I wrote a long tutorial in the 1980s for the very first version of Ethno. An equally detailed tutorial is not available for the current version. This web page presents the early tutorial, but it mainly is of historical interest now. In fact, some of the text seems quaint now: for example, instructing people on how to operate a computer was necessary decades ago when Ethno was created. David Heise
ETHNO makes full use of color monitors, and the program will display extra data on the screen if your system has an EGA or VGA display adaptor.
A monochrome version of the program can be obtained by entering
in order to run the program. Use this option if you have trouble reading the ETHNO menu. The monochrome version visually presents the same information as the color version using different methods of display. The following describes how information conveyed through colors is handled in the monochrome version.
The command line can specify a disk or directory for storing ETHNO
data files. For example, if you run the program with this line:
then the program will look for all data files (including framework files) on the B: disk in the root directory, and the program will write all new files there.
ETHNO can print diagrams on paper if you have an Epson dot matrix printer or a Hewlett-Packard Laserjet connected to your system. Other printers also may work. Alternatively, diagrams can be written to text files and processed by other programs.
ETHNO begins with a menu. Two special options are cued on the bottom line.
Whenever ETHNO is waiting for you to respond, you can press the F10 key to get a help message. A box is superimposed on the screen, and a message is printed telling about your options and how to implement them. The message changes depending on the task in which you are engaged.
The messages are too long to fit in the box all at once. Press cursor keys--the Down or Up arrow keys (or PGDN, PGUP, END, or HOME)--in order to move through the message.
Press the ESC key (or F10 or F9) in order to remove the help box and return to your task.
After you have made a selection, ETHNO displays the files currently in that place.
You return to the main menu by pressing ENTER.
The computer keyboard is used as a typewriter. The backspace key can be used to make corrections as you type. (Backspace is the key with an arrow pointing left, but not the cursor key that is with the other keys marked by arrows.) Finish typing words and phrases by hitting the ENTER key.
In general, press the ENTER key whenever you are done and ready to go to the next step.
Press the ESC (escape) key when you wish to quit what you are doing. You leave ETHNO by pressing the ESC key when you are at the main menu.
Cursor keys are used for four operations.
The names of data files are joined to a qualifier, ETH, to form disk file names. Thus if you save MYDATA, you will find MYDATA.ETH in the disk directory (which you can examine by pressing R at the main menu).
ETHNO always asks you to name a file for saving data when you leave a task. If you want to discard the data, press the ESC key, and ETHNO automatically will save the unwanted data into a file called SINK. You can recall this file later in case you change your mind. File SINK is over-written every time that, instead of naming a file, you press ESC.
Sometimes you must name a framework file. In this case you type a name like D or AKO and press ENTER. Framework files have a FWK qualifier: e.g., the D framework appears as D.FWK in the disk directory. Framework files that come with ETHNO are listed in Box 1.
ETHNO saves files, and lists ETHNO files in a directory. Other file handling operations (copying, renaming, deleting) have to be conducted from DOS.
ETHNO's diagrams represent each entry in the data by a three letter abbreviation. The general topic is by itself at the top of the diagram, and the other entries are arranged in tiers below that. Connections between entries are represented by the placement of entries within tiers and by lines from one abbreviation to another. shows how ETHNO displays a diagram on the screen.
If you are working with concepts (like types of people) then more general types are toward the top of the diagram because lower entries are subtypes of the higher. For example, if Father and Grandfather both are on the diagram, then Father should be higher than Grandfather.
| Hus Bac
A connecting line means that the lower item implies the higher. For example, a line should connect Grandfather to Father because being a Grandfather implies being a Father. Implications can be traced vertically through chains of lines. For example, a line from Grandfather to Father and another from Father to Husband means that Grandfather implies Husband. Multiple lines branching down from an entry represent alternative subtypes. For example, Man might have lines down to Father and Bachelor, meaning that either Father or Bachelor is a kind of Man. Multiple lines branching up from an entry represent combinations. For example, Father might have lines up to Husband and to Parent, meaning that a Father is both a Husband and a Parent.
If you are working with events, then subsequent events are lower on the diagram and a connecting line means that the higher entry is a prerequisite for the lower. For example, if Patient enters dentist office (abbreviated Ent) and Patient gives name to receptionist (abbreviated Giv) both are events on a diagram, then Ent will be above Giv and the two should be connected by a line. Prerequisites can be traced vertically along chains of lines. For example, if Patient drives to dentist has a line down to Ent and Ent has a line down to Giv, then giving one's name implies driving. Multiple lines branching up from an event represent the combination of prerequisites that is required for the event to occur. Multiple lines branching down from an event represent alternative happenings that could result from the event.
ETHNO does not draw separate lines to each subordinate because all computers cannot handle this. Instead an entry with multiple subordinates has a short vertical line drawn down from it, this connects to a horizontal brace line, and the brace line in turn connects to vertical lines that drop to the subordinates. If a subordinate has multiple superordinates, then the vertical line rising from it will connect to more than one brace line. ETHNO tries to avoid having lines cross when they are unrelated, but this inevitably happens in a large diagram--such crossovers are distinguished by a short open gap in one of the lines. (ETHNO always keeps unrelated lines from being superimposed on one another.)
You may observe parallel structures which are connected only at the top. ETHNO tries to partition the diagram into parts that are unrelated to one another.
The number of lines with abbreviations in a diagram corresponds to the diagram's depth. Depth often works as a metaphor in interpretation: e.g., someone who engages in an event lower on the diagram is "deeply" involved in the incident.
You can visually emphasize a subgraph in the diagram. Press the F2 key, select an item of interest, and all parts of the diagram which are connected to that item will be brightened. (Press ENTER to get back to the original.)
Press ALT F1 to switch back and forth between ordinary screen size and the densely packed screens of EGA or VGA. This works only when a diagram is displayed on the screen and only in computers with EGA or VGA display adaptors.
If the cursor keys have no effects, then Number Lock probably is on; press the NUMLOCK key and try again.
Press the ESC key (or F9 or F10) to remove the box and return to what you were doing.
ETHNO's abbreviations are formed from the first or second word of the entry. The first word is used if working with concepts; the second word is used if working with events (because the second word often refers to an action in an event description). The first letter always is capitalized. The second character may be a digit instead of the original letter: ETHNO inserts digits in order to prevent duplicate abbreviations.
First you specify which type of line drawing characters you want: the usual Line-drawing characters used on the screen, or the alternative set. Any printer can print the alternative characters whereas the line-drawing characters can be printed only by printers with an IBM character set.
The translation between the two sets of characters is straightforward. In this example it is fairly easy to grasp that the event with abbreviation "Din" implies the events abbreviated "Bac" and "Cal", and they each imply event "Add". The line to "Din" crosses an irrelevant part of the diagram. We can see that event "Din" implies event "Add" indirectly.
Having specified whether to use the L or the A character set, you next specify what kind of printer you have.
Enter E for an Epson printer, and signals will be sent to change character pitch to 16.5 and to print eight lines per inch rather than six.
Enter L for a Hewlett-Packard Laserjet printer. Signals will be sent to print in the Line-Printer typeface with 8 lines per inch.
Enter O (for "other") if neither of the above works with your printer. In this case no special signals are sent to the printer, just the characters.
Enter D to have the diagram written to a disk file, which you will be asked to name.
If your printer is not switched on the message "PRINTER PROBLEM" appears. Switch on the printer and try again.
Any diagram that ETHNO makes can be printed with an Epson printer or a Laserjet.
A glossary of abbreviations is printed below the diagram. Events in a glossary might be followed by the word "repeats" or by the word "disjunctive". Special kinds of event connections also may be listed--non-depletive and commutative. If your model includes abstract levels, instantiating relations will be listed. (See the reference section for the meaning of repeatable, disjunctive, depletion, commutation, instantiation.)
ETHNO's main menu offers options for creating and elaborating conceptual models. This section discusses the creation of such models, and the use of conceptual models for analyzing and simulating event sequences.
ETHNO asks several different questions while you are entering data.
Answer the second question with the name of a kind of person at a scene or in a group. What you enter is up to you--a general classification like Man, a role like Father, or a character like Introvert. Type the name by itself without capitals, making corrections as necessary, and finish by pressing the ENTER key.
At this point a diagram appears on the screen, and all further questions and answers take place in a small area at the bottom of the screen.
The third question occurs repeatedly, perhaps alternating with another similar question. It asks you to name another unit. Enter another word or phrase every time this question is asked.
Next you're asked how your last-named unit relates to other units you have named, whether one is a subtype of the other. Answer for the ideal case.
To answer the second question, type a description of the first event. You can type up to 75 characters (the computer will beep when you get near the limit). However, it's best to keep the entries short and to use abbreviations for frequent actors--like D for dentist, P for patient, R for receptionist. It's also desirable to phrase your event descriptions so that the actor is the first word and the action is the second word: e.g., P gives name to R.
After you have entered the first event, a diagram appears on the screen, and all further questions and answers take place at the bottom of the screen.
The third question occurs repeatedly, perhaps alternating with another similar question. It asks you to enter the next event in your series. Type the next event as you did the first.
From here on you get additional questions after you enter an event. You're asked if each earlier event was required in order for the last event to happen. For example, do patients have to give their names to the receptionist in order to sit in the dental chair. If you're not sure, it's better to say no than yes.
When an event is repeated, re-enter it again, typing it EXACTLY the same as you did the first time. Alternatively, you may enter the abbreviation for the event. You don't have to answer questions about requirements for repeated events.
Many events in the replication series probably will be the same as in the original series because they are manifestations of the same process. ETHNO will use its existing definitions of structure for replicated events, as long as each replicated event is typed the same as the first time or is entered by its abbreviation.
Occurrence of a novel event in the replication series will instigate ETHNO's questions about connections. ETHNO will not assume that the new event cannot be a prerequisite for events that were defined previously. Instead, ETHNO will ask a complete set of questions allowing you to position the new event as a prerequisite and as a consequence of other events.
ETHNO joins the replication series to the original series so that both will be analyzed for consistency with logical structure during the Analyze-a-series procedure.
You can enter multiple replications.
After you enter a file name you are returned to ETHNO's main menu.
The list must be constructed with a word processor and stored in ASCII format. Each line should contain a separate entry. The first entry should name the topic if automatic mode is to be used from the beginning; a topic should not be included if automatic mode is be invoked after the elicitation has started, unless the file contains a replication.
Entries should be typed exactly as they would be typed at the keyboard. Abbreviations will be derived automatically by ETHNO.
The diagram changes after you press ENTER, causing the first event to be "done". The blinking event now is event 2, next to occur. The first event is underlined indicating that it has happened and no other event has yet made use of its effects. If event 1 was the sole prerequisite for some event, X, then the path between event 1 and event X will be bright, and event X will be bright because it is possible now.
