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From Azar Edward E. and Steve Lerner 1981. The use of semantic dimensions in the scaling of international events. International Interactions 7: 361-378.

The article defines 125 inter-state behaviors in the following categories:

  1. Voluntary unification into one nation-state
  2. Major strategic alliances
  3. Military Economic and Strategic Support
  4. Nonmilitary economic technological and industrial agreements
  5. Cultural and Scientific Agreements and Support (non-strategic)
  6. Official Verbal Support of Goals Values and Regime
  7. Minor Official Exchanges Talks and Policy Expression-Mild Verbal Support
  8. Neutral or Non-significant Acts for the International Situation
  9. Mild Verbal Expressions Displaying Discord in the Interaction
  10. Strong Verbal Expression Displaying Hostility
  11. Diplomatic-Economic Hostilities
  12. Political-Military Hostile Actions
  13. Small Scale Military Hostilities
  14. Limited Acts of War
  15. Extensive War Acts Causing Deaths Dislocation and High Strategic Costs

The behaviors were rated by professionals in international relations, and by individuals from the general population.

Lines below are entries to import into Interact.

The EPA values also have been used to construct SPSS transformations to add EPA profiles to event descriptions in the COPDAB data set

Descriptive Statement Elite Sample General Sample
E P A E P A
 

MergingVoluntarilyIntoOneNationState 2.4 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.2 0.7
FormingOneNationWithOneLegallyBindingGovernment 1.9 1.5 1.5 2.3 2.3 0.7
FightingAWarJointly 0.1 1.5 1.9 0.9 1.4 0.7
EstablishingAJointMilitaryCommandOrAlliance 0.8 1.1 0.9 1 1.8 0.4
ConductingJointMilitaryManeuvers 0.6 1.1 1 1.4 1.3 0
EstablishingAnEconomicCommonMarket 2.2 1 1 1.1 2.2 -0.1
JoiningOrOrganizingInternationalAlliances 1 1.3 0.6 1.5 1.6 0
EstablishingJointProgramToRaiseTheGlobalQualityOfLife 2.8 1.3 0.9 2.8 2 0.6
SellingNuclearPowerPlantsAndMaterial -0.3 1.6 1 -0.6 2.1 0.2
ProvidingAirNavalOrLandFacilitiesOrBases 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.6 1.2 -0.3
GivingMilitaryTechnicalOrAdvisoryAssistance 1 1.3 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.1
ConcludingMilitaryAgreements 0.7 0.8 0.5 1.2 1.4 -0.4
GrantingMilitaryAid 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.6 1.4 0.2
TrainingMilitaryPersonnel 0.3 0.8 0.6 0.5 1.1 0.4
InterveningWithMilitarySupportByRequest 0.7 1.5 1.5 0.8 1.4 0.9
MakingEconomicLoansGrants 1.9 1.6 0.5 2.3 1.8 0.3
AgreeingToEconomicPacts 1.8 1.3 0.6 1.9 1.6 -0.8
GivingIndustrialCulturalEducationalAssistance 2.3 1.3 0.7 2.4 1.3 -0.1
ConductingTradeAgreements 1.8 0.9 0.7 2.2 1.3 0.2
GrantingMostFavoredNationStatus 1.7 1.3 0.3 2.1 1.5 0.4
EstablishingCommonTransportationCommunications 2 0.8 1 2.3 1.3 0.7
SellingIndustrialTechnologicalSurplusSupplies 1 0.7 0.3 1.5 1 0
