Professor Alan Kahan, SciencesPo, Euro-American Campus, Reims, France, and the American Graduate School of International Relations and Diplomacy, Paris
Laurence Amblard, Researcher, Cemagref, UMR Métafort, France, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
Michael McGinnis, Director, Workshop and Professor of Political Science, IUB
Josephine van Zeben, PhD Candidate, University of Amsterdam, Hauser Global Research Fellow 2010-11, New York University of Law
Professor I Ketut Putra Erawan, Executive Director, Institute for Peace and Democracy, Udayana University, Bukit Jimbaran, Bali, Indonesia
Annelien de Dijn, Fellow and Adjunct Professor, Institute for Advanced Study, University of Notre Dame, Indiana, and Assistant Professor in Political Theory, University of Amsterdam
Dr. Michael Cox, Postdoc, Workshop, IUB
Dr. Daniel A. DeCaro, Department of Psychology, Miami University, Oxford, OH, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
Professor David Rose, Professor and Chair, Department of Economics, University of Missouri-St. Louis
Dr. Jesper Larsson, Department of Economics, Agrarian History, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop
Dr. David L. Jones, Director, Indiana University Center on Southeast Asia; Director, International Development; Associate Faculty, Department of Political Science; Office of International Affairs, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI )
Dr. Andreas Thiel, Assistant Professor, Division of Resource Economics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
Professor K. Steven Vincent, Department of History, North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Professor Eduardo Brondízio, Professor and Chair, Department of Anthropology, IUB
Dr. Jennifer Brick Murtazashvili, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Eitan Adres, PhD Student, School of Political Sciences, University of Haifa, Israel
Camilla Risvoll Godø, PhD Candidate, Department of Sociology, University of Nordland, Bodø, Norway
Dr. Catherine Tucker, Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, and Affiliated Faculty, Workshop, IUB
Mr. Francis Gbogbo, Senior Lecturer, Department of Animal Biology and Conservation Science, University of Ghana, Legon - Accra; and Visiting Scholar, African Studies Program, IUB
Gunn Elin Fedreheim, PhD Candidate in Sociology at the University of Nordland and Researcher at Nordland Research Institute, Bodø, Norway; and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
Professor Kathleen Gilbert, Department of Applied Health Science, IUB
Claudia Rodriguez, PhD Candidate, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
Dr. Leonardo Arriola, Assistant Professor, Charles and Louise Travers Department of Political Science, University of California Berkeley, and Fellow at the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, Notre Dame, IN
Professor Robert J. Sampson, Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
Prof. Dr. Claudia Keser, Director, Göttingen Laboratory of Behavioral Economics, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Chair of Microeconomics, Göttingen, Germany
PRESENTATION CANCELED 4-20-11: Disequilibrium Behavior in Contests: Experimental Evidence
Dr. Mayya Sengupta, Postdoctoral Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
Dr. Esther Blanco, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Finance, University of Innsbruck, Austria
Professor Werner Güth, Director Strategic Interaction Group, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, Germany
Prof. Dr. Hartmut Kliemt, Head of Legal Studies and Ethics Department, Institute for International Health Management, Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, Germany
Dr. María Claudia López, Assistant Professor, Department of Rural and Regional Development, School of Environmental and Rural Studies, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia; and Visiting Research Scholar, Department of Public Finance, University of Innsbruck, Austria
Andreas Leibbrandt, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Economics, University of Chicago, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
TOCQUEVILLE, DEMOCRACY, AND ISLAM
Presented by Professor Alan Kahan, SciencesPo, Euro-American Campus, Reims, France, and the American Graduate School of International Relations and Diplomacy, Paris
Abstract: Tocqueville's thought about relationship between religion and politics has frequently been explored, but almost always from the perspective of the relationship between Christianity and government. This paper goes beyond the bounds of Christendom to explore his views about Islam and its political implications. Tocqueville thought that a certain kind of relationship between religion and politics was vital if societies were to maintain freedom in a democratic age. While Tocqueville thought Islam was suitable to maintaining this relationship in many respects, he regarded it as inferior to an ideal Christianity in this regard, because of the lack of separation between mosque and state. However he did not want to replace Islam with Christianity, and it is possible to imagine an Islam which would fulfill the political tasks Tocqueville assigns religion as well as Christianity.
BIO: Alan S. Kahan received his Ph.D. in History from The University of Chicago in 1987. He has taught at the University of Chicago, Rice University, and Florida International University. Since 2006 he has been living and teaching in Paris. His research focuses on the history of political thought in nineteenth-century Europe. He is the author of Aristocratic Liberalism: The Social and Political Thought of Jacob Burckhardt, John Stuart Mill and Alexis de Tocqueville; Liberalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe: The Political Culture of Limited Suffrage; and Alexis de Tocqueville. He has translated Tocqueville's The Old Regime and the Revolution, and co-edited The Tocqueville Reader. Most recently he published Mind vs. Money: The War Between Intellectuals and Capitalism. He is currently working on a book about the relationship between religion and democracy and translating Benjamin Constant's Commentary on Filangieri's Work. Since 2006 he has been living in Paris, where he currently teaches at SciencesPo and at the American Graduate School.
Tocqueville Program and Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis
THE ORGANIZATION OF LANDSCAPE SERVICES PROVISION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Presented by Laurence Amblard, Researcher, Cemagref, UMR Métafort, France, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB (Coauthors: Olivier Aznar, Cemagref Clermont-Ferrant, and Christophe Déprés, Clermont Université, VetagroSup, UMR Métafort, France)
Abstract: Rural landscapes governance has been mainly analyzed as the design of mechanisms to internalize the positive externalities of productive activities (agriculture, forestry). The aim of the paper is to present an alternative framework to analyze landscape supply in rural areas, on the basis of the fields of service economics and new institutional economics. Adopting a service economics perspective allows for broadening the range of actors considered as involved in landscape governance. The major role of local governments in the provision of landscape services is more particularly highlighted. Transaction costs theory is then used to analyze the diversity of organizational forms chosen for the provision of landscape services. A case study on the organization of minor rural roads maintenance in Puy-de-Dôme (France) illustrates the conceptual framework presented. The combination of service economics and new institutional economics proves to be useful for the understanding of landscape governance. The research also contributes to the literature on the organization of local public services provision and the role of transaction costs in public organizational choices.