Press ENTER again in order to have event 2 done. Similar changes will occur in the diagram illustrating progress. One additional change could develop if event 2 happens to be primed solely by event 1: then the occurrence of event 2 uses up the effects of event 1, and event 1 no longer is underlined.
You keep pressing ENTER until you have worked through the entire series. The diagram keeps showing you the state of the system as actions occur. You will be informed when you reach the end of the event series.
Press the ESC key (or F9 or F10) to remove the box and return to what you were doing.
(The ALT F9 option is available not only during series analyses but whenever a diagram is displayed on the screen.)
Occurrence of the next event may be impossible because the event is unprimed--all of its prerequisites are not fulfilled. ETHNO suggests ways of fixing this, which may or may not include all of the following.
Let's call the next event "event X" and the problematic prerequisite "event P". Then P may have been used up recently by some other event Y, and thus P's consequences no longer are available to prime X. In this case the problem could be solved by changing the logical structure so that P isn't a prerequisite for Y. Then Y's occurrence wouldn't use up P, and P still would be available for X after the occurrence of Y. ETHNO will suggest such possibilities if there was an event that used P since the last occurrence of X. ETHNO also will suggest that the problem could be solved just by eliminating P as a prerequisite of X.
Another solution is possible by allowing that a performance principle may not apply. Perhaps P is a prerequisite for Y, but Y does not use up P: then P's effects still would be available to prime X. ETHNO will suggest such possibilities.
Instead of focusing on the logical structure, we might suppose that the record of events is inaccurate. Maybe there was an occurrence of P after Y, but it didn't get recorded. ETHNO will suggest this possibility if an unfulfilled prerequisite is primed and possible right before the occurrence of X.
Finally, it's possible that the logical structure has to be interpreted differently. Maybe P is one of the prerequisites of X but not necessary for P, because X can be primed by any one of its prerequisites. That is, X is primed by one of its prerequisites OR another, rather than by the combination of all of them. ETHNO will suggest the possibility of disjunctive prerequisites if X has multiple prerequisites and at least one of them has occurred and not been used up.
Alternatively, the next event (X) may be impossible because it has gone unused since its last occurrence. ETHNO has a number of ways of dealing with this problem, too.
Perhaps X is a prerequisite for one of the events that occurred since the last occurrence of X. Then X would have been depleted, and it would make sense to do X again. ETHNO will suggest this possibility for any events that occurred just once since the last occurrence of X.
On the other hand, maybe the event record is wrong, and some event that uses X did occur but didn't get recorded. ETHNO will list any possibilities--events that require X and that are ready to occur just before X is to occur again. A performance principle may be wrong in this case, too. ETHNO will ask if X can be repeated without having been depleted first.
If X is in a set of prerequisites that you made disjunctive in an earlier solution, then still another possibility arises. At some point, you may have chosen the wrong prerequisite to deplete, and X should have been chosen instead. ETHNO will suggest this possibility if X is in a disjunctive set and primes an event that occurred since the last occurrence of X.
ETHNO lets you reject any of its proposed solutions by pressing the ENTER key. If you reject all solutions, then a workbox will appear at the bottom of the screen allowing you to change the series in any way that you wish (see the Data Management section).
You can keep rejecting solutions in order to see all of ETHNO's suggestions, then press R (or ENTER) when you get to the workbox in order to go through the suggestions again and select one.
If the event occurs while primed by a single prerequisite, then ETHNO automatically depletes that prerequisite. However, if the event occurs while primed by several alternative prerequisites, then ETHNO does not know which one to use, and you have to provide that information. ETHNO shows you the possibilities, and asks you to select one (or all) for depletion. Enter the abbreviation, and then ETHNO will give its usual instruction to press the ENTER key in order to continue.
ETHNO remembers your choice so that you do not have to repeat it in a later analysis.
You can have ETHNO proceed automatically all of the time by pressing the F3 key during an event analysis. You no longer will be asked to press ENTER, and ETHNO will proceed on its own to the end of the series or to the first interruption. During an interruption, you can make the usual responses. (You also could press F3 again to turn automatic processing off.)
You can stop a series analysis before reaching the final event by pressing the ESC key whenever ETHNO says to press ENTER. You're asked for a file name to save the work you have done, and then returned to the main menu.
When an event analysis has been completed you will be asked if you want the events prioritized. If you say yes, ETHNO goes through the series once more automatically.
ETHNO is making a table in which each event has a row and a column. Every time an event occurs, ETHNO goes to that event's row and increments the tally in cells for other events that are possible at the same time. The tallies represent how often the row event superceded the column events. The final table is obtained by converting the tallies to proportions representing how often one event superceded another when both were possible. The average proportion for an event is calculated across all events that co occurred with that event, and the average proportions are sorted to rank the events in terms of general priority. The ranking is printed on the screen. Highest priority events are at the top.
The average proportion for an event might be calculated over relatively few other events if the focal event didn't occur in many circumstances. A better index would take into account not only what events the focal event supercedes but also what events they supercede, thereby expanding the base for the average. The final table is manipulated in order to do this (the matrix is squared), then averages are recomputed and resorted. The second ranking is presented after the first, and this ranking is saved with the data.
Prioritization analyses take a while because so many calculations are done. The disk is used for a temporary file while the event series is reanalyzed.
Prioritization analyses are conducted across replications, if any, so every replication makes a contribution to the final result.
When prioritization is completed, you are asked for a file name. The data are saved, and you are returned to the main menu.
| Show diagram |
| Add a new level |
| Load levels from file |
| Modify level 010 |
| Save levels up from 010 |
| Remove level 010 |
------move, ENTER to select----
Press ESC to stop.
Select I from the main menu in order to Instantiate-levels of abstraction. You are asked to name an existing model of event structure. Name the data file, and then ETHNO presents the Instantiate-Levels menu, shown in the figure.
-______________________________________________________________________________The menu is simpler than shown in the first time you deal with a model: just the first three options appear. As levels are added, the menu grows. In particular, the first time you add a level, the menu expands to include the fourth through sixth options shown in .
| Walking bucket || Level 010 |
| Child identifies wb || C identify m |
| Child confirms identification || C approach m |
| Child proposes approach of wb || M enables self |
| Wb disattends children || C flee m |
| Children approach wb || M chases c |
| Children push wb || C exploit m's limitations |
| Wb takes bucket off head || M disables self |
| Children display fear || M stops being m |
| Children flee wb || M acknowledges limitations |
| Wb chases children || M leaves home base |
| Children reach homebase || |
| Wb ends pursuit of children || |
| Wb returns to bucket || |
| Wb replaces bucket on his head || |
| Child proposes approach of wb || |
| Wb disattends children || |
| Children approach wb || |
| Children kick wb || |
| Wb takes bucket off head || |
_______ move, switch panels_______________ move, switch panels________
For new item: mark instantiator on left; mark Level 010; press ENTER.
To see instantiators: mark item on right. (Press INS to scroll.)
To change instantiation: mark both items; press ENTER.
You can enter an abstract event by leaving the two pointers in their original positions at the top and pressing ENTER. Program activity shifts to the work area at the bottom of the screen, and you are asked to name the new entry. Nothing more is required if you are entering the first event within a level of abstraction. The event appears in the right column, and program activity returns to the columns.
Thereafter the procedure is basically the same but with an extra step. For example, to add a second event press ENTER again, and once again you have to type a name. This time, though, you also have to answer questions about how the second abstract event relates to the first abstract event. ETHNO conducts an elicitation at the abstract level like it conducted an elicitation at the concrete level, using the same framework. After you have answered all questions, the second entry will appear in the right column.
When you have finished adding abstract events, press ESC to return to menu the shown in . (If you show diagram, you will see both the abstract level and the original model.)
The data shown in provide an illustration. "Child identifies wb (walking bucket)" is a concrete event observed on a videotape of children playing. "C (children) identify m (monster)" is an abstract event involved in children's Approach-Avoidance games. "Child identifies wb" instantiates "C identify m" in this particular incident. Having defined the instantiation, we would find "C identify m" occurring in an ETHNO series analysis right after "Child identifies wb", even though the abstract event is not part of the original event sequence. The concrete event instantiates the abstract event and makes it occur.
Instantiations are defined by selecting "Modify level 0X0" from the one-column menu in order to go to the two-column form. Use the Down-Arrow key to position the pointer at a concrete event which instantiates an abstract event. For example, working with the data shown in you might position the pointer on line two, "Child identifies wb".
Then press the Right-Arrow key to get into the right column, and the Down-Arrow key to position the pointer at the appropriate abstract event. For example, with the data in you would go to line 2, "C identify m". Press ENTER. Both events with pointers on them turn bright indicating that the concrete event now instantiates the abstract event. Thereafter, the ETHNO diagram will show the abbreviation for the concrete event in a shaded field, signaling that it is an instantiator.
The right pointer jumps to the top again when you return to the left column with the Left-Arrow key. However, you can hold the right pointer at its current position by returning to the left column with the INS key instead of Left-Arrow. Then you can use cursor keys to scroll through the left list and see all instantiators for the selected abstract event.
The purge is immediate and permanent.
A large blinking cursor may appear on the diagram after you press a function key to change data. You mark an item by positioning this cursor over any letter of an item's abbreviation and pressing ENTER. (Marking a blank space or a line returns you to where you were before you pressed the function key.)
Move the cursor around with the keys on the cursor pad. The four arrow keys move the cursor in small steps. PGUP and PGDN move it up and down in large increments. INS and DEL move it left and right in large increments. HOME and END move the cursor to corners of the screen.
Large diagrams do not appear all at once on the screen so you may
have to move the diagram in order to find the abbreviation you want.
You do this by pressing the F1 key--then the cursor keys move the
diagram. When you are where you want to be, press F1 again and the
cursor keys move the cursor again.
You can select an item by typing its abbreviation and pressing ENTER instead of using the cursor keys. This alternative mode of selection becomes operative as soon as you press a letter key rather than a cursor key.
A model has to be re-examined with ETHNO's "Analyze-a-series" option whenever abstract levels are added. That is the only way to be sure that the overall model still is consistent with the sequence of concrete events. Problems arise in higher levels even when lower levels fit the data.
ETHNO takes care of the complexities of multiple-level series analyses, but you must stay alert to the possibility that ETHNO will suggest solving a problem arising at a higher level by making adjustments at a lower level.
Then a box is superimposed.
The box lists the events which are possible initially, from highest priority to lowest. A pointer is positioned at the top event. The pointer may be moved with the Down-Cursor or Up-Cursor keys in order to select an event: position the pointer at the event you want to "happen" and press ENTER.
The box then is removed. The diagram blinks the abbreviation for the selected event, and the diagram shows the state of the system after implementing the event you chose. Events which are possible next are brightened. You are instructed to press ENTER to continue.
After you press ENTER, ETHNO will implement abstract events that are instantiated by the concrete event, pausing after each one until you press ENTER again.