ProvidingTechnicalExpertise 1.8 1.4 0.6 1.7 1.4 0.1
CeasingEconomicRestrictions 1.5 1 0.3 1.3 1.4 -0.3
RepayingDebts 2 0.9 0.3 2.3 1.3 -1
SellingNonmilitaryGoods 1.4 0.6 -0.3 1.8 1.1 -0.7
GivingDisasterRelief 2.2 1.1 0.7 2.6 1.9 -0.2
SharingHighlyAdvancedTechnology 1.9 1.6 1 2.1 1.5 0.8
JointProgramsPlansToInitiatePursueDisarmament 2.1 1.4 1 2.3 1.9 -0.5
StartingDiplomaticRelations 2.1 1 0.8 2.1 1.7 0.3
EstablishingTechnologicalAndScientificCommunications 2 0.7 0.4 1.8 1.5 0.3
ProposingOrOfferingEconomicOrMilitaryAid 1.1 1.3 0.4 1 1.3 -0.2
RecognizingGovernments 1.5 0.6 0.3 1.5 1.3 -0.3
OpeningBorders 0.6 1 0.8 1.6 1.6 0.2
ConductingOrElevatingFriendshipAgreements 1.7 0.7 0.3 1.9 0.9 -0.4
ConductingCulturalAcademicAgreementsExchanges 2 0.9 0.3 2.2 1.2 -0.4
OfficialSupportOfPolicy 1.4 0.7 0.7 1.6 0.6 -0.1
RaisingADelegationToAnEmbassy 1.8 0.6 0.9 1.8 0.8 -0.3
ReaffirmingFriendship 1.6 0.6 0.7 2.1 1.2 0
ApologizingForUnfavorableStatementsAndActions 1.4 0.2 0.3 1.5 0.3 0
AllowingPressCorrespondentsEntry 1.8 0.6 0.7 1.8 1.1 0.3
ThankingForAid 1.8 -0.1 0.3 1.9 0.2 0
ResumingBrokenDiplomaticOrOtherRelations 1.7 0.5 0.8 2.1 1.5 -0.2
CompensatingForNationalizedConfiscatedProperties -0.1 0.1 0.1 -0.3 0.1 -0.6
MeetingOfHighOfficials 1.4 0.5 0.7 1.9 1.1 0.2
ConferringOnProblemsOfMutualInterest 1.7 0.8 0.5 2 1 -0.2
VisitsByLowerOfficialsTalks 1.2 0.1 -0.1 1.4 0.3 -0.6
IssuingJointCommuniques 0.9 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.1 -0.4
AppointingAmbassadors 1.1 0.4 0.7 1.5 0.9 -0.7
AnnouncingACeaseFire 1.9 0.7 0.8 2.1 1.2 0
NongovernmentalExchangesAndVisitors 1 0.3 0.3 1.2 0.3 -0.4
ProposingTalks 1.6 0.5 0.5 1.6 1 -0.1
PublicNonGovernmentalSupportOfRegime 0.6 0 0.6 1.1 0.4 0.4
ExchangingPrisonersOfWar 1.8 0.5 0.5 1.8 0.8 -0.1
AskingForSupportOfPolicy 0.5 -0.3 0 1 0.1 -0.6
RequestingChangeOfPolicy 1.3 0.7 0.3 1.4 0.9 0
AskingForHelpAgainstAThirdParty 0 0 -0.2 0.6 0.4 -0.5
OfficialVerbalSupportOfGoalsValuesRegime 0 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.1
RhetoricalPolicyStatements -0.1 -0.3 0.6 -0.1 -0.4 0.6
NonConsequentialNewsItems -0.1 -0.4 -0.1 -0.2 -0.8 -0.1
StatementsOfIndifference -0.2 -0.5 -0.3 -0.5 -0.6 -0.3
NoCommentStatements -0.1 0.1 0.1 -0.3 0.1 0.1
LowKeyObjectionToPoliciesOrBehavior -0.3 -0.2 0.3 -0.9 -0.6 0.1
CommunicatingDissatisfactionThroughThirdParty -0.3 -0.2 0.3 -0.9 -0.6 -0.1
RecallingAmbassadorForEmergencyConsultations -0.3 0.5 0.8 -0.2 0.4 0.6
WarningOfRetaliationForActs -0.8 1.3 1.3 0.01 1.1 0.5
FailingToReachAnAgreement -1.2 -0.5 0.5 -1.2 -0.2 -0.3
RefusingAProtestNote -0.6 0.2 0.6 -1.1 0.4 0.2
DenyingAccusations -0.1 -0.1 0.4 -0.4 -0.5 0.2
ObjectingToExplanationsOfGoalsPositionsEtc -1 -0.3 0.5 -0.9 0.1 0.3
MakingThreateningDemandsAndAccusations -1.2 0.6 0.9 -1.4 0 1
CondemningStronglySpecificActionsAndPolicies -0.6 0.3 1.1 -0.4 0.8 1
GrantingSanctuaryToOppositionLeaders 0.6 0.7 0.3 -0.2 0.7 0
