• Title: Three Cognitive Markers of Unconscious Semantic Activation
    Authors: Anthony G. Greenwald, Sean C. Draine, & Richard L. Abrams

    Abstract. Methods of measuring unconscious processing of briefly displayed words have been actively sought for the last 20 years. A new "response window" technique that reliably produces a crucial indicator of unconscious activation of word meaning was used to identify two additional indicators. The new findings show that unconscious semantic activation (i) has a very brief time span (occurring only if the target follows the prime within 100 ms), and (ii) leaves no later-detectable memory trace of the word stimulus.
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