BIO: Laurence Amblard (visiting scholar at the Workshop) is a researcher at Cemagref, a French public institute in the field of applied research in agriculture and environment. Her current research activities focus on the governance of environmental goods and services in rural areas, with an institutional perspective.
NETWORKS OF ADJACENT ACTION SITUATIONS IN POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE
Presented by Professor Michael McGinnis, Director, Workshop and Professor of Political Science, IUB
Abstract: Within the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, the concept of an action situation generalizes a game to allow for endogenous changes in its rules. This paper re-visits this core concept to explore its potential for serving as the foundation for a systematic approach to the construction of more elaborate models of complex policy networks in which overlapping sets of actors have the ability to influence the rules under which their strategic interactions take place. Networks of adjacent action situations can be built on the basis of the seven distinct types of rules that define an action situation or by representing generic governance tasks identified in related research on local public economies. The potential of this extension of the IAD framework is demonstrated with simplified network representations of three diverse policy areas (Maine lobster fisheries, international development assistance, and the contribution of faith-based organizations to U.S. welfare policy).
BIO: Michael D. McGinnis is Professor in the Department of Political Science at Indiana University, Bloomington. He serves as Director of the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, an inter-disciplinary research and teaching center focused on the study of institutions, development, and governance. The Workshop was initially established in 1973 by Vincent and Elinor Ostrom, and its continuing importance was dramatically recognized when Elinor Ostrom was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences.
McGinnis received a B.S. in mathematics from the Ohio State University in 1980 and a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Minnesota in 1985, and he has worked at IU ever since. In his early research Prof. McGinnis used game theory to model arms races, alliances, wars, peace negotiations, and other interactions between domestic and international politics. He has published several articles in political science and international relations journals, as well as chapters in edited volumes. He is coauthor, with John T. Williams, of Compound Dilemmas: Democracy, Collective Action, and Superpower Rivalry (University of Michigan Press, 2001) and editor of three volumes of readings on governance issues written by scholars associated with the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. He was coeditor of International Studies Quarterly (1994-98).
Professor McGinnis teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in public policy and institutional analysis (Introduction to Theories of Public Policy; Religion, Politics, and Public Policy; Implementation Challenges of Governance Reform; Public Policy Analysis), and research methods. Earlier in his career he taught several courses in world politics (Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control; Coping with War; Democracy and National Security; Nations, States, and Boundaries).
This paper is forthcoming in Policy Studies Journal 39 (1) (March 2011), 45-72, and a draft version is posted at http://php.indiana.edu/~mcginnis/naas.pdf.Monday, February 7, 2011
PROPERTY RULES, LIABILITY RULES, AND UNENFORCEABILITY: A THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEW OF THE CATHEDRAL
Presented by Josephine van Zeben, PhD Candidate, University of Amsterdam, Hauser Global Research Fellow 2010-11, New York University of Law NYU Law-Hauser Research Scholars (Coauthor: Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Dari-Mattiacci, Professor of Law, Amsterdam Center for Law & Economics, University of Amsterdam)
Abstract: In their landmark paper, Property Rules, Liability Rules, and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral, Calabresi and Melamed identified three ways in which legal entitlements can be protected: property rules, liability rules, and inalienability. However, the categorization of a right as inalienable does not preempt all violations of said right. This means that the choice between property or liability rule protection also applies to inalienable rights. This observation leads us to a new three-dimensional view of the Cathedral, based on three choices: (1) protecting one party or the other, (2) classifying the entitlement as alienable or inalienable, and (3) using property or liability rules as protection. Moreover, there is an additional third option regarding the protection of entitlements: "unenforceability". Under this form of protection, no remedy is granted. This paper sets out to complete the three-dimensional view of the Cathedral by first repositioning the concept of inalienability as a species of entitlement rather than a remedy and second, demonstrating that the choice in remedies is not a binary one between property and liability rules but in fact is a tripartite choice including the option of no remedy. Finally, we identify the foundations of the Cathedral in the Roman law notions of lex perfecta (property rule), lex minus quam perfecta (liability rule), and lex imperfecta (unenforceability).
BIO: Josephine van Zeben is a Hauser Research Scholar at New York University and working on her PhD in environmental law and economics at the Amsterdam Center for Law and Economics and the Amsterdam Center for Environmental Law. She received her Bachelor's degree in Social Sciences at University College Utrecht (UCU) in 2004. During this time, she also studied at the University of Bologna where she completed her minor in Art History. She continued her legal education at the University of Edinburgh where she graduated in 2006 with a LL.B degree in Scots Law and thereafter at the University of Amsterdam where she completed her studies with an LL.M. in European Private Law in 2008. She was also a visiting researcher at the Economic Development Foundation (Iktisadi Kalkinma Vakfi) in Istanbul during the summer of 2008.
PROMOTING DEMOCRACY AND PEACE IN ASIA: THE BALI DEMOCRACY FORUM FRAMEWORK
Presented by Professor I Ketut Putra Erawan, Executive Director, Institute for Peace and Democracy, Udayana University, Bukit Jimbaran, Bali, Indonesia
Drs., Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (1989)
M.A., Department of Political Science, Ohio State University, USA (1995)
Ph.D., Department of Political Science, Northern Illinois University, USA (2003)
Dr. Erawan's expertises are Comparative Politics (Parties and Elections, Constitutional and Institutional Design and Women in Politics), Public Policy (Decentralization and Program Evaluation), Political Methodology and Political Economy.
Prior to his appointment as the Executive Director of the Institute for Peace and Democracy by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia in 2008, Dr. Erawan was the Director of Graduate Program of Political Science (2004-2008) and the Director of Master Program of Human Rights and Democracy (2007-2008), both at Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. In 2006-2008 Dr. Erawan served as expert for the Ministry of Interior Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia in Developing Package Law of Politics and in reviewing the Law of Electoral Commission. He was also the the Special Advisor in Democratic Promotion for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia (2009-2010).
At the Faculty of Social and Political Science, Gadjah Mada University, Dr. Erawan teaches at the Department of Government, the Graduate Program of Political Science and the Graduate Program of Local Politics and Regional Autonomy. He taught at the Graduate School of Peace and Conflict Resolution, Gadjah Mada University. Dr. Erawan also teaches at the Faculty of Social and Political Science and Doctoral program of People Economy, Department of Economics, both at Udayana University, Bali.
