T351 Week 7 - Spring 2014
- Interview / Lighting tips
- Review for next week's Midterm
- No Labs this week: The time is for you to work on your Interview/Feature Stories. (Tips to follow below). Please remember that these are to be exactly 2 OR 3 minutes - NOT somewhere inbetween. (1:59:29 or 2:59:29 is ideal.) We'll watch these nexxt week in lab starting at 10 AM.
- Lighting Exercise projects are due this week by the start of your scheduled lab time. Turn in your groups media file to the Production Lab Dropbox and your individual log/critiques to the Oncourse folder "Lighting"
- Art Video Proposal & Treatments are due this week. Please upload your work to the Oncourse folder "Art Video".
- Final Project Proposal & Treatments are due next week by the start of lecture.
- Midterm Quiz during our lecture time next week.
- The week after next:
- Produce Art videos (the week before spring break)
The interview (setting, lighting, audio, background):
Are there distractions in the background?
Subject lit - stands out from background?
Is it quiet?
Just because the subject is framed nicely doesn't mean it will look good.
It needs to be lit well.
Just because the subject is lit doesn't mean it's lit well.
And even if it looks good, the interview must sound good too.
Interview / Feature Story Tips
Here are a few tips to help you approach a news/feature story based
- Research your topic & formulate the basic story approach. How will you start? How will you end? The structure of a feature story or documentary is a lot like an essay or article. You've got to hook the viewers and provide closure in the ending.
- Discuss the topic in advance
with your interview subjects. They may like to know what your story idea is and have some info/feedback for you.
- Schedule the taping and if possible, make a site visit in advance of the shoot. Be sure you schedule time after the
interview to shoot B-roll.
- Interviews/testimonials can be shot in interesting locations.
It's best if the location ties in with the topic- but this is not always possible.
- Where would you shoot the director of the Musical Arts Center? What
would be in the background?
- What about an ice cream vendor who works out of a van?
- How about a
that you'll want access to the location to setup lights and audio about
an hour before you start recording the interview.
As you consider possible locations, keep the following in mind:
- Is it quiet? (fans, construction, car & pedestrian
the background behind where the interview subject will be
located. Does the background tie in with subject or content,
or is it a distraction? Can you position the camera far enough
away from the subject to get a small depth of field?
- Is it free from problematic lighting issues (large windows,
- Enough room to set up lights?
- Is there AC power for lights and other gear?
- B-roll opportunities?
- Discuss clothing/makeup requirements with your interview subjects.
(Avoid white clothing, commercial logos, other people's intellectual
- Think about and plan the B-roll - this is what makes the story
Production Set up
- Assemble equipment and supplies:
- Camera (extra batteries) If time/budget/resources allow, you can shoot with 2.
- SD/CF card(s)
- Lav microphone (extra AA batteries)
- XLR cables
- Light kit & extension cord
- Reflector & extra C-stand
- Get to the location an hour before the start of the interview. This will
give you time to setup lights and audio- and also time to fine-tune it.
- Check your recording format! (proper bit-rate, frame rate, 0 dB gain, no shutter, proper timecode, etc.
- Use your PA or yourself
to check MCU framing and lighting. Be sure to keep your subject's focus/gaze
close to the camera. (If the interviewer's gaze is too far away you'll end
up with a profile.) You want to see both eyes clearly. If you see the reflection of light in the subject's eyes, your key light is in the right position.
- Is camera level? Are there distractions in the background. Is lighting close
- Make a test recording, check it and wait....
- When the guest shows up make them feel comfortable. (Sometimes I
provide some water, etc.)
- Schmooze and thank them for their time. You may need to explain the
- Have them sign a release form.
- Check talent’s physical appearance (hair, clothing) before
- You should be sitting just to the left or right of the camera. Your eyes should be at the same height as the lens.
- Is the subject framed nicely? (Strong composition following the rule of thirds with proper lead room and head room, pleasing background, nicely lit, camera level, etc.)
- Don’t forget pre-roll and post-roll. (I usually just keep rolling
during the whole interview.)
- Check audio levels at the meter and monitor the recording with headphones
- Give yourself room for a slow push in if needed. I almost always
shoot at a MCU or CU with room to move into a CU or ECU. (Use a sloooow
zoom in for intense emotional moments.)
- Keep your eyes open for potential problems or bad habits. (Collar
straight? Hair neat? Bad Habits: rocking back and forth, shifty eyes,
- Start recording and ask your subject to spell his/her name
and title. You might need this for their lower third ID graphic. If you forgot to
get a talent release, record an on-camera release.
- Use an “ice-breaker” question to start. (Where did you grow up? When did you move to Bloomington?)
- Ask open-ended questions.
- Don’t interrupt - always wait an extra few seconds before jumping
in with the next question.
- Listen carefully to the responses (They might lead you to another
angle.) Also consider your planned B-roll and any other footage you
also need to shoot.
- Look interested. Nod and act encouraging.
- Don't hesitate to have them repeat the response if there is a noticeable
flaw or if you want to get a closer shot for editing.
- Sometimes you need the question restated in the answer.
- With microphones in place record at least 30 seconds of room tone.
- Ask the talent if there is anything they'd like to add.
- Review part of the interview
- Don’t be afraid to ask the talent to redo parts of the interview
if there are any technical problems.