DenouncingLeadersSystemOrIdeology -1 0 1.4 -0.8 0.3 1.5
PostponingVisitsByHeadsOfState -0.8 0.3 -0.3 1.1 0.4 0
RefusingParticipationInMeetingsOrSummits -1.2 0.4 0.5 -1.6 0.1 0.4
LevelingStrongPropagandaAttacks -1 0.7 1.3 -1.6 0.6 1.3
DenyingSupport -0.8 0.5 0.5 -1 0.4 0.4
BlockingOrVetoingPolicyOrOpposition -0.7 1 0.6 -0.8 1 0
IncreasingTroopMovements -1.2 1.4 1.6 -0.9 1.3 0.7
Boycotts -1 1 0.7 -1 1 0.3
ImposingEconomicSanctions -1 0.5 0.5 -0.5 1.1 -0.2
HinderingMovementThroughLandWaterwaysOrAir -1.4 0.5 1.2 -1.6 0.7 0.4
EmbargoingGoods -2.1 0.9 0.4 -1.3 0.9 -0.6
RefusingMutualTradeRights -1.4 0.4 0.5 -1.6 0.7 0.4
ClosingBordersAndBlockingFreeCommunications -1.9 0.8 1.2 -1.8 1.2 1.2
ManipulatingTradeCurrencyToCauseEconomicProblems -2 1.3 1.2 -2 2 0.1
HaltingAid -1 1 0.8 -1.3 1.1 0.5
MobilizingHostileDemonstrationsAtTargetCountry -0.7 0.8 1 -1.4 0.6 1.6
RefusingToSupportForeignMilitaryAllies -0.8 0.4 0.6 -1.8 0.2 0.3
RefusingVisasToOtherNational -1.1 0 0.2 -1 0.6 0.3
RestrictingMovementOfOtherNationalsInCountry -1.4 0.7 0.6 -1.5 0.6 0.1
ExpellingOrArrestingNationalsOrPress -1.9 0.6 1.2 -1.8 0.2 1.4
SpyingOnForeignGovernmentOfficials -1.2 0.6 0.6 -1.8 0.6 -0.2
TerminatingMajorAgreements -1.2 0.3 0.7 -1.5 1.3 0.3
IncitingRiotsAndRebellions -1.6 1 1.3 -1.5 0.8 1.7
TrainingAndFinanciallyAidingRebellions -0.9 1.1 1.5 -1.3 1 1.1
EncouragingGuerrillaActivity -0.9 1 1.2 -1.7 0.3 1
LimitedAndSporadicTerroristActivities -2 0.6 1.2 -1.8 0.3 1.6
GivingSanctuaryToTerrorists -1.7 0.8 0.8 -1.5 0.4 0.9
BreakingDiplomaticRelations -1.3 0.5 1.3 -1.5 0.7 0.7
ExpellingMilitaryAdvisors -0.7 0.6 1.6 -0.7 0.6 1.5
NationalizingCompaniesWithoutCompensation -1.5 1.1 1.5 -2.1 1 1.7
AttackingDiplomatsOrEmbassies -2.1 0.4 1.4 -2.1 0.1 1.5
LimitedAirSeaOrBorderSkirmishes -1.3 1.3 1.5 -1.6 0.8 0.9
BorderPoliceActs -0.9 0.7 1.2 -0.7 0.6 0.5
AnnexingTerritoryAlreadyOccupied -1.8 1.6 1.8 -1.9 1.4 0.5
SeizingMaterialOfTargetCountry -1 1.5 1.2 -1.1 1.8 1.1
ImposingBlockades -1.4 1.6 1.6 -1.2 1.7 0.5
KidnappingOrTorturingForeignCitizensOrPrisoners -2 0.5 1.4 -3.2 0.2 0.8
MaterialSupportSubversiveActivitiesInTargetCountry -1.3 1 1.5 0.4 1.7 0.6
CapturingSoldiersInBattle -0.4 1.1 1.1 0.4 1.7 0.6
IntermittentShellingOrClashes -1.3 0.6 1.4 -1.8 0.7 1
SporadicBombingOfMilitaryIndustrialArea -2.2 1.6 1.9 -1.5 1.1 1.5
SmallScaleInterceptionOrSinkingOfShips -1.6 0.8 1.4 -2 0.7 1
MiningOfTerritorialWaters -1.6 1.2 1.1 -1.7 1.3 0.7
AssassinatingLeaderOfTargetCountry -2.5 0.8 2 -2.5 1 2
UseOfAtomicOrNuclearWeapons -3.4 2.7 2.7 -2.9 2.2 2.5
FullScaleAirNavalOrLandBattles -2.6 2.3 2.7 -2.7 2.2 2.3
InvasionOfTerritory -2.6 2.4 2.7 -2.5 1.3 1.9
MassiveBombingOfCivilianAreas -3.3 2 2 -3.4 1.8 1.9
LargeScaleBombingOfMilitaryInstallations -1.4 2.2 2.2 -1.5 2 1.9
OccupationOfTerritory -2.3 1.7 1.8 -2.1 1.5 1.3
ChemicalOrBiologicalWarfare -3.1 1.6 2.4 -3.6 1 2.4
ConductCampaignsOfGenocide -3.4 2 2.2 -4 1.4 2.4

