Indiana University       Research & Creative Activity      September 2001 • Volume XXIV, Number 2

R&CA A b s t r a c t s

New Grants for Arts and Humanities.
The first round of scholars to receive new IU grants supporting research, scholarship, and creative work in humanities and the arts has been announced. The funding was established last October, when IU President Myles Brand allocated $4 million to be awarded over four years. Committees overseen by Vice President for Research George Walker selected these faculty and projects:

• J. Peter Burkholder, Music, IUB, “Musical Borrowing: A History and an Online Bibliography”
• James Capshew, History and Philosophy of Science, IUB, “The Wells Biography Project”
• Claude Clegg, History, IUB, “The Allure of Africa: Black North Carolinians and The Making of Liberia”
• Jonathan Eller, English; Nathan Houser, Philosophy; Marianne Wokeck, History; Andre De Tienne, Philosophy; IUPUI, “Online Catalog of the Research Resources of the Indianapolis Scholarly Editions”
• Arthur Field, History, IUB, “Francesco Filelfo’s School of Anti-Medici Rhetoric in Florence, 1429–1434”
• Donald Freund, Music, IUB, “Musical Score for the IU Fall Ballet: Concerto for Piano and Wind Ensemble”
• Lawrence Friedman, History, IUB, “The Grimness of the Present: Central European Émigré Intellectuals and the Psychological Conceptualization of the Holocaust, 1933–1970”
• Jeffrey Gould, History, IUB, “Memories of Massacre: Cultural Politics in El Salvador Since 1932”
• Carl Ipsen, West European Studies, IUB, “’Save the Children’: The Problem of Marginalized Children in Turn-of-the-Century Italy”
• William Jackson, Religious Studies, IUPUI, “Improvisation: Western and Eastern Styles and Strategies of Creativity”
• Eileen Julien, Comparative Literature, IUB, “Modernity and Multiple Imaginaries in Literature and the Arts”
• Stephen Katz, Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, IUB, “To Be As Others: Images of African- and Native-Americans in Immigrant Hebrew Literature”
• Dave Klamen, Fine Arts, IU Northwest, “Community Mosaic”
• Catherine Larson, Spanish and Portuguese, IUB, “Games and Play in the Theater of Spanish-American Women”
• Peter-John Leone, IU Press, “Electronic Publishing Initiative”
• Rosemary Lloyd, French and Italian, IUB, “Ships and Anchors: From Fixed Form to Free Verse in Nineteenth-Century French Poetry”
• Randy Long, Fine Arts, IUB, “Gold Jewelry and Carved Shell Cameos”
• Paul Mullins, Anthropology, IUPUI, “Archaeological and Historical Survey of Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis”
• Carol Polsgrove, Journalism, IUB, “Americans in Ghana”
• Jean Robertson, Art History, IUPUI, “Art Disciplines: The Meanings of Media in the Twenty-First Century”
• John G. Rudy, English, IU Kokomo, “Zen and the Romantic Self: Patterns of Emptying”
• Michael Satlow, David Brakke, Steven Weitzman, Religious Studies, IUB, “The Religious Self in Antiquity” (conference)
• Susan Shepherd, English, IUPUI, “Claiming the Stage: Deaf Life Stories in Community Theater”
• Janet Sorensen, English, IUB, “Vulgar Tongues: Revaluing the Language of the Particular in Eighteenth-Century Britain”
• Eleanor Turk, History, IU East, “The Germans of Kansas and the Great Plains: An Historiographical Analysis”
• Ronald Wainscott, Theatre and Drama, IUB, “American Theater and the Urban Majority, 1885–1930”
• Lesley Walker, French, IU South Bend, “Enlightened Labor and Artful Maternity: Women of Arts and Letters in France, 1770–1820”
• Albert Wertheim, English, IUB, “Staging the War: American Drama and World War II”
• Robert White, Sociology, IUPUI, “Ruairi O Bradaigh: His Life and Politics”
• Jeffrey Wolin, Fine Arts, IUB, “Ancient Provence: A Photographic Study”
• Ilinca Zarifopol-Johnston, Comparative Literature, IUB, “E. M. Cioran: Portrait of the Philosopher as a Young Man”
• Lyle Zynda, Philosophy, IU South Bend, “Interpretation and Nonstandard Preference Theories”

Deadly Waters.
In 1993, 400,000 people in Milwaukee were sickened by the water parasite cryptosporidium parvum—about 100 people died. Streams, rivers, and lakes can become contaminated with the parasite from human sewage, wild animals, or run-offs from animal manure. IU Kokomo’s Christian Chauret, professor of biology, studies the effectiveness of the disinfectant chlorine dioxide against the parasite. He has used new technologies to kill or inactivate the parasite during water treatment, while minimizing the risks associated with adding disinfectants to water. Chauret is beginning new research on biofilms, looking at ways to control biomaterials found growing on water pipes.

Zero Tolerance, Zero Evidence.
School violence in recent years has led to a pitched battle between school safety and students’ civil rights in the form of zero tolerance disciplinary strategies. Do such strategies work? “There is no assurance that the extensive national commitment of time and resources to zero tolerance strategies has in any way paid off,” says Russell Skiba, director of the Safe and Responsive Schools Project at the IUB School of Education. In a recent study exploring the history and effectiveness of zero tolerance disciplinary strategies, Skiba found little evidence that the harsh strategies typically associated with zero tolerance contribute to improved behavior or overall school safety. In fact, he found that school suspension and expulsion are often used for minor misbehaviors, increasing students’ anger and likelihood of dropping out. Skiba urges alternatives such as bullying prevention, early intervention, conflict resolution/peer mediation, and improved classroom behavior management as more effective, less intrusive methods for school discipline.

Incidence of Alzheimer’s.
African-Americans are twice as likely as Africans to develop dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, according to a 10-year study by Hugh Hendrie, professor of psychiatry; Kathleen Hall, assistant scientist in psychiatry; and other researchers from the IU School of Medicine and the University of Ibadan in Nigeria. Published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, the study is the first, using identical methods and the same group of investigators, to report significant incidence rate differences for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease between populations from an industrialized and a nonindustrialized nation. The finding has allowed the scientists to pursue risk factors, including potentially modifiable environmental or genetic factors, that may account for the differences.

Alcohol, Depression, and Genes.
According to IU Professor John Nurnberger Jr. and research colleagues from around the country, an area on chromosome 1 may influence vulnerability to alcoholism and depression. In a paper published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, the team found evidence that the collection of genes on chromosome 1 predisposes some individuals to alcoholism, some to depression, and some to both. Nurnberger is Joyce and Iver Small Professor of psychiatry, professor of medical and molecular genetics, and professor of neurobiology at the School of Medicine.


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