has recently recognized every child’s fundamental human right to protection from sexual maltreatment. Yet the number of ways children are sexually maltreated and the numerous responses these events evoke still raise several difficult questions: What is abnormal child sexual development? What are abnormal child sexual relations? What roles do communities and families play in encouraging or discouraging certain sexual activities? Should countries influence the internal workings of others to the extent that they determine their peoples’ sexual behavior and their views of human development? What roles do children themselves play in determining their gender development, their sexual activities, and their own sexual futures? What exactly is meant by sex, maltreatment, and childhood? What do notions of rights and law mean, and how could they be developed without inappropriately placing more children at risk? This book addresses these issues as it considers how human rights laws can help define what could and should be done to protect children from sexual maltreatment. The volume explores diverse forms of sexual maltreatment, compares societal responses to existing research and policies, uncovers basic themes, and proposes directions for future action. Levesque particularly emphasizes the ways abusive activities in different countries and societies are linked and the ways diverse societal views place children at risk. Levesque is an assistant professor of criminal justice at IUB.

Musa, Mark. Petrarch: The Canzoniere, or Rerum vulgarium fragmenta. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, 759 pp., $27.95, paper, $59.95, cloth.


Francesco Petrarch was a poet who lived in the fourteenth century. Varied in form, style, and subject matter, these “scattered rhymes” contain metaphors and conceits that have been absorbed into the literature and language of love. His characterization of the hapless lover has become an archetype. In many of his poems on the pain and bitter pleasure of love, we recognize a vivid and timely picture of ourselves. Humble sinner, aesthete, contemplative, man of the world, secretly tormented spirit, droll observer, and advocate of life, Petrarch’s protagonist is as richly complex as the age he lived in. Musa is a Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Italian at IUB.

Ovando, Carlos J., and Peter McLaren, eds. The Politics of Multiculturalism and Bilingual Education: Students and Teachers Caught in the Cross Fire. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2000, 240 pp., $30.70, paper.
With a balance between theory and application, this anthology examines the contested political and pedagogical issues surrounding multiculturalism and bilingual education in the United States. What are the precipitating causes of racism, sexism, xenophobia, linguistic intolerance, religious bigotry, and homophobia? Are they basically personal biases, distorted ways of thinking, erroneous world views, or ideologies detached from larger economic structures? Or, conversely, are they primarily systems of classification that religion, anthropology, and science have used both wittingly and unwittingly to legitimize the social divisions under capitalism? This book, which represents a variety of positions on the continuum of multicultural points of view, allow both future and current teachers to position themselves effectively for the realities of diversity in the classrooms, institutions, and society in which they will live out their careers. Ovando is a professor of education at IUB.

Zhang, Yingjin, ed. China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1998, 307 pp., $19.95, paper, $55.00, cloth.


A critical reexamination of the development and current status of comparative literature studies that engage the literary practices of both China and the West, this collection attempts to refashion literary methodologies and cultural theories in Chinese studies and reread several noncanonical texts in ways that cut across disciplines, genders, and modernities. This volume shifts the emphasis from Chinese-Western comparativism to a critical rereading of Chinese or China-related texts using a variety of new critical approaches. Essays that draw on literary history, comparative poetics, modernist aesthetics, feminist studies, gender theory, and postcolonial discourse exemplify how multifaceted approaches can enrich the understanding of this field. Zhang is an associate professor of comparative literature and East Asian languages and cultures at IUB.

 

 

 

 

 

Philanthropic Studies Series

from Indiana University Press

Clotfelter, Charles T., and Thomas Ehrlich, eds. Philanthropy and the Nonprofit Sector in a Changing America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, 560 pp., $35.00, cloth.
The nonprofit sector in America consists of some 1.5 million tax-exempt organizations, ranging in size from storefront human services agencies and one-room churches to giant universities and medical centers. The sector accounts for about 7 percent of national income, employs nearly 10 million workers, and uses the service of 90 million volunteers. This book originated in a conference sponsored by the American Assembly and the Indiana University Center on Philanthropy. Leading scholars and practitioners consider three key clusters of issues. First, what forces will determine the shape and activities of philanthropy and the nonprofit sector in the next decade? Second, how will philanthropy and the nonprofit sector be strengthened or weakened by those forces? Third, how can the challenges of grappling with the forces be transformed into opportunities? The focus is on a variety of pressures: the devolution of federal programs to the state and local levels, the blurring of lines between nonprofit and for-profit organizations, the changing distributions of income, major new wealth and its concentration, a revived interest in community and civil society, the evolution of religion and religious institutions, globalizations, tax and other regulatory reform, a retreat of government from various policy areas, and the rise of privatization and market models. Ehrlich is President Emeritus of Indiana University.

Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe, ed. Philanthropic Foundations: New Scholarship, New Possibilities. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, 420 pp., $35.00, cloth.
This volume presents examples of work about foundations and their histories and offers the opportunity to ponder the problems and possibilities of foundation history. The essays in Part I speak directly to questions about the foundation as an organization and its place in American society. Part II shifts the focus to foundations as actors in specific developments in American culture. Part III offers essays that reconstruct some of the ways foundations have contributed to a variety of social movements. Part IV focuses on foundation history and considers some of the problems and possibilities of this kind of research and writing.

Smith, Bradford, Sylvia Shue, Jennifer Lisa Vest, and Joseph Villarreal. Philanthropy in Communities of Color. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, 176 pp., $29.95, cloth.
Communities of color are often portrayed as takers rather than givers, as significantly less generous than white Americans. But this important study of ethnic philanthropy finds strong and distinctive patterns of giving in these communities. This book describes the specific practices and customs of giving money, goods, and services within the Mexican, Guatemalan, Salvadoran, Filipino, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and African American communities in the San Francisco Bay area. It finds that, rather than giving large amounts of money to charitable organizations to distribute to strangers, people in these communities share their modest wealth with other individuals, usually people they know well. The study suggests that the amount of giving by minorities may be roughly consistent with that of white America, relative to personal resources, but the forms and beneficiaries of minority giving may be quite different—giving to or helping needy individuals, families, and informal groups rather than the mainstream charities usually studied by researchers.

Ullman, Claire F. The Welfare State’s Other Crisis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998, 193 pp., $25.00, cloth.
While most observers have equated privatization with a conservative assault on the welfare state, Ullman demonstrates that such was not the case in France. There, delegation to nonprofit organizations was motivated by the desire to increase the state’s ability to achieve progressive social goals, including enabling welfare programs to reach more of the disadvantaged. Elites sought to recruit nonprofit organizations as partners not to roll back the state, but to bolster and extend its power. The author recounts the involvement of nonprofit organizations in the implementation of the socialist government’s welfare policies in France during the 1980s. She finds that every major poverty policy of this administration relied on nonprofits for its implementation. These included a campaign against hunger and homelessness, a law establishing a national right to housing, and major legislation creating a guaranteed minimum income.