 

 

Domestic Behaviors

The article also measures the following 113 domestic actions.

GuaranteeEnergyFoodAndBasicResourcesToAllPartsOfSociety 2.2 1.4 0.8 3.2 2.4 0.7
InvestingSubstantiallyInReducingIlliteracy 1.9 1.3 0.9 2.4 1.6 0.0
StartingSocialWelfarePrograms 1.7 1.1 0.8 1.8 1.2 0.2
EstablishingStructuresToProtectTheIndividualFromTheState 2.4 1.7 1.0 2.4 1.4 0.5
ComingToTheAidOfDisadvantagedEthnicOrPovertyStrickenGroups 2.1 1.6 0.7 2.6 1.3 0.2
LegislatingSuffrageRegardlessOfSexRaceOrOrigin 2.3 1.8 0.7 2.5 2.2 0.6
ReducingTheRateOfInfantOrChildMortality 2.4 1.4 1.0 2.6 1.5 1.1
WritingSocialSecurityLaborAndRetirementInsuranceLaws 1.9 1.3 0.4 1.8 1.4 -0.8
CooperationToProtectFreedomAndTheGoodLife 2.4 0.7 0.7 3.1 2.6 0.7
EnactingLawsToProtectRightsOfMinorities 2.0 1.6 1.0 2.5 1.8 0.0
LiftingOfTotalCensorshipOrCurfew 2.3 1.5 1.0 2.0 1.4 0.1
UpholdingConstitutionalRightsByHigherCourts 2.3 1.8 0.6 2.5 2.2 -0.7
HoldingFreeElectionsOfHighOfficials 2.5 1.5 0.7 2.8 2.4 -0.1
ReformTheJudicialConstitutionalEducationalEtc.Systems 1.6 1.0 1.0 1.7 1.5 0.2
RestoreNormalConstitutionalLife 2.5 0.8 1.0 2.5 1.9 0.2
ReinstituteVoluntaryAssemble 1.9 1.2 0.7 2.0 1.4 0.0
ReturnRevokedCitizenships 1.6 0.8 0.7 1.3 0.9 0.3
RemoveRestrictionsAgainstVoting 1.7 1.4 0.7 2.6 1.7 0.5
AllowMediaCriticismOfGovernment 2.2 1.3 0.6 2.5 2.1 0.3
ReleasePoliticalPrisoners 1.9 1.2 0.8 1.9 0.9 0.3
GrantingAmnestyToLeadersAndExiledNationals 1.6 1.0 0.8 1.2 0.8 0.5
RemovePartialPoliticalCensorshipAndCurfew 1.6 1.0 0.7 1.9 0.7 0.5
ReopenPublicFacilitiesAndPermitFreeTrade 2.0 1.5 0.7 2.6 1.5 0.5
OpenUniversitiesAndSchoolsThatWereClosedForPoliticalUnrest 2.0 1.2 0.7 1.8 1.0 0.8
InitiateAgrarianReform 2.1 1.3 1.0 2.2 1.7 0.5
GrantLaborersShareInCorporateDecisionMaking 1.9 1.0 1.1 1.9 1.1 0.9
AlterTaxesMakingThemMoreEquitable 1.3 1.3 0.6 1.4 1.5 0.0
StartingNewEducationalInstitutions 2.2 1.1 1.2 2.2 1.5 0.6
ImprovingTheIncomeDistributionOfIndividualsAndCorporations 1.9 1.4 0.7 2.1 1.9 0.0
ReleaseFrozenAccountsOfOpposition 1.1 1.2 0.4 1.5 1.2 -0.2
ReturnExpropriatedProperty 1.9 1.0 0.7 1.9 0.8 -0.4
DomesticCeaseFireFromUnions 1.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 0.7
ParticipatingInPoliticalEconomicAndCulturalLifeOfTheNation 1.9 0.9 0.5 2.4 1.5 0.1
TheSurrenderingOfRebels 0.3 -0.2 0.2 0.9 0.0 0.4
EndingHungerStrikes 0.8 0.1 -0.1 1.2 0.1 -0.4
PublicShowingSupportOfGovernment 1.6 1.2 0.6 2.4 2.0 0.1
PoliticalSupportForLegislationToReduceStructuralInequalities 2.0 1.0 0.4 2.1 1.3 0.1
