Frey, K. P., & Smith, E. R. (1993). Beyond the actor's traits: Forming impressions of actors, targets, and relationships from social behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 486-493.

Though the person perception literature has typically focused on the inference of actors' traits, perceivers may also use the information contained in social behaviors to form impressions of people as targets and of the relationships between people. In Study 1, subjects read about the behaviors of 4 fictitious persons under instructions to form actor-, target-, and relationship-based impressions. After indicating their impressions, subjects were presented with additional behavioral information followed by a recall task. Subjects could accurately perceive actor, target, and relationship effects in the presented information, and they better recalled subsequently presented behaviors that were consistent rather than inconsistent with all three types of impressions. In Study 2, subjects thought of four people they knew and made judgments about how much each liked the other three. Subjects did perceive actor, target, and relationship effects, as well as individual-level and dyadic reciprocity, among the targets. The results of these studies indicate that perceivers can and do form impressions of people as actors, people as targets, and relationships between people, that these impressions influence memory for further behaviors, and that the impressions are relatively accurate.