- Shut lights off immediately and strike all other equipment before
putting lights away. They need up to 15 minutes to cool down.
- Shoot appropriate location B-roll.
- Thank your talent
- Remember which batteries are dead, which have some use and which
are still fresh.
Can you name some specific techniques that you can use to make sure you get outstanding B-roll?
- Shoot mini-continuity sequences (think about the 180 degree line, cut on matching action, etc.)
- Shoot film-style (Changing shots by 30% or so, and overlapping, repeating action)
- Remember the rule of threes (consider the shot you are taking, the shot you'll use before it, and the shot you'll go to after it)
Avoiding Jump Cuts in a single character sequence:
Sometimes you need to shoot a sequence of a subject for B-roll over an
interview or for a montage. When shooting, have the talent enter the
shot or leave the frame, or use a camera movement to change the focus
either up to or away from the subject. The reason is that we don’t
want to cut from a shot with the subject in the frame to another shot
with the subject in the frame.
- Start with something to capture the audience's attention.
- Your topic and approach should be obvious to the viewer in the first 15-20 seconds.
- Try focusing on audio first (Your soundtrack will be interview audio, music, nat sound, & possibly some SFX). The next step is to fill jump cuts with B-roll, montages, etc.)
- Avoid jump cuts in your interview (cover interview edits with B-roll)
- Cut out "ums, yeahs, and buts.."
- Use several shots at a time for B-roll (not just a single shot). This lets you set a rhythm and use the mini-continuity sequences you have artfully captured.
- Capture audio - Nat audio is important.
- Find a strong close/conclusion. Consider book-ending as a technique. (Begin and end in a similar manner.)
Proposals, Treatments & Scripts
Some students (and producers and teachers) don't know the difference between a Propgram Proposal, Treatment and a Script.
Program Proposals (see Jim's Program
Proposal overview) Program Proposals describe the purpose, scope, production method, and budget of the production. The two most important things to start with are an objective and a target
For short productions, the proposal can
include a treatment. For feature-length films, and longer-length productions,
is usually a separate document.
Treatments are essentially condensed versions of the scripts. They don't contain detailed production information, but should concisely describe the story, the act structure, and the scenes within the acts. Treatments can show precisely how the story flows by describing the dialog and action of every scene. (If the scene does not advance the character or the story, cut it out!) I typically title my scenes and describe them as a paragraph or element in my treatment. Check out the actual treatment I used to pitch the Elkinsville documentary I produced for WTIU.
Scripts (See Jim's script overview) Film style
Everything can be scripted in advance. This includes documentaries and music videos. I like to compare producers to lawyers. They shold never ask a question that they don't know the answer to. I always try to know the role that someone will play in a production before I go to interview them. If not, it's because not enought time has been spent in pre-production.
You can determine, visualize, and create the flow of an entire documentary simply by spending time doing pre-production.
Almost all of the documentaries you see on PBS, Discovery and the History channel have been planned and scripted before any production takes place. Producers and writers research the subject and approach well in advance of production. There is an unscripted approach referred to as "exploratory". It has merits, but is typically not used when large amounts of money, gear and time are at stake.
Consider your Interview/Feature Stories. How do you want it to begin? Close your eyes and imagine how you would like to introduce the viewer to the subject.
How do you get every shot you need? Visualize every shot & write
it down it down in your script.
Arri's new L-Series light
This light is unique in a few ways:
- It's a fresnel LED fixture.
- You never need gels! It has variable color temperature.
- It can be controlled via the DMX port. (And upgradable firmware via a USB port.)
- It uses less electricity and operates at a lower temperature. It puts out more lumens per watt than a tungsten or halogen-based lamp.
More info can be found at http://www.arri.com/l-series/index.html
Midterm Quiz – next week
Review on-line class notes and readings
Review lighting (eg broad vs narrow) and Cybercollege units 27, 28,
31 & 32.
Review Continuity: Insert, cutaway, thematic (montage), continuity editing,
parallel editing, 180 degree line (Cybercollege 50-52)
Review technical continuity (Cybercollege 53)
Review the tech info (Waveform monitors, etc) and timecode (Cybercollege
16 & 57).
Waveform monitors and vector scopes should only be trusted after
seeing SMPTE color bars through them to ensure that they are caliberated.
adjust the signal. They only show you its characteristics. Adjustments
must be done at the camera, camera control unit or with a TBC (time base
Waveform monitors - graphically display brightness (luminance) information
along with sync pulses Used during studio production & sometimes in
the field. Found in every decent post-production/edit room. Very useful
when tweaking video signals with TBCs or making graphics.
- Scale starts at –40 – goes to 0 then up to 120 IRE Units
(Institute of Radio Engineers)
- One f-stop translates into about 20 IRE units
- NTSC black is 7.5 IRE. Digital and PAL black is 0 IRE. This is often
called the “setup”
or pedestal” adjustment.
- The brightest white is 100 IRE
- If the display is up over 100, your image is overexposed
- If the display is well under 100 (and you’re not shooting a
dark scene) your image is underexposed. The blacks are getting compressed.
Vectorscopes – display color (phase) information. They have a
round pattern on the display glass along with targets that show where
all the colors in a color bar signals should go.
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