PublicJoinsInSupportOfGovernmentsExternalPolicies 1.5 1.1 0.5 1.9 1.7 0.2
ImprovingTheLevelOfTechnology 1.2 0.6 1.6 1.8 0.5 2.2
ConstructingPortFacilitiesAndTransportationModes 1.8 1.0 1.0 2.0 1.2 0.4
AdoptingPoliciesFacilitatingFreeMovementOfGoodsAndServices 1.8 1.2 0.6 2.3 1.8 0.0
EnactingLawsToProtectTheEnvironment 2.5 1.5 0.8 1.8 1.7 0.8
RequestingPublicSupportForDomesticAndForeignPolicy 1.1 0.0 -0.1 1.5 0.8 -0.6
AgreeingToConferToStudySocialWelfareLegislation 1.4 0.3 0.4 1.9 1.1 0.1
ExploringMeansToImproveEconomicAndIndustrialConditionsInCountry 2.0 1.1 0.3 2.1 1.4 -0.5
AgreeingToStudyComplaintsOfPublic 1.7 0.7 -0.2 0.7 0.8 -0.3
GovernmentAndOppositionTalkAboutMutualPublicConcerns 1.9 0.0 0.0 2.4 1.5 0.0
GovernmentAndLaborRepresentativesMeetOrAgreeToChangeConditions 1.7 1.1 0.5 2.0 1.7 0.1
NegotiatingTheReleaseOfKidnappedPersons 1.9 0.7 0.4 2.1 0.9 -0.2
DismissingCorruptPublicOfficials 1.7 1.0 1.0 1.7 1.2 0.3
GovernmentMovesToEaseInternalTension 2.0 1.2 1.2 1.7 1.4 0.2
ReportingOnMattersOfStateBudgetImportsEtc 0.9 0.7 -0.2 1.5 0.7 -0.4
ElectingLowLevelOfficials 1.5 0.5 -0.2 1.7 1.0 -0.6
AppointingMinistersAndCabinetOfficials 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.7 -0.4
ReportingOfNewsEvents 1.4 0.5 0.3 1.8 1.3 0.8
CelebratingHolidays 0.8 0.3 0.8 2.0 -0.1 0.6
AnnouncingProblemsBeingStudied 0.4 0.2 -0.1 1.6 0.6 -0.6
IssuingRhetoricalStatements -0.2 -0.1 0.4 -0.1 -0.4 0.0
ReshufflingOrDismissingCabinetForPoliticalConflictReasons -0.5 0.3 1.0 -0.7 0.4 0.3
IntragovernmentalConflictiveActionsOrStatements -1.0 -0.6 0.0 -1.2 0.2 0.3
GovernmentalResignationDueToPoliticalProblems 0.1 -0.2 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.3
DemandingTheReleaseOfJailedOrDetainedOpposition 1.7 0.4 0.8 1.1 0.0 0.8
RequestingOusterOfUnpopularOfficials 0.6 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.8
AccusingTheGovernmentOfArbitraryActsOfInjusticeOrRevenge 0.3 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.4 1.2
LiningUpAgainstGovernmentalPolicies 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.7 1.1
LimitedStrikesAndThreats -0.3 0.5 0.6 -0.7 1.1 0.6
DistributionAndOrConfiscationOfAntiregimePropaganda -0.9 0.1 1.1 -1.2 0.9 0.3
CallingForAGeneralStrikeOrCivilArmedResistance -1.4 0.6 1.4 -1.5 0.4 1.6
IncitingRiotsOrRetaliatoryActs -1.6 0.4 1.5 -1.5 0.4 1.6
ThreateningStrikes -0.7 0.8 0.8 -0.7 1.1 0.9
ShortTermRestrictionsOnTravelAndInternalMovement -1.4 0.5 0.7 -1.3 0.8 0.3
MobilizingADraftToConductWars -0.9 1.1 0.9 -0.9 0.5 0.6
ImposingAPartialCurfew -1.3 0.2 1.3 -1.3 0.7 0.6