As the Executive Director of the Institute for Peace and Democracy, in 2008, 2009 and 2010 Dr. Erawan served as member of the Indonesian delegation in the Bali Democracy Forum. In 2009 he was member of the Indonesian delegation in the 64th United Nations General Assembly Meeting, New York. Dr. Erawan became chair or source person in the Election Visiting Program in Indonesia (2009), the Philippines, Japan and Australia (2010). On September 2010 he represented Indonesia in the bilateral meeting between Indonesia and the US in "Working Group on Democracy and Civil Societies", held in Washington, D.C. In addition, he chairs and serves as source person in the joint programs between IPD and its partners held in Bali, Jakarta, Canberra, Manila and Japan.
Dr. Erawan is the advisor for the Association for the Indonesian Political Scientist, Bali chapter, Steering Committee member for the Australia-Indonesia Governance Research Publication (AIGRP) and Academic Committee member for the Rotary Center for International Studies in Peace and Conflict Resolution at Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
Dr. Erawan has consulted the World Bank, World Bank Institute and the United Nations for Development Programs in Indonesia. He also becomes speaker or source person in various seminars and workshops.
In 1993 Dr. Erawan was awarded Fulbright Scholarship to take Master's degree at Ohio State University. While working on his Doctorate degree at Northern Illinois University, he was awarded Henry Luce Award (1997) and Percy Buchanan Prize Award (1999). In 2009 Dr. Erawan was awarded the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Golden Anniversary Award, Northern Illinois University.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
ON POLITICAL LIBERTY: MONTESQUIEU'S MISSING MANUSCRIPT
Presented by Annelien de Dijn, Fellow and Adjunct Professor, Institute for Advanced Study, University of Notre Dame, Indiana, and Assistant Professor in Political Theory, University of Amsterdam Notre Dame Fellows
Abstract: This paper draws attention to the importance of Montesquieu's earliest and unpublished writings on liberty for our understanding of the famous eleventh book of The Spirit of the Laws. Montesquieu's investigation of the nature and preconditions of liberty, I argue, was much more polemical than it is usually assumed. As an analysis of his notebooks shows, Montesquieu set out to wrest control over the concept of liberty from the republican admirers of classical antiquity, a faction which he believed to be dangerously populist and revolutionary. In order to do so, Montesquieu came up with a redefinition of the concept of liberty that allowed him to argue that monarchical subjects could be just as free as republican citizens. This conclusion has important implications not just for our understanding of Montesquieu's writings, but also and more broadly for our understanding of the intellectual history of liberalism.
BIO: Annelien de Dijn is the author of French Political Thought from Montesquieu to Tocqueville: Liberty in a Levelled Society (Cambridge University Press, 2008). She is currently a Fellow at the Notre Dame Institute for Advanced Study and she will take up a position as Assistant Professor in Political Theory at the University of Amsterdam in July 2011. Her research focuses on the history of political thought in Europe and in the United States from 1700 to the present. She has a particular interest in the fraught and contested birth of democracy in the West. Dr. de Dijn has held visiting appointments at Columbia University, Cambridge University, the Remarque Institute at NYU and the University of California at Berkeley. A past recipient of Fulbright and B.A.E.F. fellowships, she was educated at the University of Leuven in Belgium and at Columbia University.
BUILDING AN ONTOLOGY FOR DIAGNOSING SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
Presented by Dr. Michael Cox, Postdoc, Workshop, IUB
Abstract: In this paper we address three problems that have historically challenged scholars conducting research in environmental management and policy. These problems include: (1) the complexity that results from the interactions among a large set of relevant variables; (2) an historical reliance on overly simplified policy prescriptions that do not adequately account for this complexity; and (3) the isolation of separate research projects that analyze a subset of these relevant variables, without synthesizing knowledge of their interdependent effects. We discuss the potential that a diagnostic analytical approach, particularly when implemented with an ontology, has in addressing each one of these problems.
BIO: Michael Cox is a graduate of the PhD program in Public Affairs at the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University. He is currently a Postdoc at the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at IU
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF SELF-GOVERNANCE IN THE COMMONS
Presented by Dr. Daniel A. DeCaro, Department of Psychology, Miami University, Oxford, OH, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
Abstract: The purpose of this talk is to discuss a research project proposal. Specifically, I hope to receive critical design feedback, as well as advice about how to pose the conceptual framework (e.g., for grant proposals). The proposed laboratory experiment seeks to examine the underlying motivational and perceptual underpinnings of cooperative behavior in social dilemma situations. Social-psychological needs (e.g., the desire for self-determination, affiliation/belonging, and security) have been identified as critical drivers of human behavior. Furthermore, institutional identity (an individual's extent and type of self-identification with a set of rules/norms) seems to underlie important behaviors in institutional and organizational contexts. With these phenomena in mind, the present research proposal asks whether and how various commonplace institutional arrangements (e.g., participatory versus non-participatory governance procedures and punishments) impact the social-psychological needs and institutional identity of stakeholders in a common-pool resource dilemma situation (e.g., Ostrom et al., 1992; Janssen et al., 2010), to then impact their rule compliance and cooperative behaviors.
BIO: Daniel A. DeCaro is a post-doctoral visiting scholar at the Workshop here at Indiana University, Bloomington (August 2010-August 2011). As a cognitive scientist trained also in social psychology (i.e., experimental social cognition), Daniel specializes in the laboratory- and field-based study of individual- and group-level motivation and decision-making processes in institutional settings. In particular, his research investigates the role that social-psychological motives (e.g., desire for self-determination) and the perceived fairness of institutional administrative processes (i.e., procedural justice) play in individuals' and groups' motivational and decisional reactions to institutional policy. The primary goals of his research are to (1) develop a comprehensive behavioral choice theory grounded in a view of humans as economic and social beings and to (2) apply such a view to institutional analysis and policy design. At the Workshop, Daniel hopes to engage in novel laboratory and field research examining the role that social-psychological motives play in stakeholders' willingness to voluntarily supply and maintain institutional policies. He also hopes to draw on the collective knowledge of the Workshop to identify opportunities to synthesize psychology, political science, economics and other fields for the study and application of participatory, community-based solutions to common-pool resource dilemmas.
THE MORAL FOUNDATION OF ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR: A FRAMEWORK FOR NEW RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
Presented by Professor David Rose, Professor and Chair, Department of Economics, University of Missouri-St. Louis
Discussion of author's book: The Moral Foundation of Economic Behavior: Maximizing Prosperity Through a Culture of Trust.
