• Title: Replicable Subliminal Semantic Priming
    Authors: Sean C. Draine & Anthony G. Greenwald

    Abstract. In four experiments, subjects classified visually presented target words as pleasant/unpleasant words or male/female first names. Prime words were similar (congruent) or dissimilar (incongruent) in meaning to targets. Brief duration of prime words (17, 33, or 50 ms), along with pre- and post-masking, prevented most subjects from perceiving their physical and semantic properties. By constraining response latencies to fall within a response window -- a narrow time band that occurred earlier than subjects would ordinarily respond -- these experiments consistently produced subliminal priming effects, indicated by greater error rates for incongruent than congruent priming trials. This conclusion was confirmed by analyzing magnitude of priming as a regression function of prime perceptibility using the method of Greenwald, Klinger, and Schuh (1995). The data of each experiment passed their significant-intercept criterion for demonstrating unconscious cognition.
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