When the effects of the event have been displayed at all levels, the box returns to the screen showing what is possible now, and you can select the next event. If you choose the highest priority event at every stage, then you will get a standard sequence, though it may not be the same as the series from which the model was created.
You can terminate a simulation by pressing the ESC key when the box is displayed, which returns you to ETHNO's main menu. You are asked whether you want to save the choices. If you say no, nothing is saved from the simulation. You have two options for saving data. The first is to save the structure along with the original event series. You might choose to do this if you made changes in the diagram while in Generate-a-series. (The function keys are operative for editing the diagram when the diagram is on the screen.) The second option is to save the structure along with the generated events: the sequence of events obtained in the simulation replaces the original sequence of events. You might save and reanalyze the simulated series in order to see what priorities were determining choices.
ETHNO allows you to change the content of a model and the structure of a model, or to change a series of events. This section covers the changes which you can make by selecting the M (Modify-a-structure) option on the main menu. Changes in instantiations are accomplished with the I (Instantiate-levels) option, as discussed in the last section.
You change data by pressing a function key, marking elements on the diagram, and typing new information. After you specify a change, there may be a pause while ETHNO redraws the diagram internally and then presents the new diagram on the screen.
Before adding an item you may press ALT F8 in order to change the amount of logic that ETHNO uses in deriving questions about connections. Selecting Strict Logic will minimize questions but will require you to be extremely logical in your answers. Minimum Logic will lead to more questions, but you need be right only when saying two items are directly connected. With Time Ordered logic, it is assumed that prior entries are not subordinate to the new item, and minimum logic is used to find the new entry's superordinates.
Adding an event is different than entering the event during the original creation of the data set. First, ETHNO will use minimum logic in asking questions about connections because ETHNO cannot assume that the new item is subsequent to all existing items as it does when items are entered sequentially. Second, the new event is not added automatically to the time series since ETHNO doesn't know where it should go. You must add the event to the structure, then place it in the time series by pressing the F8 key, as described below.
| Enter hall | Name
| Hal | Abbreviation
| Repeatability | Not repeatable
| Links to superordinates | Disjunctive
| Upward link to Liv........................... | Depletes
| (Enter living room) | Flip-flop
| Downward link to Kit......................... | Depletes
| (Enter kitchen) | Flip-flop
| Downward link to Stu......................... | Depletes
| (Enter study) | Flip-flop
| Downward link to Bat......................... | Depletes
| (Enter bathroom) | Flip-flop
| Downward link to Bed......................... | Depletes
| (Enter bedroom) | Flip-flop
______ move, ENTER to change, ESC to stop______+
Notice the pointer positioned by the column of words on the right. You make changes by moving this pointer down or up with Down-Arrow and Up-Arrow cursor keys. When the pointer is on the line you want, press ENTER in order to change the information on that line.
Name. You can change the name of an entry by pressing ENTER when the pointer is positioned on the top line of the form. Type the new name for the entry exactly as you want it to appear in ETHNO presentations, and end with ENTER.
Abbreviation. To change an abbreviation, position the pointer on the second line of the form and press ENTER. Enter the new abbreviation. ETHNO will capitalize its first letter automatically and will substitute a digit for its second letter if this is necessary to avoid duplications.
Repeatability. Position the pointer on the third line and press ENTER in order to change back and forth between "Repeatable" and "Not repeatable".
Links to superordinates. Position the pointer on the fourth line and press ENTER in order to change back and forth between "Conjunctive" and "Disjunctive" prerequisites.
The fifth and sixth lines always relate to a superordinate of the selected entry. The number of lines after that is variable, depending on how many relations the entry has with other entries. Two aspects of each relation may be modified.
Depletion. You can change a relation back and forth between "Depletes" and "Nondepletive" by positioning the pointer on the appropriate line and pressing ENTER.
Priming directions. You can change a relation back and forth between "One-way effect" and "Flip-flop" by positioning the pointer on the appropriate line and pressing ENTER. ("Flip-flop" means commutative relation.)
Press the ESC key when you are done viewing the display and done making changes. You will be returned to where you were (perhaps with a message that the diagram has been modified).
Ent Eng E1t Gre G1e Pos Inq Tal I1q T1l P1s E1g Eng Pos Lea
Pro Ent Eng E1t
Repeat Move Drop Activate Insert Transpose Finish +time -time
Press a key (F10 for help).
The first line presents part of the event series, each event being represented by its abbreviation. (Use the F9 key to get full names for abbreviations.) An event is shown underlined if it is not part of the original data but was inserted during previous work with the series. An element is colored magenta (blacked out in the monochrome version) if it was dropped from the series during previous work.
Pressing the + or - keys will move the display ahead or backward in time so that you can access the full series.
Pressing the M key moves the cursor forward from one event to the next, cycling back at the end. You mark the event that you want to change by putting the blinking cursor over it.
You can modify the series with the following operations.
Typing D will drop the marked event for purposes of event analysis, though the event will remain in the data set. (Dropping the very last event in the series purges it totally.) If the marked event was dropped previously and you type A, that will activate the event for the purpose of event analysis.
Typing T will transpose the marked event with another event in the series. After pressing T move the cursor to the other event and press T again. The two events will switch places.
Type I to insert a new event. The inserted event must be one that already is defined in the system. You will be asked to enter its abbreviation. The new event will take the place of the marked event. The marked event and all later events are pushed forward in time.
Assuming that you got to the workbox by pressing F8, then typing F or R or pressing ESC indicates that you are finished with changes. You will be returned to where you were.
If the workbox appeared automatically during a series analysis problem, then the effect of F is to register changes and instigate automatic reanalysis of the event series from the beginning. Typing R (or ENTER) allows you to review ETHNO's offered solutions to the problem again (unless you make a change in the event series first).
Whenever you complete a task and before returning to ETHNO's main menu you are asked for a file name, and the data will be saved into that file. If you press ESC the data are saved into a file named SINK which can be recalled later. SINK is over-written very time that, instead of naming a file, you press ESC.
ALT F1 This key toggles between having 25 lines displayed on the screen and having more than 25 lines. It has an effect only when the computer is equipped with an EGA or VGA display adaptor.
F2 This key allows you to emphasize the part of the diagram which is connected directly or indirectly to an item you select.
ALT F2 This toggles between alternative drawings of the diagram.
F3 If you are eliciting, then pressing F3 will initiate automatic reading of entries from a file which you name. (You can halt the automatic mode by pressing the CAPSLOCK key.) If you are conducting a series analysis, then pressing F3 initiates automatic processing of events without having to press ENTER repeatedly.
F4 Pressing this key allows you to select an item in the diagram in order to examine or change data related to the item.
F5 This key allows you to select an item to be purged from the model.
ALT F5 This physically removes deactivated events from the event series. Once removed they cannot be activated again. Also, this removes redundant lines from a diagram. ETHNO usually removes such lines automatically, but excess lines may be left after some editing operations -- e.g., when a flip-flop is changed to a one way effect using F4.
F6 This key allows you to change relations between items.
ALT F6 You select an event, and the events it instantiates (if any) will be brightened. Then you select a second event. If the second event is one of the brightened events, then the instantiation relation will be removed; if the second event has not been brightened then an instantiation relation will be added. Levels of abstraction need not be defined in order to use this function.
F7 This instigates saving data without leaving the current task.
ALT F7 Press this key to print the diagram on paper.
F8 This key allows you to make changes in an event sequence.
ALT F8 During elicitation this key allows you change the kind of logic which ETHNO is using to make inferences: the options are strict logic, minimum logic, or time-ordered logic. (During series analyses, this key toggles between two different versions of repeatability, but the alternative to what ETHNO uses naturally is an experiment at this point.)
F9 Shows an alphabetic list of abbreviations with the full name of each item.
ALT F9 Shows events in sequence.
F10 Presents extended help messages.
ALT F10 Gives cues to the use of each function key by displaying the chart shown in .
|1 SHOW / MOVE CHART |2 SHOW SUBGRAPH |
| | |
| ALT: CHANGE CHART SIZE| ALT: ALTERNATE CHART |
|3 AUTOMATIC |4 CHANGE ENTRY DATA |
| | |
| | |
|5 DELETE ENTRY |6 CHANGE RELATION |
| | |
| ALT: REDUCE DATA |ALT: EDIT INSTANTIATION|
|7 SAVE DATA |8 EDIT SERIES |
| | |
| ALT: COPY CHART | ALT: CHANGE LOGIC |
|9 LIST ENTRIES |10 HELP MESSAGES |
| | |
| ALT: LIST SERIES | ALT: QUICK HELP |
---- ESC KEY: EXIT AND RETURN TO MAIN MENU ----
ETHNO can be used for computer-assisted elicitation in various kinds of research. Instructions and questions are adjustable to fit the topic, so one researcher might use the program to elicit self concepts, another to elicit family structures, another to elicit conceptions of a ritual. The program also can be used as an analytic tool--for example, in organizing field notes or discerning the structure in stories and narratives. The program can be applied at the level of social science concepts as an aid in theorizing: e.g., a historian might analyze the historical record of a nation during a given era in order to develop a qualitative model that is logically consistent with recorded events.
If you use ETHNO for such purposes then you may want to make a framework that is tailored to your task.
To make a framework, select the D (Define-a-framework) option on ETHNO's main menu. You are asked to give a name to your new framework so it can be saved.
ETHNO will guide you through the steps involved, and you can get additional help by pressing the F10 key. The basic steps are as follows.
You enter general instructions that will be presented before an elicitation. Then you enter the question that requests a name for the domain, and then the question which asks for the first element.
You can set up the general elicitation question--which is repeated over and over--so that it refers to the domain (e.g., "Who else is found at a wedding?"). You also can define two different elicitation questions and have them alternate randomly.
You decide whether the program should capitalize the first letter of users' entries, whether an article should be added, and whether abbreviations are to be formed from the first or second words of entries.
The elicitation can be conducted with elements entered continuously and questions about connections reserved for the end, or it can be done by asking about the connections of each item after the item is entered. You choose which.
You define the exact phrasing of the question about connections. You also decide whether the user should see the diagram while answering questions about connections. You select how much logic the program uses in asking questions about connections. Strict logic minimizes the number of questions, but strict logic may produce bad data because people aren't so logical, so ETHNO offers minimum logic, too. A third kind of logic is offered to use with time-ordered data where it can be assumed that later entries are not superordinate to earlier entries.
If you choose time ordered logic, then the data will include a list of entries, including repeated items, in their original order of entry. Such data allow you to conduct a consistency analysis as described in the section on analyzing a series.
Finally, you enter terminating messages to be displayed to the user. You may present a message and show the diagram to the user--retaining the potential for returning to data entry, or you can display a final message and stop.
Plan on experimenting with options and doing pilot work in order to get the framework operating the way you want.
Data files have an ETH qualifier. They begin with a line that names the framework used to collect the data, that defines the size of the chart, and that specifies the version of ETHNO used to create the file.
