T356 - Week 6 - spring 2012
- Lighting & audio quiz
- Audio, graphics, studio gear and signal flow quiz in two weeks
- Labs (not lecture) this week are in Geology 226 (Monday) and RTV Production Lab (Wednesday). We'll cover
graphics and do a Photoshop
- News exercise in lab next week. Will need to pick anchors in lab
- Pitch and select Demonstration Videos ideas this week. Will produce
the two weeks after the News Exercise.
- PSAs the following two weeks.
Intro to TV Graphics
Graphics for TV and film cover a broad range:
- Simple titles keyed over someone being interviewed
- The starship Enterprise
- David Letterman's Top 10 Countdown
- The opening to Law & Order
Generally tools used to make the graphics fall into a few categories:
Character generators allow for creation of text and
graphics for TV (Inscriber, WriteDeko, Boris Graffiti) they mainly
focus on text with some support for graphics and still frames. The latest
ones allow for incorporation of moving backgrounds and animations. Dedicated
CGs are the most common graphics tool in a TV studio
Paint & drawing programs let you create flat (2D)
objects and artwork. Examples include Adobe Illustrator, Fractal Painter & Photoshop.
Photoshop is probably the most useful and used piece of software in the
world of web, print, multimedia and video.
3D modeling & layout programs let you create objects
in three-dimensional space. You can create objects and place lights virtual
cameras in 3D space.
If the object rotates and you can see both sides, chances are its a 3D
Movies like Titanic or X-Men rely on programs like Lightwave, Maya,
Softimage and 3D Studio Max to create the ships, people and places.
Compositing and animation programs (such as After Effects)
work mainly in 2 dimensional space, but are offering more and more 3D
capabilities with each release. Even in 2D space, they can provide the
illusion of working in 3D.
Some Graphic Terms you should know:
Leading- the vertical spacing between different lines of text
Kerning- the space between two individual letters. For example
want to kern a small case letter o to fit underneath the
capital letter T.
Tracking the horizontal spacing of an entire group of
Anti-aliasing – A feature in graphics hardware
and software that produces intermediately shaded pixels to smooth out
the appearance of jagged edges
Aspect Ratio - the proportion of height to width. Classic
TV has a 4:3 aspect ratio (1.333). Widescreen TV is 16:9 (1.778).
Codec (Stands for compressor/decompressor) - A codec
is a method for compressing and decompressing digital information. It
can use specialized hardware, software or a combination of both. A
few popular types of codecs:
- DV (used on the Cannon GL1s and JVC DV 500s)
- MPEG-2 (Used on DVD-Video)
- M-JPEG (Used by many non-linea editing systems)
Pixel Aspect Ratios
Computers used to predominantly have 4:3 square pixel displays (640 x 480, 800 x 600, etc). However with the onset new display technology and the need to present 16:9 content, most modern computer displays can support varying pixel aspect ratios. Many digital video
systems use native non-square file formats. Two popular video codecs which use
non-square pixels are:
- DV - (4:3 and 16:9) non-square pixels (720 x 480)
- D1 - (4:3 and 16:9) non-square pixels (720 x 486)
Note that both of these codecs use the same pixel dimensions for both 4:3 and 16:9 content. The difference is that the pixels are stretched out more for widescreen. This is known as anamorphic widescreen.
Adobe Photoshop lets you work in all of the major pixel aspect ratios. Regardless of the format you are working in, always be sure you have the Pixel Aspect Ratio set properly, or items you bring in will become squished or stretched.
Full-pixel dimension HDTV is always 16:9 and uses square pixels.
- HD 720p graphics should be 1280 x 720
- HD 1080 (i or p) graphics should be 1920 x 1080
However many companies have versions ofcodecs that don't use the full pixel dimensions
- DVCPro100 (720) uses 960 x 720 pixels
- DVCPro100 (1080) uses 1280 x 1080
- HDV (1080) uses 1440 x 1080 pixels
They use non-square pixels and stretch them to fill the 16x9 frame.
Fields & Frames
Remember that stuff about interlaced video frames being composed of
This is why if we grab a freeze frame of something with movement,
we will see the two fields flicker back and forth. This is also why in
we want to avoid having thin, horizontal, 1-pixel lines, as they will
flicker on & off. We also should avoid images with extremely fine details
(some pen & ink drawings).
Making graphics - See Jim's Graphic Tips
A few tips: Use high contrast to steer viewer's eyes to the important
part of the graphic- which is usually the text, logos or numbers we are
showing. Use light text/foreground objects on a dark background, or dark
text/foreground objects on a light background.
Use only two or three colors that work well together.
We'll cover more in the lab this week.
[Look at samples]
Make sure you are familiar with Jim's
Graphic Tips. This will be on
the quiz next week.
Hands-on demo this week in the T356
Up to Jim Krause's T356 homepage