T356 - Week 1
Instructor introduction & welcome
- Review the course & syllabus & assignments
- Bio/Expectations exercise
- Studio overview
- Talk about the projects we’ll be doing this semester
- Look at sample
clips from past classes
- Figure out who’s in what section
- Start on cameras
- Give Homework Assignment (Critical
- Remind students to bring in an object they can interact with next week.
Lab next week:
- Take a tour of the studio
- Hands-on equipment review
- Rotation exercise
- Prepare for next week's assignment
Television Studio Operations: focus is mastering
the studio & its
equipment. Learning how to direct & produce multi-camera
Contact: Office hrs, phone e-mail
Text: Zettl is optional. Most readings will be on-line and handed out.
Bring miniDV tapes with you to lab every week to record the work you produce and direct. Make sure they are Sony HDM63VG tapes, as specified in the syllabus. (Available at TIS) Do not rely on the digital disk recorded to safely store your video. You need to record your work live, as it is being produced. Bring a tape to every lab!
Everyone should be collecting projects for their portfolio.
Description (from syllabus)
You’ll be wearing lots of hats: production
engineer, camera operator, director, producer, etc. Each job has specific
duties. It's ok to develop
a specialty or a passion for doing a particular thing (lighting for example). Just be sure that you can do a good job carrying out the other
As you learn how to operate the equipment in this studio,
think of the underlying principles and ideas. This
way you will be
any studio, walk up to almost any camera, audio mixer,
character generator & already
be familiar with it.
Grading - Review assignments
Participation - B+ is the norm given for the participation grade. If you proactively take part in exercises you will get an A in this area. In other words if you volunteer to do things without being asked, you will be rewarded for it. If you just sit there and wait for someone to tell you what to do, you may get a lower grade.
How this class works
Meet in Studio 5. Everyone needs to get out his
or her chairs at the beginning of class & put them away at the end
Everyone has to help strike the studio. Don't leave until everything is put away.
Lectures will present new content
and provide time to view work. Labs focus on hands-on production activities
to discuss your project with your group.
This is a long class and we’ll
find times to take breaks. Make sure you eat lunch (or breakfast) before class - especially if you’re
in the Monday lab
There is no food allowed in
the studio. OK in the hallway.
Look at the Facility Guidelines at back of
Clothing: While there is no dress code, the appearance of
the talent is often the weakest link in a production.
Everyone is “talent” in
the rotations. Be sure you dress appropriately
for the role you are playing. (news anchor, host, portraying roles, etc.)
would you tell someone to wear who’ll be a guest on a late
night talk show? What would you tell a research
scientist on a PBS documentary?
Safety-wise, sandals & flip-flops are not
appropriate for constructing sets.
Fun & Professionalism - Walking the fine line
T356 is one of my favorite classes. It’s fun! We function as a
crew and can joke, talk about movies and TV shows. We will probably meet
after class recreationally a few times during the semester.
However it’s important to know when to be professional, and when
to stop the "crew talk". When we have actors come in to serve as talent,
they need to focus and be shown respect. Joking and too much chitchat
is distracting to someone coming into this environment for the
first time and trying to focus on their lines. We’ll
be producing public service announcements for various organizations and
will have agency directors, managers and volunteers in. Again it’s
important to show them respect and to curtail the talking and obvious
fun. We will get tour groups in to look at the class and our
new facilities. This is a good time to practice your people person
skills and serve as diplomats. You are our public face when visitors
and talent come into the studio.
Anytime we’re under a tight deadline- and this will be quite often-
we’ll need to focus on our various tasks. We all have to help setup
the production, light it and make sure it goes smoothly. It’s fine
to talk, joke and have fun building sets- but we have to do this while
we work efficiently. Setting lights requires constant communication between
the person at the dimmer board and the person on the ladder. We don’t
want to hinder this. Focus and remember what needs to be done. Don’t
get to the end of setup time and then realize that the microphones need
to be setup.
When we're getting ready to roll tape before a show- and the
director has called for a "standby on the set," please keep it silent.
We'll get started more smoothly and work more effectively.
It’s important to know what needs to be done and how to do it
effectively. Once you do this you’ll easily find it’s easy
to have fun while still being professionals.
Planning and producing projects
You need to spend
time thinking about and planning the projects you'll be
producing. Everyone has to produce 4 projects:
- Public Service Announcement
- Demonstration or informational video
- Dramatic Scene
- Final Project
Even though you’ll be working with partners for the production,
everyone will be pitching and planning these. Now is the
time to get to work and start planning.
PSA- The production is typically straightforward. The challenge is working
with an organization and developing a 30 or 60 second script with them.
Decide what organization you’d like to help. Contact someone from
the organization and start determining their specific needs.
Demonstration or Informational video – Start thinking about what
would be interesting to show. Do you have a friend who’s into martial
arts, or maybe know someone who can demonstrate how to do card tricks
or make yummy treats for a cooking show?
Dramatic Scenes – The best ones are original. Maybe you have a
scene you’ve written or know the perfect person to play a role.
Final Project – Everyone pitches a final project. It can be almost
anything: a comedic skit, a music performance video, a dramatic scene,
a talk show, etc.
Plan ahead! Always think about a month
ahead & about the next several
assignments. You will typically be working on varying stages of several
Pre-production elements (scripts,
lighting plots, etc) must be done & completed
before production. Talent needs time
to rehearse & prepare. You don’t
want someone playing a dramatic role
reading lines off of a teleprompter. Give them time to memorize their lines
The camera accurately
portrays what it sees. GIGO. Make sure
you have something worth watching in front of the camera.