Line two gives the number of entries, N, in the data set and the number of levels of abstraction.
Each of the next N lines relates to one entry. First is the entry number. Next is the event's priority ranking (-1 for the first item and 0 for the rest if priorities have not been computed). The next three characters are T or F, depending on whether the item is disjunctive, repeatable, and a graph root, respectively. Next comes the glossary position for the item's abbreviation and then the abbreviation, followed by the text defining the entry.
Following the list of entries are two numbers, M and I, defining number of edges (lines in the chart) and number of instantiations.
The next M lines (or I lines if I is larger than M) define each edge by giving the index number of the superordinate, then the index number of the subordinate. The next two characters are T or F depending on whether the edge is depletive and whether it is commutative, respectively. The next two numbers define instantiation relations in the data set: the first number identifies the more abstract event and the second the more concrete event.
After the edge list is a number, E, defining how many events are in the series.
The next E lines define each event in the event series by its index number. Next a letter appears. The letter is a capital if the event is active in the event series, lower case if the event has been dropped during analysis. O means that the event was in the original data set, F means that the event is fabricated--added during analyses; M means that an event was moved from its position in the original series. The following number ordinarily is zero, but may contain the index number for another event if the first event has a disjunctive set of prerequisites and a specification has been made about which prerequisite is used in this occurrence. The name of the event appears on the rest of the line, but this information is not read by ETHNO.
A framework file defines instructions, questions, and options.
The file begins with the opening instructions for an elicitation. These appear on one or more lines, followed by 0.
Next, the text for eliciting the topic appears on one or more lines, followed by 0.
Next the text for eliciting the first item appears on one or more lines, followed by 0.
The next line contains Y or N, depending on whether or not the elicitation question is to refer to the topic.
Next is the text for a question that refers to the topic. The text
that is to go before the topic appears on zero or more lines, followed
by 0. Next the text that is to follow the topic appears on zero or more
lines, followed by 0.
Next the text that is to make up the general elicitation question appears on one or more lines, followed by 0.
On the next line is a number from 0 to 9 defining the probability for an alternative elicitation question.
Following the probability, the text for the alternative elicitation question appears on zero or more lines, followed by 0.
The next line contains four YN answers. The first indicates whether items are to be capitalized or not. The second indicates whether abbreviations are to be formed from the first word in an entry (Y) or from the second word (N). The third answer specifies whether articles are to be added to items or not. The fourth answer indicates whether all items are to be elicited before asking questions about how they are connected (Y) or whether elicitation is to alternate with positioning (N).
The next line contains part-1 of the question for asking about connections. The line after contains part-2. The line after that contains part-3. (Two entries are inserted between these parts when the question is presented.)
Three characters are on the next line. The first YN character indicates whether or not the chart should be presented while eliciting and positioning items. The second character is a number from 1 to 3 specifying the type of logic to use in positioning questions. The third YN character indicates whether or not the chart should be presented after the user presses ESC to quit the elicitation.
Next the text for a message preceding a final presentation of the chart appears on zero or more lines, followed by 0.
Finally text for a terminating message appears on one or more lines, followed by 0.
The last line contains two Ys if data are events, two Ns otherwise.
The underline character _ always is converted to a space by ETHNO, and it may be used in the file to assure that spaces appear where they are supposed to.
An abbreviation's first letter is capitalized automatically. All three letters are capitalized if the element is disjunctively related to its superordinates. The second character may be a digit instead of the original letter: ETHNO inserts digits in order to prevent duplicate abbreviations.
Levels of abstraction are anchored at items with numerical abbreviations, from 000 to 090, the middle digit being the one which varies.
Abbreviations symbolize elements on diagrams. Abbreviations also serve as shorthand for specifying entries in some operations (e.g., see ENTERING DATA).
See LIST ENTRIES, REABBREVIATE.
Abstract See LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION.
Activate an event See EDIT SERIES.
Elements can be added to a data set whenever the elicitation question is presented while Creating a structure or Modifying a structure. Type the text of the entry (no period), followed by ENTER. ETHNO then asks questions about the relations of the new element to old elements in order to position the new element in the structure. ETHNO redraws the diagram with the new element incorporated.
When Creating a Structure, a new element is appended at the end of the event series as well as being incorporated into the logical structure. An event added in Modify-a-structure has to be incorporated into the event series as a separate step. An event that is a repetition of a previous event does not instigate relational questions but is added to the end of the event series. (Repetitions can be entered easily by entering an element's abbreviation.)
See EDIT SERIES.
This is a framework file for creating taxonomies. The relational question asks if one thing is a kind of other thing. The framework employs strict logic in making inferences, so the user must be very careful to answer questions correctly.
This option on the main menu tests the fit between events and a model which is supposed to explain sequencing of the events.
After this option is chosen by pressing A, ETHNO lists all data files in the current directory: enter the name of the ETH file which contains the data of interest.
ETHNO proceeds through the series of events determining whether each event theoretically is possible at the point that it appears. If an event is possible--fits the model--then ETHNO goes on to the next event. If an event is impossible, ETHNO pops the interruption window, states the problem, and suggests ways to solve the problem by changing the model or by changing the series.
After the data are consistent with the logical structure and production assumptions, priorities can be requested, whereupon ETHNO goes through events again, determining which events took precedence over other events. The final outcome is a complete model that can be used to Generate-a-series.
For more details, see ASSUMPTIONS, EDIT SERIES, INTERRUPTIONS, MODELS, PRIORITIZATION, STRUCTURE.
Appending elements See ADDING ELEMENTS.
Text in a file with ASCII format contains no hidden codes such as word processors ordinarily insert unless they are instructed to leave the codes out. ETHNO files are ASCII files.
ETHNO analyzes an event series by employing a number of assumptions about how events are produced. It is assumed that an event occurs only when primed by the conjunction of its prerequisites. (This assumption can be adjusted by making prerequisites disjunctive.) Also, it is assumed that an event occurs only if the event has not yet occurred or a prior occurrence has been depleted. (This assumption can be changed by making an event repeatable.) Occurrence of an event is assumed to deplete its prerequisites. (This assumption can be changed by making the relation nondepletive.) It is assumed that an event cannot be a prerequisite for any of its prerequisites. (This assumption can be changed by making the relation commutative.)
While Analyzing a Series, ETHNO makes suggestions about which assumptions may have to be changed in order to get a model to fit data.
Assumptions regarding an event may be examined and changed by pressing F4 (see ELEMENT TYPES). Assumptions regarding the relation between two events may be examined and changed by pressing F4 or F6 (see RELATION TYPES).
Automatic entry of text involves reading a list of entries from a file. The user does not type the text of each entry, only answers questions about relations.
Auto-entry can be invoked at the very start of Create-a structure by entering the character @ as the answer to the first elicitation question (the question about topic). Enter the name of the file that contains the list of entries. ETHNO then begins asking relational questions about the entries in the file. File entries are bypassed if they already have been entered.
ETHNO stays in automatic entry mode until it reaches the end of the file, then returns to manual mode and presents the standard elicitation question. CAPS-LOCK can be pressed once to terminate auto-entry prematurely and return processing to manual mode. Pressing the F3 key restarts auto-entry. (F3 erases the prior event series and re-creates the series again. Note: the F3 key serves a different function during Analyze-a-series--see AUTOMATIC PROCESSING.)
The file containing entries has to be constructed beforehand with a text editor, saving in ASCII format. Entries should be typed exactly as they would be typed at the keyboard. The first entry in the file should name the topic. Each line should contain a separate entry. (Abbreviations will be derived automatically by ETHNO.)
When Analyzing a Series, ETHNO presents an event in the work window and waits for the user to press ENTER before proceeding to the next recorded event. The wait for user action can be eliminated by pressing F3: from then on ETHNO will proceed automatically to the next recorded event. Events still are readable in the work window as ETHNO processes one event after another.
If an event raises problems, ETHNO interrupts processing and offers possible solutions as usual, and automatic processing can be turned off at that point by pressing F3 again.
Events always are processed automatically after a problem has been solved and an event series is being reanalyzed from the beginning up to the point of the last interruption.
If you make an error while typing text, you may press backspace to erase and revise the characters.
Beep See SOUND.
Lines on the diagram flash off and on when deleting an entry or changing a relation in order to show what parts of the structure are affected by the action.
Abbreviations on the diagram sometimes flash off and on to increase their visibility.
In Analyzing a Series or Generating a Series, a blinking abbreviation shows what event is "happening".
In Modify-a-structure, blinking abbreviations show which elements are involved in the processes of deleting an element or changing a relation.
Abbreviations in a diagram are colored blue while Analyzing a Series or Generating a Series in order to show events that have occurred and not been depleted. Blue translates to underlining on a monochrome monitor.
(See EDIT SERIES for another use of blue.)
Bright versus dim
When Analyzing a Series or when Generating a Series, some parts of the diagram are shown as brighter than other parts. The bright parts reveal the events that are primed--ready to occur--and the paths through which they are primed.
This error message appears when ETHNO cannot find a file in the current directory. Usual solution to the problem: re-enter the name of the file with spelling corrected.
The file you want may not be in the current directory. In that case quit ETHNO in order to put files where you want them, or use the R option on the main menu to change directories, or specify the disk and path as part of the filename.
ETHNO may tell you that it cannot find a FWK file when you have asked for an ETH file. This means that the framework used to create the ETH file is not in the current directory--a problem since ETHNO has to load the FWK file in order to make sense of the ETH file. Quit ETHNO in order to rearrange files.
Ordinarily you should enter a file name without the ETH or FWK qualifier since ETHNO provides the qualifier automatically. However, if ETHNO asks for a "full" name, then do include the qualifier.
See CURRENT DIRECTORY.
Capital letters See ENTERING DATA, FWK FILES.
When new elements are added during Create-a-structure or Modify-a structure, ETHNO poses a set of questions about how the new element relates to old elements so that the new element can be positioned structurally. ALT F8 can be pressed in order to specify the amount of logic that ETHNO uses in developing relational questions.
1. "Strict logic" allows ETHNO to make logical inferences from all of the user's past answers. This minimizes new questions but requires the user to be extremely logical.
2. With "minimum logic" ETHNO ignores the user's claims that two elements are not connected. The user need be right only about saying two items are directly connected. Operating this way, ETHNO asks more questions, but the resulting structure may more accurately represent the user's beliefs than when ETHNO employs "strict logic".
3. In the "time ordered" option, ETHNO assumes a new element is an event and subordinate to all existing elements so no questions need be asked about this. The idea is that an event cannot be a prerequisite for events that occurred prior to it. Then type 2 logic is used to find which old elements are prerequisites for the new element.
The F6 key can be used during Create-a-structure or during Modify a-structure to change relations between elements. After F6 is pressed, the cursor moves into the diagram window so that two elements can be marked, thus specifying the relation of interest. Then one of the following occurs.