Book Abstract: The key to maximizing prosperity is cooperating in large groups. This book explains why immoral behavior becomes a bigger impediment to cooperation the larger groups are. It then identifies the kind of moral beliefs that best support the development and operation of a market economy by solving this fundamental problem.
Book Synopsis: Events ranging from the Enron scandal to our current global financial meltdown remind us that immoral behavior can undermine even the mightiest economies. This book explores whether there is a moral foundation to economic behavior and explains why moral beliefs can and likely do play an important role in the development and operation of market economies.
It first shows why the maximization of general prosperity requires that people can genuinely trust others, including others whom they know don't particularly care about them. The higher is the proportion of such people in a society, the lower are transaction costs and therefore the larger is the set of transactions through which the gains from specialization can be effectuated.
It then identifies characteristics that moral beliefs must have to make it possible for people to trust each other even when there is no chance of detection and no possibility of hurting anyone. When moral beliefs with these characteristics are held by a sufficiently high proportion of the population, a high trust society emerges that supports maximum cooperation and creativity while permitting honest competition at the same time.
The required characteristics are not tied to any specific religious narrative and have nothing to do with the moral earnestness of individuals or even the set of moral values. Poor people and poor countries are therefore not poor because they are insufficiently moral or because they value the wrong things. What really matters is how the content of moral beliefs logically structures the relationship between moral values, thereby affecting the way people think about morality.
The required characteristics are based on abstract ideas that must be learned, so they are matters of culture and not genes, and are therefore potentially capable of explaining differences in material success across human societies over the course of human history.
BIO: David C. Rose is a professor of economics at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. His primary areas of research interest are behavioral economics, organization theory, political economy, and the role culture plays in market economies. In his paper, "Competition, Cooperation, and the Neighboring Farmer Effect" (with S. Braguinsky) (Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2009) he explains how cooperation can emerge spontaneously to promote technology adoption even among rival firms in a highly competitive market. His most recent paper, "The Effect of Infant Industry Protection on Technology Diffusion and Industrial Development" (with Braguinsky, Gabdrakhmanov, and Ohyama — under review) explores the development implications of the trade-off between strong incentives and a high rate of technological diffusion. He has a book titled The Moral Foundation of Economic Behavior forthcoming from Oxford University Press in August 2011. He frequently contributes to policy debates through radio and television interviews as well as Op-Eds in papers like the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, The Word on Business, The School Choice Advocate, Forbes, The Washington Times, and The Christian Science Monitor on topics ranging from social security, monetary policy, fiscal policy, and healthcare reform.
He regularly teaches principles, price theory, graduate micro theory, mathematical economics, and a course in the theory of the firm. He received his Ph.D. in 1987 from the University of Virginia with fields in Industrial Organization, Money, and Finance.
THE RISE, EXPANSION AND DECLINE OF A TRANSHUMANCE SYSTEM IN SWEDEN 1550-1920
Presented by Dr. Jesper Larsson, Department of Economics, Agrarian History, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop
Abstract: The paper is about summer farms (fäbodar) in Sweden, analyzing how the agrarian economy in the north of Sweden developed from the sixteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century. The aim is to understand the impact of summer farms in the agricultural economy and their role in the development of agriculture before and during the Agrarian Revolution. The paper deals with economic aspects of the summer farms, with the emphasis on production and organization.
To understand this specific agricultural system, theories about agricultural systems, the organization of human collaboration, material culture and division of labor are used. Theories about the management of common-pool resources (CPR's) are central for the analysis. The establishment of summer farms enabled the expansion of stockbreeding and was connected to secondary occupations, and thereby a prerequisite for the division of homesteads.
The summer farms and the agricultural development in Northern Sweden were part of a general European trend in the early modern period. People started to work harder with more division of labor. The increase of work was connected to an increase in trade. The leap in agricultural development in Northern Sweden would not have been possible without the female workforce on the summer farms. The advantage of the agricultural system in the north of Sweden was lost when livestock grazing and fodder collection moved to the fields during the second half of the twentieth century.
BIO: Jesper Larsson (visiting scholar at the Workshop) obtained a Ph.D. in agrarian history at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) in 2009 with a dissertation on summer farms as an important element in North Sweden's agricultural system during early modern period. His research interest includes agricultural systems, settlements and the management of common-pool resources.
TOWARD AN INTEGRATIVE MICROFINANCE MODEL FOR COMMUNAL CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Presented by Dr. David L. Jones, Director, Indiana University Center on Southeast Asia; Director, International Development; Associate Faculty, Department of Political Science; Office of International Affairs, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI )
Abstract: While poverty and underdevelopment generally are at the root of many contemporary international conflicts, conventional development strategies may exacerbate matters in divided communities. I will propose a refinement integrating some of the ideas of Nobel Laureates Amartya Sen and Muhammad Yunus. Special attention will be given to possibilities for implementing this model experimentally in a seemingly intractable case in Indonesia. Discussion and feedback concerning these preliminary ideas will be welcome.
BIO: David L. Jones holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from Indiana University Bloomington. His primary field of study is International Relations with special interest in international conflict dynamics and management. He is currently Director of the Indiana University Center on Southeast Asia and Director of International Development at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis. He also teaches in the Political Science Departments in Bloomington and Indianapolis.
His focus has evolved over time from formal and abstract studies of conflict dynamics to practical international development initiatives for reducing sources of conflict. Much of this work focuses currently on Indonesia.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
RESEARCHING THE SCALAR ORGANIZATION OF RESOURCE GOVERNANCE IN EUROPE: THE CASES OF EUROPEAN MARINE AND WATER MANAGEMENT
Presented by Dr. Andreas Thiel, Assistant Professor, Division of Resource Economics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB (Coauthor: Catrin Egerton, Centre for Environmental and Sustainability Research, New University of Lisbon, Caparica, Portugal)
Abstract: The paper reports on research on the scalar reorganization of water governance in Portugal, partly as an outcome of the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The colloquium will be dedicated to developing a broader framework for researching this type of phenomenon, the scalar (re-)organization of natural resource governance in the European Union. This research agenda is inspired by critical geographers' work on the politics of scale. The described processes may imply shifts in administrative levels, shifts in relations between different levels and changes in spatial delimitations of competent jurisdictions that result, for example, from decentralization or the introduction of river basin oriented administrative structures. The framework is tailored to the research on the implications of two European Directives: the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). They both have potentially great significance for the organization of governance at the level of Member States and below, and adhere to similar regulatory ideas for achieving good ecological status of waters. Illustrative empirical illustrations of the framework will be derived from the explanation of changes in water governance in Spain, and Portugal. The research views the role of social ecological transactions as being of specific importance as well as the structure of decision making processes and changes in contextual factors (such as ideologies, interdependent institutions, technology and relative value of the resource as production factor).