ImposingPartialCensorship -1.4 0.4 1.2 -2.1 0.7 0.3
ImposingTaxesToConductWars -1.0 1.3 0.4 -1.0 1.5 -0.4
DevaluatingCurrencyWithoutCompensation -1.5 -0.1 0.7 -1.9 1.3 0.4
RejectingIdeasOfSocialLegislationReform -2.3 0.2 -0.3 -1.2 0.7 0.0
RejectingInitiationOfHealthEducationOrWelfarePrograms -1.8 0.6 0.2 -2.0 0.7 0.4
AccuseOppositionOfTreason -1.1 0.3 0.9 -0.8 0.5 0.5
ChargingOppositionWithViolentActsAndDestruction -0.7 0.0 0.9 -0.4 0.6 0.9
AbolishingMinorSocialWelfarePrograms -0.8 0.2 0.1 -1.1 0.7 0.0
ForbiddingPublicGatherings -2.2 0.4 1.0 -2.7 1.2 0.0
CancelingPassportsOfCitizens -1.9 0.9 1.1 -1.2 0.8 0.6
DetainingOppositionLeadersOrPlacingUnderHouseArrest -2.0 0.9 0.8 -1.8 1.1 0.5
FreezingAccountsOfOpposition -1.9 0.5 0.8 -1.8 0.8 0.6
RestrictingTheUseOfPublicFacilitiesAndClosingAirports -2.2 0.8 1.3 -1.9 1.1 0.9
RevokeCitizenshipsForPoliticalReasons -1.9 0.8 1.4 -2.3 1.0 0.3
ExpropriatingPrivatePropertyWithoutCompensation -2.5 1.1 1.3 -2.2 1.1 1.0
DismissingJudgesArbitrarily -2.4 0.8 1.2 -2.1 0.8 1.2
EvictingCitizensArbitrarily -2.4 0.8 1.3 -2.5 0.7 0.8
ClosingUniversitiesAndSchoolsForPoliticalReasons -2.3 0.7 0.6 -2.4 0.7 0.6
LargeScaleStockingOfArmsByPrivateCitizens -2.5 0.2 1.4 -2.4 0.1 1.2
CreatingPrivateMilitia -2.4 0.5 1.2 -1.7 -0.3 1.1
LargeScaleRiotsAndGeneralStrikes -2.3 1.0 1.8 -2.4 1.2 1.8
ExtensiveViolenceInTheStreets -2.2 0.0 1.6 -2.3 0.4 1.6
PursuingAndCrushingLiberationMovements -1.5 1.1 1.4 -2.0 1.6 1.5
CoupDetat -1.4 1.5 2.1 -1.7 1.9 2.4
MassArrests -2.7 0.6 1.8 -2.5 1.1 1.7
AbolitionOfCivilRightsDissolvingParliament -1.8 0.7 0.8 -2.0 1.1 1.4
ImposingMartialLaw -2.2 1.4 1.7 -2.7 1.5 1.4
ImposingATotalCurfew -2.4 1.4 1.5 -2.3 1.1 1.5
AbolishingCivilCourtsAndPoliticalRightsAndFreedoms -3.0 1.5 1.7 -3.3 1.3 1.1
ArrestsOfDissidentJournalistsOrOppositionLeaders -2.5 1.0 1.7 -2.5 0.7 1.5
TheControlOfPublicMediaFacilitiesTotalCensorshipByTheMilitary -2.7 1.4 1.4 -2.7 1.7 0.4
AbolishingSocialWelfareProgramsAffectingLargePortionsOfSociety -2.4 0.7 1.1 -2.1 1.2 1.0
ViolatingEthnicAndIndividualRights -2.1 0.9 1.3 -2.9 0.6 0.8
TorturingPrisoners -3.1 1.1 1.8 -3.6 1.0 0.9
ExecutingPoliticalPrisonersAndEnemiesOfTheState -2.4 0.9 1.4 -2.5 0.9 1.3
KidnappingOrAssassinationsOfPublicOfficials -2.6 0.7 1.2 -2.8 1.0 1.8
LargeScaleBombingAndTerroristActivities -2.5 1.4 2.2 -2.8 0.7 2.4
ExecutionOfPublicOfficialsByTheOppositionOrGovernment -2.8 1.0 1.5 -2.9 1.0 1.9
AnEthnicInternalWar -2.7 0.3 1.7 -2.9 0.5 1.9
ConductingCampaignsOfExtermination -3.5 1.2 1.8 -3.7 1.2 1.9