Line deletion. If a direct connection exists between the elements, then that relation is deleted, and the line connecting the two is removed on the diagram.
Move line. If deleting the relation would leave the lower element unconnected, then a third element has to be marked, and the detached element is reconnected to the third element. The original line on the diagram is deleted, and a new line is drawn from the lower element to the third element.
Line addition. If the two marked elements are unconnected, directly or indirectly, then a relation will be added between them. ETHNO will ask which element is to be higher in the diagram and redraw the diagram with the new line.
Commutative line. If the two marked elements are connected indirectly, then a direct relation is added between them, and the new redundant relation is coded as commutative. The commutative line looks like other lines on the diagram.
Changing a relation causes results from any previous prioritization analysis of events to be discarded.
See also MARKING ELEMENTS ON A DIAGRAM, COMMUTATION.
Change series See EDIT SERIES.
Change text of entry
The F4 key can be pressed during any kind of analysis in order to change the text of an element. The cursor jumps into the diagram window so that a specific element can be marked. Then a form appears which allows changing the text of the entry. Type new text for the element exactly as it is to appear in ETHNO presentations, ended by ENTER.
See MARKING ELEMENTS ON A DIAGRAM.
Changing a diagram See ADDING
ELEMENTS, CHANGE RELATION,
DELETE ELEMENT, ELEMENT
Colors See HIGHLIGHTING.
The relation between some events is peculiar in that each is a prerequisite for the other, as in entering and leaving a room: after initially entering, one has to leave in order to enter again, and one has to enter in order to leave again. Such events are commutative--one or the other event happens next depending on which happened last. The events alternate or flip-flop.
ETHNO represents commutative relations by making depletion bi-directional. As usual, occurrence of the subordinate depletes the superordinate; additionally, occurrence of the superordinate depletes the subordinate. Neither event can happen again until it has been depleted by its alternate. Commutative relations introduce loops into ETHNO models, and a chain of happenings involving commutation may repeat over and over again.
The need for commutation usually arises in situations where an event is a prerequisite for other events but is depleted by none of them; then the initial event often is commutative with some event that does deplete it. ETHNO assumes relations are non commutative until just such a situation arises when Analyzing a Series, and only then does ETHNO makes queries about whether a relation might be commutative.
F4 can be pressed in order to see whether a relation is commutative or not. This function also allows commutation to be turned on or off for a specific relation.
Compressed Diagram Format
Pressing function key ALT F1 toggles between having 25 lines displayed on the screen and having more than 25 lines. (It has an effect only when the computer is equipped with an EGA or VGA display adaptor.)
ETHNO makes thousands of calculations and comparisons while an analysis is in process. This generally is undetectable because of the computer's speed, but delays measurable in seconds occur as ETHNO works to redraw the diagram for a large structure. Pauses also may occur as ETHNO figures out what relational question to ask next during an elicitation. Prioritization involves substantial computation, and a long delay occurs prior to listing events in rank order.
Concealed parts of diagram
Large diagrams are not visible on the screen all at once. However, the diagram can be scrolled vertically and horizontally with cursor keys to see everything.
For ETHNO's purposes, concepts are elements which relate to nested, hierarchical classifications. The entry describing the element typically is a noun or noun phrase.
See also EVENTS.
Most ETHNO structures have at least one element that is bound to a combination of other elements. For example, events often require a combination of prerequisite events; or a specific concept may imply the combination of some more general concepts. Conjunction refers to combinations in which a set of things is assembled by "and"--X and Y and Z.
Conjunction contrasts with disjunction, which assembles things with "or".
See DISJUNCTION, LINES ON A DIAGRAM.
Connections See LINES ON A DIAGRAM.
Constraining principles See ASSUMPTIONS.
Continue See ENTER.
Pressing ALT F7 saves the ETHNO diagram which is currently on the screen, copying it either to paper or into a file. Before printing, there may be a pause while ETHNO translates graphic characters to ordinary printing characters (see LINES ON A DIAGRAM).
Select linedrawing characters if your printer supports the full IBM character set; otherwise choose the alternative characters.
If you select an Epson or a Laserjet printer, then ETHNO sends appropriate codes to change character pitch and to print eight lines per inch rather than six. An Epson or an HP Laserjet will print any diagram that ETHNO makes, including sections that are off-screen.
If you have a different printer and neither the Epson or Laserjet options work, then specify "other". In this case, no signals are sent to change character pitch or line spacing.
You also may choose to have the diagram written in ASCII format to a file. You can use a word processor to operate on the file as you wish.
A glossary of abbreviations is printed below the diagram. Events in a glossary might be followed by the word "repeats", meaning they are repeatable without being depleted. Special kinds of relations between events--nondepletive, commutative, instantiating--also are listed. The diagram shows disjunction by capitalizing all three letter of an abbreviation. Events which instantiate other events have shaded abbreviations.
This option on the main menu elicits new data.
ETHNO lists the framework files in the current directory as soon as the option is chosen. Enter the name of the framework that is to be used (without the FWK qualifier). See FRAMEWORKS, D.FWK, S.FWK.
Instructions are followed by a question that asks for the general topic. This is the element that will be shown alone at the top of structural diagrams. The second question elicits an element relevant to the topic. At that point the first diagram appears showing the element subordinated to the topic.
Thereafter the program cycles through the following general routine. An elicitation question asks for another element. When something is entered, the program presents a series of questions requiring yes-no answers. These questions continue until ETHNO has located the new element relative to old elements in the structure. Then ETHNO redraws the diagram with the new element incorporated, and the elicitation question is presented again.
The elicitation stops when the ESC key is pressed. ETHNO asks for the name of a file for the data (see FILE NAMES), the data are saved, and ETHNO returns to the main menu.
A number of options can be invoked while creating a structure: see AUTO-ENTRY, ENTERING DATA, FUNCTION KEYS.
Creating frameworks See DEFINE-A-FRAMEWORK.
ETHNO reads and writes data files in the current directory. "Current directory" refers to the disk and directory from which ETHNO is run, or to a disk directory that is selected using the RESET DIRECTORY option on ETHNO's main menu.
See also DIRECTORY LISTINGS.
The current event is the event that just "happened" during Analysis of a Series or while Generating a Series. This event is easy to find on the diagram because its abbreviation is blinking on and off.
The cursor is a blinking spot that marks position on the computer screen. ETHNO uses a small cursor in dialogue windows to show where text is to be entered. A large cursor is used in the diagram window--large so that it is easy to position over abbreviations during marking operations. The cursor is turned off when ETHNO's main menu is on the screen.
A separate part of the keyboard contains cursor keys which have arrows on them pointing in different directions. Some of the keys around the arrow keys also are cursor keys.
The cursor keys have several functions in ETHNO: see the section on General Procedures in ETHNO GUIDE.
Holding a cursor key down causes its effect to happen repeatedly.
If the cursor keys do nothing, then Number Lock may be on; press the NUMLOCK key and try again.
This is a framework provided with ETHNO for assembling data about events. The framework governs elicitation as follows.
Some general instructions to the user are provided at the beginning. The domain is obtained with "Enter a name for the general event or incident you're going to describe." The initial event is obtained with "What is the first event in the happening or incident?" A single elicitation question is used thereafter, simply "Next happening?" The question for assessing logical relations between two elements is worded as follows: "Does [first element] require [second element] (or a similar event)?"
This framework capitalizes the first letter of entries automatically and forms abbreviations from the second word. The structural diagram is maintained on the screen throughout elicitation.
Data files See ETH FILES.
This option on the main menu builds a procedure for eliciting data.
ETHNO first asks that the new framework be named (see FILE NAMES). The procedure that is built will be saved in a FWK file with this name in the current directory.
ETHNO then obtains the following:
Delay See COMPUTATION TIME.
An element can be eliminated from data by pressing F5 while in Create or Modify-a-structure. The cursor jumps into the diagram window so that a specific element can be marked (see MARKING ELEMENTS ON A DIAGRAM).
ETHNO highlights the abbreviation of the targeted element and asks whether that element should be eliminated. If yes, then ETHNO highlights paths branching down from the element, and asks if subordinates should be deleted as well. When ETHNO has the information it needs to proceed, it deletes elements and reconnects retained subordinates to the target element's superordinates. ETHNO then redraws the diagram of the structure with deleted elements removed.
Deleted events are removed from event series as well as from the logical structure, and a deletion causes results from prioritization analyses of events to be discarded.
Delete event See EDIT SERIES.
Ethno files which no longer are needed can be deleted under the computer's disk operating system (DOS).
This query sometimes arises while processing an event with disjunctive prerequisites when Analyzing a Series. It is assumed that an occurrence of the focal event depletes one prerequisite at a time, and if the event is primed by a single prerequisite, then ETHNO automatically depletes that prerequisite, but if the event is primed by several prerequisites, then ETHNO does not know which one to use, and asks for the information.
ETHNO remembers the choice so that the selection does not have to be made again in reanalyses. The selection can be erased from memory by editing the series: drop and re-activate the focal event (see EDIT SERIES).
One of ETHNO's working assumptions is that an event uses up, or depletes, occurrences of other events; and an event is not repeated until it has been depleted by other events. The idea is that events create outcomes which persist until exploited by other events, then once exploited, outcomes have to be generated again in order to be exploited again.
In Analyzing or Generating a Series, ETHNO automatically records which events have happened and which have been depleted in order to determine which events might happen next.
A relation between two events can be made non-depletive: see RELATION TYPES.
An ETHNO diagram shows what elements are in a structure by displaying their abbreviations, it shows relations within the structure through the use of lines, and it shows hierarchy within the structure by the way elements are sorted to different tiers. See ABBREVIATIONS, LINES ON A DIAGRAM, TIERS OF A DIAGRAM.
A diagram can be copied into a file or printed on paper: see COPY DIAGRAM.
ETHNO lists all files in a directory when the directory is specified via the RESET DIRECTORY option on the main menu.
The main menu option, CREATE-A-STRUCTURE, requires a framework file, so ETHNO lists all files ending with FWK in the current directory right after CREATE-A-STRUCTURE is chosen.
The main menu options, MODIFY-A-STRUCTURE, ANALYZE-A-SERIES, INSTANTIATE-LEVELS, GENERATE-A-SERIES, all operate on data files, and when any of these options are chosen, ETHNO list all ETH files from the current directory.
See also CURRENT DIRECTORY.
Sometimes an element in an ETHNO structure relates to a set of alternatives. For example, a goal event might be attainable through alternative actions; or a concept might be an instance of alternative general categories. Disjunction refers to assembling a set of elements as alternatives through the use of "or"--X or Y or Z. Disjunction contrasts with conjunction--assembly by using "and".
An ETHNO diagram signals that an element has disjunctive superordinates by capitalizing all letters of the element's abbreviation.