BIO: Andreas Thiel is currently a Visiting Scholar at the Workshop and Assistant Professor at the Division of Resource Economics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. His research interest is the transformation of natural resource governance in the European Union with a specific focus on water and marine governance.
BENJAMIN CONSTANT AND FRENCH PLURALIST LIBERALISM
Presented by Professor K. Steven Vincent, Department of History, North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Abstract:My paper will argue that a full-blown political pluralism emerged with the thought of Germaine de Staël and Benjamin Constant in the late-1790s. Drawing from the tradition of religious pluralism that extended back to the sixteenth century, and from critics of administrative centralization of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and facing the political dilemma of revolutionary authoritarianism, Staël and Constant developed a liberal pluralism that had religious, administrative, and political dimensions. They defined the contours of a stable constitutional order that would protect the civil and political gains of the Revolution, but avoid the utopian aspirations and authoritarian means recommended by the impatient of the Right and Left.
BIO: K. Steven Vincent is a Professor of History at North Carolina State University. His publications include Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and the Rise of French Republican Socialism (Oxford, 1984); Between Marxism and Anarchism: Benoit Malon and French Reformist Socialism (Univ. of CA, 1992); and Benjamin Constant and the Birth of French Liberalism (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2011).
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS, GLOBAL MARKETS, AND FAMILY DECISIONS: CROSS-SCALE INTERACTIONS AND THE EMERGENCE OF SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL COMPLEXITY IN THE AMAZON
Presented by Professor Eduardo Brondízio, Professor and Chair, Department of Anthropology, IUB
Abstract: Few regions of the world have experienced a process of socio-demographic, environmental, and institutional transformation as intense as the Brazilian Amazon during the past 40 years. Fair to its continental scale and long social, political, and economic history, it is a region where exponential change and unpredictability have been rather the norm. Infrastructure expansion, population growth, forest conversion, commodity production, social movements, urbanization, and a myriad of new institutional arrangements underlie an evolving matrix of social-institutional-territorial complexity. This presentation has two interrelated goals. First, it reflects on the challenges confronted by social scientists when examining the interactions and outcomes between 'micro' and 'macro' processes, structural and agency factors, underlying social transformation, and the trajectories of environmental change in dynamic regions such as the Brazilian Amazon. Second, this analysis is grounded on an examination of the place and role of rural populations frequently considered irrelevant to the understanding of recent regional transformations or dismissed as inconsequential for its future. The analysis is based on research examples and published work concerning different processes and parts of the region and social segments of the so-called Amazonian peasantry. Without disregarding other factors and social groups, it contends that understanding the region today and its emerging social-institutional-territorial complexity is predicated on examining its rural population dynamics, the expectations and goals of families, their social networks and presence in urban areas, and their ubiquitous insertion into the region's territorial governance and resource economy. It argues against the overemphasis on macro-level forces, which has marked interpretations of regional change and prognostic modeling, and in favor of more attention to cross-scale and cyclical interactions. It does so by discussing the interplay between structural-historical conditions and family and community-level decisions in response to old constrains and new opportunities while in the process contributing to shape the form and direction, often in unpredicted ways, of regional transformation. From such interplay, new socio-demographic, institutional, and environmental patterns are emerging in different parts of the region, which in turn continue a process of reconfiguring the Amazon as a whole.
BIO: Eduardo S. Brondízio is Professor and Chair of the Department of Anthropology, Adjunct Professor in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs (SPEA), and Associate Director of the Anthropological Center for Training and Research on Global Environmental Change (ACT), and a member of the larger 'Workshop' community at Indiana University-Bloomington. He has been committed to develop a collaborative field-, ethnographic-, and laboratory-based research program dedicated to the Amazon region since the late 1980s. He has published widely on issues of Amazonian peasantry and economic identity, small farmers, households, and globalization, people-forest interactions, local and regional land use and cover change, rural-urban interactions, and integrative multilevel methodologies and human-environmental issues more broadly. His recent book (2008) The Amazonian Caboclo and the Açaí Palm: Forest Farmers in the Global Market, published by the New York Botanical Garden Press, received the 2010 Mary W. Klinger Book Award of the Society for Economic Botany. He is the coeditor of a new volume (2010) The Amazon Várzea: The Decade Past and the Decade Ahead published by Springer Publishers and The New York Botanical Garden Press.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
UNDERSTANDING THE LIMITS OF SELF-GOVERNANCE: AN ANALYSIS OF INTER-COMMUNITY COOPERATION IN RURAL AFGHANISTAN
Presented by Dr. Jennifer Brick Murtazashvili, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Abstract: In recent years, academics, foreign militaries, and practitioners have begun to understand the importance of customary village institutions in maintaining order, among other things, in rural Afghanistan. We have come to understand a great deal about cooperation within communities, but still understand very little about how, or if, communities cooperate with one another in the absence of cohesive state authority. This paper considers the problem of inter-community cooperation to produce public goods in rural Afghanistan. Consideration of this level of analysis—the inter-community level—is particularly important in a failed state because individual communities that are internally well-organized operate in a world that for all practical purposes is anarchic in the sense that there is no authority beyond the village. In some cases, communities are able to overcome collective action dilemmas and achieve cooperative outcomes. This paper will explore the conditions under which communities are able to achieve cooperative outcomes and by doing so provide key guidance to state builders by highlighting the strength and the weakness of self-governance in the Afghan context.
BIO: Jennifer Murtazashvili is an Assistant Professor at the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh. She is currently completing a book manuscript on customary governance and state building in Rural Afghanistan for which she conducted extensive fieldwork. She holds an MA in Agricultural and Applied Economics (2006) as well as a PhD in Political Science both from the University of Wisconsin-Madison (2009).
