Cunningham, W. A., Preacher, K. J., & Banaji, M. R. (in press). Implicit Attitude Measures: Consistency, Stability, and Convergent Validity. Psychological Science.


In recent years, several techniques have been developed to measure implicit social cognition. Despite their increased use, little attention has been devoted to their reliability and validity. This paper reports a direct assessment of the inter-item consistency, stability, and convergent validity of some implicit attitude measures. Black-White race attitudes were measured on four separate occasions, each two weeks apart, using three implicit measures (Response-Window Evaluative Priming, Implicit Association Test, and Response-Window IAT) and one explicit measure (Modern Racism Scale). After correcting for inter-item inconsistency with latent variable analyses, we see that (a) stability indices are improved and (b) implicit measures are substantially correlated with each other, forming a single latent factor. The psychometric properties of response-latency implicit measures are stronger than recently suggested.