Disk directories See DIRECTORY LISTINGS, CURRENT DIRECTORY.
Disk operations See COPY DIAGRAM, DIRECTORY LISTINGS, SAVE DATA, SINK.ETH.
Disk Operating System--the program that runs the computer before and after ETHNO.
Drop See DELETE ELEMENT, EDIT SERIES.
Pressing F8 while Analyzing a Series transforms the work window at the bottom of the screen into a workbox for modifying events. (This workbox also appears automatically after solutions to a series-analysis problem have been proposed and rejected.)
The workbox is set up as follows.
The first line presents part of the recorded series of events, each event being represented by its abbreviation. (Use the F9 key to LIST ENTRIES.) An event is shown underlined (or color blue) if it is not part of the original data but was inserted during previous work with the series. An element is printed black if it was dropped from the series during previous work. (Dropped elements show as gaps with MONOCHROME ETHNO.)
Pressing the + or - keys moves the display ahead or backward in time. Half of the events in the current display are retained on the screen after pressing + or -.
A specific event is marked for change by putting the blinking cursor over it. Pressing the M key moves the cursor from one event to the next, cycling back at the end.
Possible changes are as follows.
Typing D drops the marked event for purposes of event analysis, though the event will remain in the data set. (The final event in the series is a special case: when dropped, it is physically eliminated from the data. Dropping has an auxiliary effect for events with disjunctive prerequisites, as noted in DEPLETE WHICH?).
Typing A activates the marked event for purposes of event analysis, assuming it was dropped previously.
Typing T transposes the marked event with the event that is marked next.
Typing I inserts an event. The inserted event must be one that already is defined in the system; it is designated by entering its abbreviation. The new event takes the place of the marked event, pushing the marked event and all later events forward in time.
Pressing the ESC key terminates editing. If the workbox appeared automatically after ETHNO offered all of its solutions to a series-analysis problem, then two additional commands are available. (These both are treated as ESC if the workbox was obtained by pressing F8.)
Typing R reviews ETHNO's offered solutions to the series analysis problem (unless a change in the event series already has been made in which case R is ignored).
Typing F for finished restarts the analysis: the event series is reanalyzed automatically from the beginning to the current event.
"Element" refers to a concept or event, defined by the text of an entry and represented by an abbreviation on an ETHNO diagram. A structure is made of elements related to one another, and a series is made of elements in time-ordered sequence.
Pressing F4 transfers the cursor into the diagram window so that an element can be marked. After marking, ETHNO presents a form which reports the following (among other things).
ETHNO says whether the selected element is repeatable or not. The current condition may be changed. (Repeatability is relevant only for events, not for concepts.)
ETHNO also indicates whether the element's subordinates constitute a conjunctive set or a disjunctive set. This, too, may be changed.
See also MARKING ELEMENTS ON A DIAGRAM, REPEATABLE, LINES ON A DIAGRAM.
ETHNO invites entry of new elements through elicitation questions which appear in the work window while Creating a Structure or Modify-a-structure.
Elicitation questions are defined by frameworks--see DEFINE A-FRAMEWORK, FWK FILES.
On the keyboard this key may have RETURN printed on it or it may have no name, only a hooked arrow. Pressing it provides a signal to ETHNO that you are done typing text and ready to continue; or simply that you are ready to continue.
The computer keyboard is used like a typewriter for entering text. Type the text that is called for and finish by hitting the ENTER key.
The Backspace key (it has a left-pointing arrow but is away from other arrow keys) can be used to make corrections: a character is removed from the right with every press, so erroneous text can be erased and retyped correctly.
ETHNO generally capitalizes automatically so you do not have to worry about capitals.
Repeated entries (such as might occur in event series) can be entered by typing just the abbreviation that ETHNO gave the original entry. (Use the F9 key to LIST ENTRIES.) Entering the abbreviation is safer than trying to retype the whole entry since text has to be identical in order for two entries to be treated as repetitions.
An entry is the text typed in response to ETHNO's elicitation questions. The text defines an element in the structure, and the text is used to derive an abbreviation to represent the element in diagrams.
Erase See DELETE ELEMENT, CHANGE RELATION, EDIT SERIES.
In general, pressing the ESC key means you want to quit.
Pressing the ESC key terminates analyses. After ESC is pressed, ETHNO asks for a file name, saves data into that file, then returns to the main menu.
If you press ESC when asked for a file name, ETHNO will save data into a file called SINK, which may be used as a data file until you do the same thing over again.
Pressing ESC when the main menu is on the screen is the normal way
of exiting from ETHNO.
Results of ETHNO analyses are saved in files named by the user, with ETHNO appending the qualifier ETH. These files can be loaded back into ETHNO to continue analyses. (The framework file used to create the structure must be present in the current file directory when reloading the data.)
Data are saved in ASCII format, so ETH files can be examined and
modified using a word processor.
ETHNO diagrams See DIAGRAMS, LINES ON A DIAGRAM.
ETHNO is distributed on a double-density, double-sided 5 1/4 inch floppy disk formatted by MS-DOS. The program runs on IBM PCs, XTs, or ATs with monochrome, graphics, or enhanced-graphics adapters. It also should work with IBM-compatible machines running MS-DOS 2.0 or higher but is not guaranteed to do so.
The distributed disk should be treated solely as an archive copy. Make a working disk as follows. (1) Format a double-density, double-sided disk. Use the /S option so that a copy of MS-DOS is on the disk. (2) Transfer files from the distributed disk to your working disk with the copy command--e.g.: COPY A:*.* B: (3) Store the distributed disk away.
See Box 1 for a list of files on the ETHNO disk.
Events in ETHNO are elements which are described in terms of agents and their performances and which form patterned sequences accountable by an ETHNO model.
See also CONCEPTS.
In ETHNO an event "happens"--is executed or implemented--when the program computes the event's consequences in depleting some events and priming other events. When Analyzing a Series, events are executed in the order that they are recorded in the empirical event record. When Generating a Series, events are executed as they are selected by the analyst.
Pressing the ESC key when the main menu is on the screen is the normal way of exiting from ETHNO.
Pressing the ESC key also is the normal way of terminating an analysis within ETHNO. If it does not work immediately, keep pressing the ESC key.
Files are recordings of information. The computer writes files on a disk and can read them back from the disk.
File directories See DIRECTORY LISTINGS.
File names consist of a main part with up to eight characters, plus a qualifier of up to three characters, these two parts being separated by a period. The main part can be a word or part of a word that is helpful in recalling what information the file contains. The qualifier is optional. Qualifiers in ETHNO are handled automatically: the user does not type them.
ETHNO distinguishes two types of file names.
A file containing an elicitation framework has FWK as a qualifier. ETHNO will create such a file when in Define-a-framework. A FWK file must be present in the current directory in order to do any analyses.
A file containing data about a structure has ETH as a qualifier. ETHNO creates such files when it saves data. ETH files are required in order to Modify-a-structure, Analyze-a-series Instantiate-Levels, or Generate-a-series. Each of these routines also produces an ETH file when it ends.
Files on ETHNO disk See ETHNO DISK.
Flashing See BLINKING LINES, BLINKING ELEMENTS.
This is a descriptive way of referring to commutative relations. See COMMUTATION.
ETHNO uses sentence frames to construct questions. For example, the frame Does ___ require ___ (or a similar event)? is used in the D framework in order to find out how events relate to one another. In use, different elements get substituted into the blank spaces of a frame.
Framework file See FWK FILE.
Frameworks See DEFINE-A-FRAMEWORK.
A separate part of the keyboard contains keys which are labeled with F followed by a number. These function keys have definite effects in ETHNO, and some function keys have additional effects when they are pressed simultaneously with the ALT key.
See for a summary of functions.
ETHNO models are developed within frameworks. An appropriate FWK file defining instructions, questions, and options must be present in the current file directory in order to Create-a-structure, and the same framework file must be present when data are reloaded for further analyses.
ETHNO creates FWK files in Define-a-framework. FWK files are written in ASCII format, so they can be examined and modified using a word processor.
General topic See TOPIC.
This option on the main menu produces simulations from existing models of events.
ETHNO presents the possible events in a box, ordered from highest priority to lowest priority, with an arrow in front of the highest priority event.
The user makes an event "happen" by selecting it. If the event instantiates higher level events, they also will "happen".
ETHNO redraws the diagram with changed highlighting to show the effects of the implemented event. Then a revised list of possible events appears when the box reappears.
This cycle--presentation of possible events, selection of one by the user, and graphic display of the consequences--continues until the ESC key is pressed to terminate the simulation.
Before exiting, ETHNO asks if choices of events should be saved. If the answer is yes, a new ETH file is created.
Glossary of abbreviations See LIST ENTRIES.
A grammar is a set of rules for ordering some kind of element. For example, English grammar is a set of rules for ordering the sounds and words of the English language.
ETHNO produces action grammars. An ETHNO event-structure model is a set of rules for ordering a collection of events.
Graphic characters See LINES ON A DIAGRAM
Halt See EXITING.
Happen See EXECUTING EVENTS.
Hard copy of diagram See COPY DIAGRAM.
Anytime that ETHNO is waiting for a response, the F10 key can be pressed to get help. A window is superimposed on the right side of the screen, and a message is printed describing options and how to implement them. Messages change depending on the task.
Some messages are too long to fit on the screen all at once. Press cursor keys and additional parts of the help message will be shown.
Press the ESC key to get rid of the help window and return to the task.
See also QUICK HELP FOR FUNCTION KEYS.
Hierarchy See TIERS OF A DIAGRAM.
Hidden parts of diagram See TOGGLE.
ETHNO uses colors, intensity variations, and blinking to highlight text or parts of a diagram. Characters that are bright red on a color monitor appear at high intensity on a monochrome monitor; characters printed in blue on a color monitor are underlined on a monochrome monitor.
The ETHNO disk contains numerous files whose names are qualified by HLP. These contain text for ETHNO help messages, different files providing help for different tasks.
This is a cursor key and pressing it returns you to the top of something. If you are viewing the diagram, then pressing HOME puts the top of the diagram on the screen. If you are scrolling through a list of text lines in a box, then the HOME key returns you to the top of the box.
Implementing events See EXECUTING EVENTS.
Implication is a logical relation in which the existence or truth of one thing means that another thing exists or is true as well, while the reverse cannot be assumed. For example, "that customer dined in this restaurant" implies "that customer placed an order in this restaurant"; so if you see a customer dining then the customer must have placed an order, though if you see a customer ordering you cannot be entirely sure the customer will end up dining.
ETHNO's queries about relations are phrased so that they identify implications. With events, for example, the standard relational question asks if event Y is essential for event Z; if the answer is yes, then occurrence of Z implies occurrence of Y.
Implications cascade into more implications: for example, if Z implies Y and Y implies X, then Z also implies X.
A line between two elements on an ETHNO diagram represents an implication. Chains of lines can be traced to see how implications cascade between tiers.