Producers need to
plan on bringing any needed props, edited music
Graphics & teleprompter
scripts need to be prepared ahead of time so we don’t waste lab
time typing in scripts and creating graphics. We’ll
learn more about this in a few weeks.
major assignments / projects
In class exercise (5 points) : Take out a sheet of paper. Write neatly and fill in the following:
- Year at IU
- Areas of study/major
- Personal interests/hobbies
- List one TV show you love & one you hate
- What kind of project would you like to produce in this class?
- Three things you want to learn in this course. Be specific (audio, create, portfolio piece, understanding of lighting etc.)
Check class rosters & numbers
Know the difference between the studio & control room.
Large size. Level, concrete floor. High ceilings
to ensure that
boom mics don't make it into the shot.
room: usually adjacent to a studio. Where the director, TD, audio
do their magic. Not always on same floor. Not always line-of-sight.
Doors: Heavy & soundproof.
There should be big doors for moving
sets, cars & large animals.
double & triple pane windows, sound
deadening wall coverings
Video monitors: preview
monitors, line monitor (aka program monitor)
Intercom system: allows the technical
people to communicate with each other.
according to Zettl its interruptible foldback/feedback. This usually
into the on-air talent’s earphone.
talkback: a P.A. loudspeaker system
from the control room to the
Often done through
an audio recording
Timing: contain digital clocks
that count down & up
Master control: nerve center for all
telecasts. Controls the program input,
retrieval for telecasts.Camera
basics – be sure
to read the cybercollege readings in
- It helps to have 2 people to get a camera out
- Unlock wheels
- Move by pulling on ring
- Always unlock the head before trying to move the camera
- Always lock before letting go – make this automatic
- Review pan & tilt lock
- Dolly in out, truck LR
- Attached to CCUs
What you should know about cameras:
As you read the text, be sure you understand
the following terms and concepts:
- CCD - Stands for Charge Coupled Device.
These chips convert light to electrical
- CMOS - Stands for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. Like
CCDs, these chips also convert light into electrical energy.
- Gain (boosts signal and adds noise)
- Zoom lens
- Zoom ratio: Often given in a ratio or two numbers (eg 12 x 10) The first number represents the minimum focal length in millimeters, and the second number the multiplier. A 12 X 10 zoom lens would have a minimum focal length of 12mm and a maximum focal length of 120mm.
- F-stop (Should memorize standard f-stops) F-stops are inversely related to aperture
or iris opening. (The smaller the f-stop, the larger the opening.)
- Focal length: (Don't confuse with
depth of field!) the distance from
of the lens
to the focal
or target) of
the camera). When focused at infinity,
a 10 mm lens will be 10 mm from the
- Angle of view. Telephoto lenses have
narrow angles of view, while wide angle
- Compressing distance: telephoto lenses
provde the effect of compressing distance
- Changes in apparent speed: Telephoto
lenses also have the effect of slowing
down Z motion.
Z vector is
directly in-line with
as opposed to up and down or let to
- Perspective changes - Wide angle
lenses can cause distortion
- What is normal” A normal lens won't cause visible distortion.
To calculate the normal lens, measure diagonally from corner to corner.
(eg a 50 mm lens would be "normal" for a 35 mm camera.
- Lens speed - lenses which let lots
of light in (have large apertures)
to be "fast". Lenses which
don't let much
light in are said to be "slow".
- Depth of field - the range of distance
that objects will be in focus.
- Relationship between depth of field
- Relationship between lenses (focal length) and depth
- Selective focus
- Follow focus
- Rack focus
- Macro focus
- Auto focus (problems with)
- ND filters
Look at examples
Student introductions. Who can play music, dance, act, etc.
Favorite TV shows? Production experience.
- Mic cabinet/ types of mics
- Cable winding drill
Pin rail system:
- Use gloves
- The battens should be balanced
- Always make sure the cyc is cleared before going up or down
Flas & Props:
- Flats go face to face and back to back
- Clamps should have the handles pointing IN
- Props & furniture MUST be put away
- Aces (Fresnel 1000)
- Deuces (Fresnel 2000)
- Ellipsoidals (Berkey Beam 750)
- Scoops (750/1000)
- Colortran floods (750)
- Ladder/safety cable
- Setting dimmers
- Broken lights go on the back shelfPositions & responsibilities
Above the line & below the line
Producer – Ultimately in charge of a production. Makes
sure show gets produced to high standards, under budget and on time.
Responsible for selecting crew, talent and determining
Director- is like the conductor. Coordinates all of the
actions and makes artistic decisions. Defers to the producer (his/her boss) if an issue arises.
Assistant director – helps
set up shots, keep track of timings, makes sure people and equipment
are ready. Should be able to take over
directing responsibilities if required. In Studio 5 the Asst. Director
runs the teleprompter and countdown timer.
Lighting Director / Gaffer : Responsible for getting the right "look" through lighting. Designs & sets lights.
Technical Director– Operates the video
switcher. On small shows can also direct.
CG – runs the WriteDeko.
Must keep an eye on the program monitor and make sure graphics are advanced
in the right sequence.
Tape Op – handles VTR and Profile playback and recording. Often handles shading & CCUs.
Audio – helps
to have an assistant for complex shows. Sets microphones, talent and
Floor director- Similar to a stage manager. Manages timing, props, & cues talent. It's important that they stand right next to
a camera (in the talent's field of view) and direct the talent to the appropriate camera.
Camera – Runs
camera. On small shows can double as Floor director.
Work through rotation exercise
- Be sure to do readings & review studio exercise for next week
the Critical Viewing Exercise is due at the beginnning of the next lecture!
- Bring in an object you can talk
about and interact with.
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