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
GLOBALIZATION AND CONTRIBUTION TO A NATIONAL PUBLIC GOOD
Presented by Eitan Adres, PhD Student, School of Political Sciences, University of Haifa, Israel (Coauthors: Pieter Vanhuysse, European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Vienna; and Dana R. Vashdi, University of Haifa, School of Political Science, Department of Public Administration and Policy)
Abstract: The article inquires about the role of globalization on individual commitment to the state by studying the tendency of high-school students to evade obligatory military service in Israel. We define five dimensions of the Individual's Level of Globalism (ILG) and examine their impact on degrees of military service commitment. We suggest a new non-dichotomous approach by considering, in addition to full evasion and full commitment to combat service, the option of quasi-evasion: to serve, but in a risk-free role. Investigating a sample of 2,705 11th and 12th grade students, we find that quasi-evasion is widespread, involving 54% of all respondents and 40% of all males. More 'globalized' individuals, those lacking active local ties and those with high levels of consumerism show a significantly greater tendency to evade military service. Counter to our expectations, students with lower levels of individualism also show a significantly greater tendency to evade military service.
The article "The Individual's Level of Globalism and Citizen Commitment to the State: The Tendency to Evade Military Service in Israel" is forthcoming in Armed Forces and Society and available here with the permission of the publisher.
VULNERABILITY AND ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF COASTAL COMMUNITIES IN THE FACE OF CLIMATE CHANGE — A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Presented by Camilla Risvoll Godø, PhD Candidate, Department of Sociology, University of Nordland, Bodø, Norway
Abstract: Social-ecological systems are increasingly experiencing interacting pressures from human activities in an interconnected global society. Climate change operates at multiple scales and is believed to largely impact on ecosystems as well as livelihoods for people depending on it. Local people have experienced such climatic fluctuations over the years, and thus have their own adaptation strategies based on traditional knowledge and experience. It is important to acknowledge this knowledge as an asset that can be integrated with scientific knowledge. Communication and participation is necessary in order for this to be possible, however this does often not occur (Anisimov et al. 2007). Adger et al. (2009) point out that an intertwined web of social, ecological and physical factors can limit adaptive responses to climate change. My planned project seeks to examine the complexity within strategies of adaptation in social-ecological systems in a north-south context. The northern context will most probably consist of a case from Northern Norway, and southern settings will most likely be from Sri Lanka and Australia. Institutional aspects, governance and ecological thresholds play key roles in the processes of adaptation and within the vulnerability context. I seek to examine such processes generating vulnerability and adaptive capacity faced by change. As such, an interdisciplinary approach in integrating sociological and ecological theoretical perspectives will be obtained, which is aimed to guide me in the analysis of human-ecosystem interactions. Avenues within institutional analysis and systems modeling may be suitable ways to approach this complexity.
BIO: Camilla Risvoll Godø commenced working on her PhD in Sociology at University of Nordland in August 2010, so she in the very early stages of her project. She obtained her previous university degrees from the University of Queensland, Australia, and the University of Life Sciences, Norway. Parts of her studies have been undertaken in Uganda and Sri Lanka. She previously lived in Australia for seven years , where she worked in the agricultural sector as well as studying for her Bachelors degree.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
OVERCOMING THE ODDS: CREATING A COMMUNITY-MANAGED PROTECTED AREA ON DISPUTED LAND
Presented by Dr. Catherine Tucker, Associate Professor, Department of Anthropology, and Affiliated Faculty, Workshop, IUB
Abstract: Defining and enforcing appropriate property rights for common-pool resources presents an enduring conundrum. The problem is particularly difficult when multiple stakeholders assert rights, the resource base is threatened by incursions, and property rights are disputed. The Montaña Camapara Reserve in Honduras exists within these challenges to property rights and sustainable management. The reserve was formed in 2001 by three municipalities that share communal rights to the mountain; they have fought over their boundaries for more than a century. In 1995, one of the municipalities obtained a national land title that included most of the mountain, despite objections from its neighbors. The mountain's springs provide water for nearly two dozen villages. Its land is coveted by coffee growers and farmers, who began clearing the mountain during the 1990s. In this context, people in surrounding villages became concerned for their water supply, and formed a grassroots movement to protect the mountain. The movement's supporters pressured municipal authorities to create a reserve and remove landholders. Over the course of nearly a decade, about 20 farmers agreed to relocation, residents cooperated to fence the reserve, and the three municipal governments reached an accord to defend the mountain from further incursions. The reserve's creation occurred without state support, therefore its emergence contradicts the dominant notion that successful, strictly protected reserves require state intervention. Recently, forest cover has been regenerating where farmers abandoned land, but the national government has not recognized the reserve and formal property rights remain in dispute. This study explores how the watershed reserve developed collaboratively and why it has endured despite ongoing tensions. The analysis points to the importance of transparent negotiations, participation of all disputing factions, building of shared understanding, and the widespread conviction that the reserve serves the common good.
BIO: Catherine Tucker's work focuses on collective action for natural resource management, and linkages among local, regional and national institutional arrangements as they relate to social-environmental change and globalization. She is currently studying how the expansion of export coffee in western Honduras is transforming community institutions and traditions of forest management, land use and governance, and how farmers are adapting to climate change and market volatility. In related work, she examines the tensions between socioeconomic pressures and environmental conservation in protected areas. She also participates in collaborative efforts to address the sustainability of food production, distribution and consumption in Bloomington. Recent publications include articles in Ecology and Society, Human Ecology, Human Organization, Global Environmental Change, Current Conservation, and Society and Natural Resources, and two books, Changing Forests: Collective Action, Common Property and Coffee in Honduras (Springer Academic Press 2008) and Coffee Culture: Local Experiences, Global Connections (Routledge 2010).
CONSERVATION AND UTILIZATION OF COASTAL WETLANDS IN GHANA
Presented by Mr. Francis Gbogbo, Senior Lecturer, Department of Animal Biology and Conservation Science, University of Ghana, Legon - Accra; and Visiting Scholar, African Studies Program, IUB
Abstract: Waterbird populations around the world continue to decrease despite major global conservation efforts that target wetlands and their resources. This presentation will discuss on-going wetland conservation efforts and research in the coast of Ghana — an important area for wintering Palearctic migrant waterbirds of the East Atlantic and the Mediterranean flyways. It will lead evidence that human fishing practices in Ghana's coastal wetlands are in 1) direct competition with crab- and fish-eating birds because of the overlap of same-sized fish and crabs, and 2) indirect competition because many fish and crabs do not attain adulthood before they are exploited. In order to ensure that fish stock levels are sustained or improved and that adequate recruitment takes place for the benefit of both humans and waterbirds, the research suggests an urgent need to enforce compliance with fishing regulations.
