T356 - Spring 2015 Week 10
Readings: Zettl chapters 17.2, 18 & 19
- Quiz #4 next week (Scripts, rehearsals, unions & blocking)
- PSA productions next week. Your pre-production materials are due this week. Please upload materials to the appropriate Oncourse folders, put your graphics in the Chyron (Be sure to note your message numbers, and NOT to overwrite some else's graphics) and type your script into the teleprompter, saving it in the T356/PSA folder. Your graphics, music
and video clips must be loaded before your scheduled time. Next week there simply won't betime in your 25-minute time slot to make
or download graphics, or type material into the teleprompter. Please do this
ahead of time.
- Wednesday PSA producers - Can any of our lone wolves come in Monday?
- Dramatic scenes: As of labs this week, you have two
weeks to prepare. It's crucial to rehearse. Get the scripts to your talent ASAP.
- Everyone will pitch final project ideas the week after next. (A script is not necessary,
but a proposal and full treatment are. Turned in via Oncourse)
- Review scripts, rehearsals & production people
- Producing musical & dance performances
- Fully scripted: includes every piece of dialog, every
single shot, VTR cues) There are different versions of these for news,
- Semi-scripted: indicates only partial dialogue. The
opening and closing remarks are included. Our Studio 5 Perspectives talk
show is a good example
- Drama script: focuses on dialogue and action, not
specific camera instructions.
- Show format: lists only the particular show segments
(interview with the chairman, commercial, music performance)
- The fact sheet or rundown sheet: performers ad-lib
based on this info. Popular for fund drives and shopping channels.
- Script reading
- Dry Run/Blocking rehearsal
- Walk throughs (Occur shortly before the production
- Technical walk-thru (don’t need talent. Go over lighting, audio,
camera moves etc.)
- Talent Walk-thru (don’t need technical personnel.
- Mark precise positions
- Go through opening lines and skip to individual cue lines
- Combined walk-thru: Can combine, talent, camera & tech in any combination.
- Camera rehearsal/Dress Rehearsal
Production People & Personnel
Production people are often classified as either above the line or below
Unions & Legal Matters: Most broadcast and theatrical writers, directors,
talent belong to a guild or union as do most below the line personnel. While you may not have to necessarily join a union,you will certainly have to interact with members so it's important to understand who they represent and what their interests are.
Non Technical Unions
- Actor's Equity Association -
American actors and stage managers in the theatre. (Affiliated with
- AFTRA American Federation of
TV and Radio Artists. The major union for TV talent. (Affiliated with
- SAG Screen Actors
Guild. The major union for screeen talent. (Affiliated with the AFL-CIO)
- SEG Screen Extras Guild. SEG no longer exists. AFTRA and SAG have
contracts to cover extras.
- AFTRA and SAG both started in the 30s and recently voted to merge.
- AGMA American Guild
of Musical Artists. The major union for stage singers. It represents opera and concert singers, production personnel and dancers at principal opera, concert and dance companies throughout the United States.
- (Affiliated with the AFL-CIO)
- AFM American Federation of Musicians
of the US and Canada. The major union for professional musicians.
- DGA Directors Guild of America
- WGA Writers Guild of America
- IBEW International Brothers of
- NABET National Association
of Broadcast Employees and Technicians - A subset of the Communication
Workers of America
- IATSE International Alliance
of Theatrical Stage Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators
of the US and Canada
If you work with unions you should know their rules (breaks, overtime, salaries etc.).
Producing Multi-camera Performance Pieces
Performances are frequently captured with multiple cameras for TV. Examples include dance such as ballet, comedians, 1-person monologes, and musical performances.
Dance is the most challenging, as the subject is constantly moving. TV is a close-up medium, and it's nearly impossible to capture a dancer with a tight shot unless the dance has been carefully analyzed in advance of the production, or blocked specifically for the camera.
Comedians and 1-person monologues are a little easier, as the subject is not moving as much.
Music is perhaps the easiest, since many of the performers are locked into one location.
Ideally with either any type of performance, it helps to plan ahead and block it in advance. This way when you get to
the drum solo, the guitar solo, or whatever, you can have a camera already
positioned on the instrument or person to be highlighted. The more you know the piece, the better job
you can do.
When you don't know the dance piece or music, you can still do a decent
job, providing you setup your cameras and follow a strategy.
Question: Take a performance involving two dancers. How might you
approach this with three cameras?
How about a concert with a 4-piece rock band?
Lighting - Just like a news or talk show, you want your performers to stand out from the background. A couple of stops difference is nice to get. Lead performers should be a little brighter (E.g. one stop) than the backup performers. Here are a few exampled from SNL:
Camera Coverage Techniques - Regardless of the type of perfromance, the multi-camera director can employ some useful techniques which will make capturing the performance much easier. The main thing you want is proper coverage without jump cuts. This means your cameras will not have the same types of shots. Each camera willl have a different shot to contribute to the mix. Example for a multi-camera band performance:
- Cam 1 - MCU performer on right (looking left)
- Cam 2 - MCU performer on left (looking right)
- Cam 3 - ECU (strumming with tilt-ups to face, fingers on keyboard, etc.)
- Cam 4 / Jib - Always beautiful moving establishing shot
You will have to work for this because camera operators almost always want to pull out to a wide shot.
Always have a safety (wide) shot. In our studio we have a jib. Get the best jib operator to find a few moves that look great, and simply have them repeat these throughout the performance. I suggest avoiding diagonal moves- stick with arm up and down and sweeps left and right.
2 Shots and Medium Shots - Always have a good medium shot or 2-shot to go to. This might be both musicians of a duo, or a medium shot of a solo performer.
Medium Close-Ups - Position your cameras so you get flattering/favorable angles of the performer(s). Make sure the eyelines converge. So someone on the left side of the frame will look right. Someone on the right side will be looking left.
CU & ECU - Have a camera always stay tight on whoever is playing, singing, drumming, etc.
Use the rule of thirds to frame the subject(s) on alternating left and right sides. For example you can have a medium shot of them framed on the right side and cross-dissolve to a close-up on the left. Don't center the subjects for cross-dissolves or they will look bad.
SNL: Miley Cyrus "Wrecking Ball"| Beck "Blue Moon"
Jimmy Fallon: With the muppets playing "The Weight"| Austin Malone "Silent Night"
Carrie Newcomer example (Shot in Studio 5):
Bela Fleck Example:
Austin City Limits does an excellent job with these.
If possible ISO roll the cameras to open up possibilities in edit. This
means that each camera has a dedicated recorder. Camcorders make this
easy. If this is the case and you are going to post it later, be sure
sync all the timecode signals of the various cameras. This is also the
time you may want to use freerunning timecode, as opposed to record running
timecode. Do you know the difference?
Rec run vs free run timecode
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