Volume XXV Number 1
Electronic publishing options abound for academics. "It is hard to believe the speed with which e-journals have become the standard in scholarly publishing," notes Library Journal. "In 1998, about 30 percent of the titles in Science Citation Index (SCI) were available online. Four years later, the percentage of online journals in SCI is approaching 75 percent; the journals in Social Sciences Citation Index are about 63 percent online." Publishers span the spectrum, from scholar-driven nonprofit organizations to university presses to large commercial operations. Here's a small sampling from among the .edu's and .org's.
Using this e-print archive, scientists and mathematicians post their own articles and retrieve others' work for free. The automated arXiv archive has been active since 1991; it now receives tens of thousands of submissions each year from researchers in about 100 countries.
Hosted by the California Digital Library, eScholarship is "dedicated to facilitating scholar-led innovations in scholarly communication." The eScholarship Repository, a "superarchive" launched in April, disseminates electronic versions of papers by University of California scholars in the humanities and social sciences.
The History Cooperative
The American Historical Association, National Academy Press, IU Bloomington-based Organization of American Historians, and University of Illinois Press launched this site in 2000. It provides electronic full-text issues of the American Historical Review, Journal of American History, and several other journals to members of the AHA and OAH and to institutions that subscribe to the print journals. It also offers free content, such as the collected papers of Booker T. Washington.
History E-Book Project
Sponsored by the American Council of Learned Societies, this consortium of university presses and scholarly societies aims to have produced more than 80 new electronic history books, as well as converted hundreds of previously published titles into electronic form, by 2004.
Indiana University Press Books on Demand and E-books
For selected titles listed on its Books-on-Demand Web page, the press can have a single copy printed and bound using high-speed print technologies. The press also is beginning to reformat some of its new titles into text versions for the Web.
To address space and preservation problems faced by libraries, JSTOR offers back issues of print journals online. It includes full runs of more than 200 journals.
National Academy Press
Founded by the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council, NAP has offered free, searchable full-text books for reading on the Web since 1994.
Launched more than six years ago by Johns Hopkins University Press, Project Muse is now a consortium of scholarly humanities and social science publishers, including IU Press, that offers 160 electronic journals.
Public Library of Science
This organization of scientists is "committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature freely accessible, for the benefit of scientific progress, education, and the public good," according to its Web site. The group will launch unrestricted-access journals online in 2003. Costs of peer review, editorial oversight, and publication--about $300 per article--will be recovered primarily by charges to authors, according to the PLS.
Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition
An alliance of about 200 universities, research libraries, and organizations, SPARC was launched in 1998 as "a constructive response to market dysfunctions in the scholarly communication system," says its site. IU is a founding member. The coalition focuses on creating and supporting alternatives to commercial journals through partnerships with publishers and scientific societies.