Implication structure See STRUCTURE.
Inconsistencies See INTERRUPTIONS.
Inserting events See EDIT SERIES.
Instantiate means to represent an abstraction by a concrete instance. ETHNO allows abstract models of events to be defined along with a concrete model. The analyst defines how concrete events trigger abstract events, and then the abstract events "happen" as the corresponding concrete events "happen" when Analyzing a Series or Generating a Series.
See also LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION.
Interpreting the diagram See TIERS OF A DIAGRAM, LINES ON A DIAGRAM.
Analysis of a Series usually is interrupted because occurrence of some event does not accord with assumptions. When ETHNO comes to an inconsistency it superimposes a window on the diagram and tells you what's wrong. ETHNO also suggests ways to solve the problem.
It is a good idea to look at all of ETHNO's suggestions before selecting a solution, and this can be done by pressing the ENTER key whenever an answer is requested. When ETHNO has no more suggestions, it erases the window and transfers the cursor to the work window formatted for series editing. Pressing R at that point will display the suggested solutions again.
Interruptions occur for two basic reasons: an event is unprimed or
it is unused.
Occurrence of the next event may be impossible because the event is unprimed--all of its prerequisites are not fulfilled. ETHNO suggests ways of fixing this, which may or may not include all of the following.
Call the next event "event X" and the problematic prerequisite "event P". Then P may have been used up recently by some other event Y, and thus P's consequences no longer are available to prime X. In this case the problem could be solved by changing the logical structure so that P isn't a prerequisite for Y. Then Y's occurrence wouldn't use up P, and P still would be available for X after the occurrence of Y. ETHNO will suggest such possibilities if there was an event that used P since the last occurrence of X. ETHNO also will suggest that the problem could be solved just by eliminating P as a prerequisite of X.
Another solution is possible by allowing that one of the standard assumptions may not apply. Perhaps P is a prerequisite for Y, but Y does not use up P: then P's effects still would be available to prime X. ETHNO will suggest such possibilities.
Instead of focusing on the logical structure, we might suppose that the record of events is inaccurate. Maybe there was an occurrence of P after Y, but it didn't get recorded. ETHNO will suggest this possibility if an unfulfilled prerequisite is primed and possible right before the occurrence of X.
Finally, it's possible that the logical structure has to be
interpreted differently. Maybe P is one of the prerequisites of X but
not necessary for P, because X can be primed by any one of its
prerequisites. That is, X is primed by one of its prerequisites OR
another, rather than by the combination of all of them. ETHNO will
suggest the possibility of DISJUNCTIVE prerequisites if X has multiple
prerequisites and at least one of them has occurred and not been used
Alternatively, the next event (X) may be impossible because it has gone unused since its last occurrence. ETHNO suggests a number of ways of dealing with this problem, too.
Perhaps X is a prerequisite for one of the events that occurred since the last occurrence of X. Then X would have been depleted, and it would make sense to do X again. ETHNO will suggest this possibility with regard to any events that occurred just once since the last occurrence of X.
On the other hand, maybe the event record is wrong, and some event that uses X did occur but didn't get recorded. ETHNO will list any possibilities--events that require X and that are primed and depleted just before X is to occur again.
A general assumption may be wrong in this case, too. ETHNO will ask if X can be repeated without having been depleted first.
If X is in a set of disjunctive prerequisites, then still another
possibility arises. At some point, the wrong prerequisite may have been
depleted, and X should have been chosen instead. ETHNO will suggest
this possibility if X is in a disjunctive set and primes an event that
occurred since the last occurrence of X.
Implementing a Solution
ETHNO lets you reject any of its proposed solutions by pressing the ENTER key. If you reject all solutions, then the series workbox appears at the bottom of screen allowing you to change the series in any way that you wish. You must do something--accept a suggestion or change the series--in order to get past an interruption.
After a corrective action, ETHNO goes back to the beginning of the event series and reanalyzes events automatically, making sure the change doesn't create inconsistencies earlier in the series.
Keyboard See ENTERING DATA, CURSOR KEYS, FUNCTION KEYS.
Levels of Abstraction
An event-structure model may have multiple levels of abstraction, each representing a different way of interpreting the same concrete events. Each level is constituted as an independent model without reference to events at other levels. Instantiating relations connect the levels by defining how lower level events trigger higher level events.
When a multi-level model operates (during Analyze-a-series or Generate-a-series), a concrete event happens first, followed immediately by higher level events which are triggered by that concrete event.
Whereas tiers of a model represent logical ordering of entries in the same domain, levels represent logical relations between entries in different domains. That is, a lower level entry implies the higher level entries which it triggers (or instantiates).
See also INSTANTIATE, TIERS OF A DIAGRAM.
Line deletions See DELETE ELEMENT, CHANGE RELATION.
Line additions See ADDING ELEMENTS, CHANGE RELATION.
Lines on a diagram
A connecting line between two elements on an ETHNO diagram means that the lower element implies the higher element. Implications can be traced vertically up paths of connections on a diagram.
As a rule, ETHNO does not show two elements directly connected if the relation between them can be inferred from a chain of connections already on the diagram. The exception is that redundant lines sometimes are included to represent commutative relations (see CHANGE RELATION).
ETHNO uses a special format for showing connections. A short vertical line descends from a superordinate element and connects to a horizontal line, from which vertical descenders drop to subordinates. A vertical line rising from an element may connect to more than one horizontal line because the element implies several superordinates.
Usually, subordinates imply the conjunction of their superordinates--the lower element implies the combination of superordinate one and superordinate two, etc. ETHNO also allows for disjunctive relations--the lower element implies superordinate one or superordinate two, etc.--and this condition is signaled on a diagram by an abbreviation printed in capitals.
ETHNO keeps lines from being superimposed on one another and tries to keep unrelated lines from crossing, but crossovers inevitably happen. Crossovers are distinguished from junctions by a short open gap in one of the lines.
The diagram is drawn on the screen with graphic characters. When a diagram is copied or printed, the graphic characters may be translated to typewriter characters. Characters ^ or " signal the ascender from a horizontal line to a superordinate. Characters . or : signal descenders to superordinates, the colon being used when a superordinate's vertical line continues upward to additional horizontal lines. Horizontal lines are constructed from - (minus).
Pressing the F9 key during an analysis pops the help window to show abbreviations in alphabetic order along with text of the corresponding entries. Pressing the cursor keys scrolls through the list. Pressing the ESC key or pressing F9 again removes this display.
List of events See EDIT SERIES, ETH FILES.
Lists of files See DIRECTORY LISTINGS.
Local logic See CHANGE LOGIC.
ETHNO's main menu is the first thing seen when the program starts running, and the menu reappears after exiting from each analysis. The following options are offered.
Manual entry See AUTO-ENTRY.
Manual processing See AUTOMATIC PROCESSING.
Marking elements on a diagram
The cursor expands and jumps to the diagram after certain function keys are pressed so that one or more elements can be marked as targets for editing operations.
An element is marked on the diagram by positioning the cursor over any letter of the element's abbreviation and pressing ENTER. The abbreviation will be highlighted to show that it is marked. (Marking a blank space or a line returns you to where you were before you pressed the function key.)
The cursor can be moved around the diagram by using the keys on the cursor pad. Large diagrams do not appear all at once on the screen so the screen window may have to be shifted in order to find the desired abbreviation. This is done by pressing the F1 key whereupon the cursor keys move the window; press F1 again to have the cursor keys control the cursor again.
Instead of using cursor keys, one can type the abbreviation of the desired entry, followed by ENTER.
See also CURSOR KEYS, TOGGLE.
This is a file on the ETHNO disk containing large blocks of text which are presented in ETHNO. The first lines are the contents of QUICK HELP FOR FUNCTION KEYS. Then come the contents of the MAIN MENU. (The copyright notice is within the program.) The next line relates to RESET DIRECTORY. The rest of file contains ETHNO's instructions for DEFINE -A-FRAMEWORK.
An ETHNO model of events consists of an implicational structure relating events to one another, a set of assumptions about how events are produced (including ad hoc assumptions to account for observed sequences of events), and a priority ranking of events to indicate which of two events happens if both are possible at once.
ETHNO provides a model with all these components at the end of Analyze-a-series. At that point the implicational structure for a set of events has been established and tested, general assumptions have been adjusted where necessary, and a prioritization analysis has established the precedent ranking of the events.
A model of events can be used to simulate event sequences in Generate-a-series.
Modifying an event series See EDIT SERIES.
This option on the main menu allows an existing data set to be changed or expanded.
After the option is chosen, ETHNO lists all ETH files in the current directory, and the name of one of these must be entered. (Or press ENTER to return to the main menu.)
The structure is diagrammed, and an elicitation question is presented in the work window.
A new element can be added by making an entry in response to the elicitation question. The program presents a series of questions requiring yes-no answers until the new element is located relative to old elements in the structure. Then ETHNO redraws the diagram with the new element incorporated, and the elicitation question is presented again. (Some special options can be invoked for making entries: see AUTO-ENTRY, ENTERING DATA.)
Additionally with function keys it is possible to: change text of an entry; change an abbreviation; delete an element; delete, modify, or add a relation; change conjunctive sets of subordinates to disjunctive or vice versa; make events repeatable or not; make event relations depletive or non-depletive, commutative or not commutative. (See FUNCTION KEYS.)
Press the ESC key to exit. ETHNO asks for the name of a file in which to save the revised data, the data are saved, and ETHNO returns to the main menu.
Files saved during this procedure never include a priority listing of events, even if there was one in the file selected for work. Thus revised data do not contain a complete model of events until the data have been put through Analyze-a-series in order to discover inconsistencies and in order to compute priorities.
ETHNO is designed to work with two-intensity color monitors or with monochrome monitors that permit text to be printed in bright, dim, or black on either black or dim backgrounds. ETHNO presentations may be illegible on other kinds of monitors. A special version of the program, obtained by entering ETHNO MONO instead of ETHNO in order to run the program, will work with any monitor.
Move cursor on diagram See CURSOR KEYS, TOGGLE.
Move diagram on screen See CURSOR KEYS, TOGGLE.
Moving lines on the diagram See CHANGE RELATION.
Names for files See FILE NAMES.
Noise See SOUND.
Non-depletion See DEPLETION.
This key changes the function of the number pad on the keyboard. If NUM/LOCK is on, then the keys produce numbers; if it is off (as it must be with ETHNO), then the keys produce cursor movement.
Precedence ranking See PRIORITIZATION.
An event's prerequisites are other events which must happen before the focal event can happen. In principle, every event in a chain is a prerequisite if the entire chain has to happen before the focal event can happen. However, the word usually refers to immediate prerequisites--the events just one step removed from the focal event.
An event's prerequisites are found in an ETHNO diagram by tracing up lines from the focal event.