BIO: Francis Gbogbo is currently a Visiting Scholar at the African Studies Program and a Senior Lecturer at Department of Animal Biology and Conservation Science, University of Ghana. He has submitted a PhD thesis at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) on factors affecting waterbird populations in coastal wetlands in Ghana. He received his BSc in Zoology from the University of Ghana and MSc in Environmental Science from the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. His recent publications include articles in Bird Population Journal (The Institute of Bird Populations, 2010) and African Journal of Aquatic Science (NISC Pty Ltd 2008).
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
NATIONAL PARKS IN NORWAY AS SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM: WILDLIFE, CONFLICT IN USE, AND COMMUNITY-BASED MANAGEMENT
Presented by Gunn Elin Fedreheim, PhD Candidate in Sociology at the University of Nordland and Researcher at Nordland Research Institute, Bodø, Norway; and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB (Coauthor: Ester Blanco, Department of Public Finance, University of Innsbruck, Austria)
Abstract: This paper analyzes National Parks in Norway as socio-ecological systems, focusing on conflicts resulting from wildlife conservation. Traditional users of National Parks like fishers, hunters, and supervisors have different interests in wildlife. Supervisors' main economic activity is negatively affected by carnivores and competing herbivores to livestock. At the same time, some forms of nature conservation are compelling to them; securing the pasture for herbivores (which are prey for wild carnivores), restrictions on technical interventions in the area, and restrictions in non-supervisors' use of motorized transportation. Supervisors might therefore support area conservation, but might at the same time lobby against wildlife conservation.
Fishers and hunters are more supportive of conservation of wildlife, as are other non-consumptive actors such as tourists. The former group supports wildlife conservation as long as they can still extract animals of some species. The latter group supports wildlife conservation for contemplative experiences when visiting protected areas.
An increase of tourists and their related expenditure in Norway is creating a debate on the role of human activity on the ecological systems of National Parks. This comes at a time where the governance structure is shifting from a top-down approach to other more participatory mechanisms that to a greater extent involve landowners and local supervisors, fishers, and hunters.
Data has been collected in various protected areas (national parks and landscape protection areas) in Northern Norway during 2005-2010. Findings show that there is not a clear connection between the degree of public participation and policy formation. This indicates that measures to favor participation do not necessarily lead to a greater acceptance of policy measures when it comes to balancing various interests in wildlife conservation.
BIO: Gunn Elin Fedreheim is a PhD Candidate in sociology at the University of Nordland, and works as a researcher at Nordland Research Institute. Her main research interest is in policy design and implementation, and institutional changes in the environmental field. Empirically she has focused her work on management of natural resources with a specific focus on the tensions between conservation and use of protected areas. In her dissertation, she studies how a policy for increasing nature based tourism in protected areas in Norway has been implemented, and how the content of the policy is designed throughout the implementation phase. The paper presented at the colloquium is co-authored with Workshopper Ester Blanco (Department of Public Finance, University of Innsbruck), and earlier drafts have been presented both at the Y673 Mini-Conference of the Workshop and at the 13th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of the Commons.
UNDERSTANDING COMMUNITY FROM THE GROUND UP: HEALTH AND FACILITATORS OF HEALTH IN BEDFORD, INDIANA
Presented by Professor Kathleen Gilbert, Department of Applied Health Science, IUB
Abstract: Often, when we are interested in a community phenomenon, we tend to explore it at the community level, using our own conceptual orientation to understand what we see, potentially obscuring unique perspectives of individuals within that community. These essentially invisible perspectives may be the key to understanding the community at a deeper level, a problem when the goal of our study is, in any way, related to intervention in that community.
Earlier this year, the Workshop sponsored a small-scale study in Bedford, Indiana, in which the participants were asked to define 'health' and to describe facilitators of health maintenance and reclamation. The nature of their definitions, as well as the perceived role of the informal health caregiving network as well as the formal health care system is described. In addition, I will propose ways in which these findings indicate how a number of metaphors from family systems theory, including metaphors related to system structure, system boundaries, and system control can have broader community implications.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND LAND USE CHANGE IN THE MAYAN FOREST
Presented by Claudia Rodriguez, PhD Candidate, School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
Abstract: The growing evidence of the negative impacts of climate change on livelihoods suggests that the implementation of household based adaptation strategies is likely to grow dramatically in the next few decades. Household adaptation could become a critical factor in environmental change, as its effects span over time and across social and ecological systems. Without understanding of the likely effects of adaptation on environmental change, efforts to foster adaptation can produce unintended effects. The paper assesses how household-based adaptation strategies, together with a range of factors, such as institutions, governance, and socioeconomic conditions, influence land use change, as a specific form of environmental change. The focus is on households' adaptation strategies in the form of migration, storage, diversification, exchange and pooling, given their historic use by different societies to adapt to climatic, economic, or political changes. The paper investigates the research question through a comparative analysis of households from forty six communities in the Mayan Forest Massif.
The research findings show that, in the context of the Mayan Forest Massif, adaptation exercises a critical influence on land use change. Yet, the influence of adaptation on land use change depends on the socioeconomic and institutional context within which they occur. The effects of the studied adaptation strategies on land use change vary. The expected value of land use change increases when people rely on government aid or follow storage as adaptation strategy. On the contrary, the expected value decreases if people choose to commercialize, diversify or pool to adapt. These results can yield useful lessons for donors and policymakers to develop new approaches to support adaptation strategies considering explicitly the effects of adaptation on environmental change.
