Karylowski, J. J., Motes, M. A. Curry, D. & Van Liempd, D. (1999). In what font color is Bill Cosby's name written?: Automatic racial categorization in a stroop task. Under editorial consideration

We used a modification of the Stroop (1935) color-naming task to investigate automatic racial categorization. Participants were presented with names of well-known African American and Caucasian entertainers. The names were written in either black, white, green, or blue font against a background of a different color. The experimental task was to name the font color. We reasoned that because black and white are used in colloquial English as both color-labels and race-labels, automatic categorization of African American and Caucasian experimental targets by race should result in Stroop-like effects on a color naming task. Specifically, we expected that identifying font color as black would be faster when a name of an African-American target is presented in that font than when a name of a Caucasian target is presented. Similarly, identifying white font color should be faster when a name of a Caucasian target is presented in that font. Our results supported the predictions.