An event is primed when all of its immediate prerequisites have happened and remain unused. A primed event can happen next, though other primed events might happen instead.
Printing the diagram See COPY DIAGRAM.
Computing event priorities is a last, optional step in Analyzing a Series.
If this analysis is done, then ETHNO goes through the event series once more automatically making a table in which each event has a row and a column. Every time an event happens, ETHNO goes to that event's row and increments the tally in cells for other events that are possible at the same time. The tallies represent how often the row event superceded the column events.
At the end, the table is normalized by converting tallies in each cell to proportions representing how often one event superceded another when both were possible. The average proportion for an event is calculated across all events that co-occurred with that event, and the average proportions are sorted to rank the events in terms of general priority. The ranking is printed on the screen. Highest priority events are at the top.
The average proportion for an event might be calculated over relatively few other events if the focal event happened rarely. A better index would take into account not only what events the focal event supercedes but also what events they supercede, thereby expanding the base for the average. The table is manipulated in order to do this (the matrix is squared), then averages are recomputed and resorted to give a second ranking which is presented after the first. The second ranking becomes part of the ETH file that is written when the data are saved so the ETH file contains a complete model which can be used to Generate-a-series.
Prioritization analyses are conducted across replications, if any. Every replication makes a contribution to the final result.
Prioritization analyses take a while because many calculations are done with relatively little computer memory devoted to them. The disk is used for a temporary file while the event series is reanalyzed.
The tables that ETHNO constructs in the course of prioritizing are available for inspection--see VALUES FILE.
Proposed solutions See INTERRUPTIONS.
Qualifier See FILE NAMES.
Quick help for function keys
Pressing ALT F10 provides brief reminders about function key operations. The display can be removed from the screen by pressing any key.
See FUNCTION KEYS.
Quit See EXITING.
The abbreviation for an entry can be changed by pressing F4 when the diagram is displayed. The cursor jumps into the diagram window so that a specific element can be marked. Then a special form appears which allows the abbreviation to be changed (among other things). Type up to three new characters for the abbreviation ended by ENTER. ETHNO will not allow repetition of an existing abbreviation: a digit will be inserted in place of the second character to make the new abbreviation unique.
See also MARKING ELEMENTS ON A DIAGRAM.
Record of events
A series of events from observations or archives is the primary input for an ETHNO analysis of events. The series, entered during Creation of a Structure, gives rise to the structure represented in the ETHNO diagram, and later the series is examined again in Analyze-a-series in order to produce a model.
An ETHNO data file contains a record of the events in sequence-- see Box 5.
Redrawing the diagram See COMPUTATION TIME, COPY DIAGRAM.
Redundant lines See CHANGE RELATION, STRUCTURE.
Rejecting suggestions See INTERRUPTIONS.
Pressing F4 takes the cursor into the diagram window for the marking of an element involved in a relation. After marking is completed, a special form appears, and ETHNO reports on the item's relations with other items.
It is reported whether a given relation is depletive or not- that is, whether occurrence of the superordinate depletes a previous occurrence of the subordinate. ETHNO also reports whether the relation is commutative or not--that is, whether occurrence of the subordinate depletes the superordinate as well as vice versa. These specifications may be changed on the form.
See also MARKING ELEMENTS ON A DIAGRAM, DEPLETION, COMMUTA-
In Analyzing a Series, ETHNO supposes that an event is not done over until its consequences have been used up by other events. This assumption can be changed, though, making an event repeatable even when not depleted by other events.
See ASSUMPTIONS, ELEMENT TYPES.
The element representing topic is the first in an event series, and repetition of topic in a series of events signals that a replication is beginning. That is, subsequent events in the series are supposed to have the same structure as those preceding, but they are from a different situation.
When the topic element is encountered while Analyzing a Series, ETHNO clears all accumulated evidence of event happenings and starts fresh in remembering which events are primed, have occurred, been depleted, etc. Aside from that, the analysis continues as before (incorporating any prior changes in model), with each event being analyzed in sequence to make sure that it fits the structure.
Prioritization analyses are conducted across replications, and thus
replication data contribute to ETHNO's priority ranking of events.
This option on the main menu changes the current directory--the place where ETHNO looks for FWK and ETH files and where it writes new files having these qualifiers.
To work with data files in the root directory of drive B enter
To work with data files in a subdirectory called WORK of a subdirectory called ETHNO on drive C enter
(A final slash is optional in this case.)
ETHNO lists all files in the selected directory, and the name of the current directory could be entered without change just to see a listing of files.
The original disk and directory from which ETHNO was loaded also continues to be used after resetting the current directory since that is where help messages reside.
Restore an event See EDIT SERIES.
Review suggestions See EDIT SERIES, INTERRUPTIONS.
This is a framework provided with ETHNO for assembling data about kinds of people. The question for assessing logical relations between two elements is worded as follows: "Is ___ generally ___?" Inferences from past answers assume the user is subject to local logic.
This framework capitalizes the first letter of entries automatically and adds an indefinite article to them. Abbreviations are formed from the first word.
Data can be saved anytime by pressing the F7 key. A file name is requested, data are saved to a disk file, and ETHNO returns to where it was as if there had been no interruption. The data file (with an ETH qualifier) will be found in the current directory. This file can be used to reload the data into ETHNO at a later time. The data in the file can be examined with a word processor (see ETH FILES).
Pressing the ESC key to stop an analysis instigates the same procedure: data are saved whenever ETHNO terminates a task, even if the data are not wanted (see SINK.ETH).
Saving diagrams See COPY DIAGRAM.
Scrolling a diagram See TOGGLE.
Scrolling help messages
Use up or down arrow cursor keys
Selecting elements on diagram See MARKING ELEMENTS ON A DIAGRAM.
Series work window
An event series can be edited (events added, dropped, transposed), and the work is done on the bottom three lines of the screen--the standard work window converted into a series work window with a special format. The top line of the series work window presents events before and after the current event, with events represented by abbreviations. The second line of the window lists editing commands. The third line of the window is used for dialogue when necessary. See EDIT SERIES.
Series of events
A series is a list of events ordered according to the sequence in which they happened. Ordering of events is crucial in checking the fit between recorded data and an ETHNO structure during Analyze-a series.
Series analysis See ANALYZE-A-SERIES.
Simulation See GENERATE-A-SERIES.
ETHNO is meticulous in saving data, so much so that you may be asked to save when you don't want to. If ETHNO asks for a file name and you do not want to save the data, then press the ESC key. The unwanted data get saved into a throw-away file named SINK: each usage overwrites the last usage. If you do this, SINK.ETH contains the data last thrown away, and you can name SINK as a data file for ETHNO in case you change your mind.
Solutions to problems See INTERRUPTIONS.
The computer beeps when text is being entered and the line has got as long as ETHNO allows. ETHNO accepts 75 characters, the noise occurs at character 74. Text typed beyond that will be ignored by ETHNO. The backspace key can be used after the sound to erase and revise the line.
Stopping See EXITING.
Strict logic See CHANGE LOGIC.
A structure consists of elements and their relations.
An ETHNO diagram is a visual representation of structure. The visual configuration which ETHNO shows is one possible way of displaying elements and relations, not a picture which is unique for the structure.
Subordinates and superordinates
Elements are superordinate in a chain of relations to the extent that they are closer to the top of an ETHNO diagram. Elements are subordinate with respect to other elements in a chain to the extent that they are lower in a diagram. Subordinates imply the superordinates which can be reached by tracing upward along lines.
In the case of events, the most subordinate events are goals, and superordinate events are prerequisites for goals. In the case of conceptual structures, the most subordinate concepts are those that are most domain-specific while superordinate concepts are general constructs embracing other constructs.
Superimposed windows See WINDOWS.
Superordinate See SUBORDINATES AND SUPERORDINATES.
Symbols on screen See ABBREVIATIONS, LINES ON A DIAGRAM.
A taxonomy is an ordered listing of concepts showing how some concepts are subsidiaries of others.
Terminating See EXITING.
Tiers of a diagram
Every ETHNO diagram has elements assigned to two or more tiers. A single element--the topic--is on the topmost tier. The second tier consists of elements which are subordinate to the topic but which are not subordinate to anything else. The third tier shows elements that are subordinate to elements in the first and second tiers but not to other elements in the structure. Lower tiers are comprised similarly: they consist of elements which are subordinate only to elements in higher tiers. (Technically, this is called a topographic ordering.)
The number of tiers in a diagram depends on the length of the longest chain of relations among elements.
See also SUBORDINATES AND SUPERORDINATES.
Time for computation See COMPUTATION TIME.
Time-ordering See SERIES OF EVENTS.
Time-series logic See CHANGE LOGIC.
A toggle switch can be used to turn something on and also to turn it off. Several function keys act as toggle switches in ETHNO.
Pressing F1 when a blinking cursor appears on the diagram changes the effect of cursor keys back and forth between moving the cursor and moving the diagram. Pressing F1 when the interruption window is on the screen during Analyze-a-series removes the interruption window so that the diagram may be viewed and moved with the cursor keys. Pressing F1 a second time returns the dialogue window so that work there can be continued.
Pressing Alt F1 switches back and forth between a 25-line screen and a screen which shows more than 25 lines (if an EGA or VGA monitor is being used).
Alt F2 toggles between two different drawings of the diagram.
F9, F10, Alt F9, Alt F10 all may be pressed to get rid of helpful displays as well as to make the displays appear.
The element by itself at the top of a diagram is the topic. It is first to be elicited, and it serves as a reference point for other elements.
See also REPLICATION.
Transposing events See EDIT SERIES.
A typology is a structured arrangement of concepts showing how some concepts amount to combinations of others.
Abbreviations in a diagram are underlined while Analyzing a Series or Generating a Series in order to show events that have been executed and are not depleted. Underlining translates to blue on a color monitor.
(See EDIT SERIES for another use of underlining.)
Unprimed See PRIMING, INTERRUPTIONS.
Unused See DEPLETION, INTERRUPTIONS.
A file named VALUES appears in the current directory after a prioritization analysis is done in Analyze-a-series. The file contains priority ranks of events--the same as were printed on the screen--and also the tabulation from which priorities were computed.
The tabulation is obtained when ETHNO proceeds through events and determines which were possible at a given point and which actually occurred. This information is recorded in a table, with rows showing how often each event took precedence over other events which were possible at the same time. That table, and normalized versions of it, are in the VALUES file. The ordering of events within rows and columns is the same as the original order of entry except that the name of the incident (the first entry) is not in the table at all.
The VALUES file is written in ASCII format and can be examined with a word processor. VALUES is overwritten the next time a prioritization analysis is done, so the file would have to be renamed in order to keep its information.
Vertical lines on diagram See LINES ON A DIAGRAM.
Waits during computations See COMPUTATION TIME.
During analyses ETHNO divides the screen into different areas- windows--for doing different things. Some windows superimpose on others, so several may be visible at once.
© 1997 David Heise