BIO: Claudia Rodriguez (academic year) is completing her Ph.D. at the School of Natural Resources and Environment at the University of Michigan. Her research interests include adaptation to climate change, environmental governance, conservation of natural resources, and land use change. Her work focuses on the relationship between adaptation to climate stimuli and conservation of environmental goods and services in and around protected areas in southern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and transboundary protected areas across the Americas. During her stay at the Workshop she aims to enhance her understanding of the socio-ecological systems framework and delve into the analysis of the interrelation between livelihoods production, adaptation, and conservation in rural communities.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
MULTIETHNIC OPPOSITION COALITIONS AND THE CONTROL OF CAPITAL IN AFRICA
Presented by Dr. Leonardo Arriola, Assistant Professor, Charles and Louise Travers Department of Political Science, University of California Berkeley, and Fellow at the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, Notre Dame, IN
Abstract: I present a political economy theory that links the formation of opposition coalitions in African countries to the autonomy of business from state-controlled capital. In patronage-based political systems where parties are organizationally weak and voters are ethnically divided, forging cross-ethnic alliances among politicians is difficult to achieve because it is resource-intensive. Incumbents can form such coalitions by using state resources to purchase the endorsements of politicians from other ethnic groups, but opposition politicians must rely on private resources to secure similar endorsements. Opposition coalitions, however, are unlikely to be formed where incumbents can use their influence over banking and credit to insist on the allegiance of business, the opposition's main source of funding in democratizing countries. I show that it is through liberalizing financial reforms that business becomes sufficiently free to fund opposition politicians, enabling them to mimic the incumbent's pecuniary coalition-building strategy of exchanging upfront payments for cross-ethnic endorsements. A cross-national analysis of African elections held between 1990 and 2005 corroborates the theoretical claim: business' financial autonomy—as proxied by the number of commercial banks, the provision of credit to the private sector, and the sectoral organization of business—significantly increases the opposition's ability to coalesce across ethnic cleavages.
BIO: Leonardo Arriola (PhD, Stanford University) is assistant professor of political science at the University of California, Berkeley, and is currently a visiting fellow at the Kellogg Institute for International Studies at the University of Notre Dame. He studies questions of political stability, electoral coordination, and political violence in African countries. His 2009 article, "Patronage and Political Stability in Africa," was accorded the Best Article Award from the African Politics Conference Group.
COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY AND LEADERSHIP NETWORKS: THE HIGHER-ORDER STRUCTURE OF THE UNEQUAL CITY
Presented by Professor Robert J. Sampson, Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
Abstract: Neighborhood inequality remains durable in American society, raising important questions about civic engagement and the collective capacity of communities to meet pressing challenges. This presentation will highlight findings from a forthcoming book based on a long-term study of Chicago. Professor Sampson will focus on organizational and network dimensions of how communities are stratified and the consequences for civic life and well being. He will also describe how key actors in domains such as politics, law, religion, business, and education are differentially connected within and beyond the local community, defining the higher-order social structure of the city.
BIO: Robert J. Sampson is the Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences and former Chair of the Department of Sociology at Harvard University. He also serves as Senior Advisor in the Social Sciences at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study and is currently Visiting Scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation. Before joining Harvard in 2003, he taught for twelve years in the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago and seven years at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Sampson's other prior appointments include Senior Research Fellow at the American Bar Foundation and Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Ernest Burgess Fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Professor Sampson has published widely in the areas of crime, the life course, neighborhood effects, social inequality, civic engagement, and the social organization of cities. He recently completed a book based on fifteen years of research from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (University of Chicago Press, fall 2011). For more information, see www.wjh.harvard.edu/soc/faculty/sampson/
SPEA Governance and Management Faculty Group, SPEA Policy Analysis and Public Finance Faculty Group, PhD Program in Public Policy, PhD Program in Public Affairs, Department of Sociology, and Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
HETEROGENEOUS ENDOWMENTS AND THE IMPACT OF ENFORCED MINIMAL CONTRIBUTIONS ON VOLUNTARY PUBLIC-GOOD PROVISION
Presented by Prof. Dr. Claudia Keser, Director, Göttingen Laboratory of Behavioral Economics, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Chair of Microeconomics, Göttingen, Germany (Coauthors: Andreas Markstädter and Martin Schmidt, University of Göttingen)
Abstract: We experimentally investigate the impact of exogenously enforced minimal contributions ("taxes") in a linear public-goods-game with asymmetrically endowed players. In a series of treatments, we provide a between-subject comparison of a no-tax, fix-tax, relative-tax and progressive-tax environment. The experimental data, similarly to Andreoni 1993, reject a complete crowding out of voluntary contributions. We observe total contribution levels in the relative- and progressive-tax scenario to be significantly higher than in the no-tax treatment. When we consider over-contribution (i.e. contribution beyond the minimal contribution level) relative to the after-tax endowment on the group level, we observe no statistically significant difference among the three tax treatments. However, in the progressive-tax treatment, the poor players over-contribute significantly less than in the case of relative or fix taxes, while the rich players over-contribute relatively more. It seems that the progressive tax creates a norm requesting the rich players to contribute more, while at the same time it justifies lower contributions for the poorer players.
BIO: Claudia Keser is professor of microeconomics at the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen and associate fellow of the Center for Interuniversity Research on The Analysis of Organizations (CIRANO) in Montreal and the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin). From 2001 to 2007 she worked as a research staff member at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York. She got her doctoral degree in 1992 at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn and in 2000 she completed the "Habilitation" at the Technical University of Karlsruhe. Her research expertise is in experimental game theory spanning economics, business and policy.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
DISEQUILIBRIUM BEHAVIOR IN CONTESTS: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE
Presented by Dr. Mayya Sengupta, Postdoctoral Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
Abstract: The goal of my research is to gain a better understanding of behavior in contests. Although a vast amount of literature exists on theoretical modeling of contests, empirical investigation in this area is rather limited. A small but growing number of laboratory experiments have been conducted. However, this research has not generated stylized facts. The majority of the experimental studies have found levels of efforts exerted in contests to be substantially different from the ones predicted by theory. To date, the literature does not have an accepted set of answers to address the contradictory behavioral conclusions.
In this paper I examine the experimental evidence of behavior in basic two-person contests. I deviate from previous research by incorporating a series of two-person contests in which subjects decide on their effort levels after learning of the effort levels of their opponents. Across decision rounds the effort levels of the opponents systematically change so that the data gathered presents the responses of subjects to all possible choices of their opponents and therefore allows estimation of subjects' "response functions." Elimination of uncertainty regarding opponents' actions is predicted to result in behavior more consistent with optimal choice theory based on earnings maximization. In general, however, observed response functions were not consistent with model predictions. On average, subjects overinvested relative to the risk-neutral expected utility maximizing levels. Using a structural approach, the experimental design allowed for the estimation of subjects' "as if" risk parameters. Assuming constant absolute risk-averse (CARA) utility functions, the results support risk-loving type behavior.
BIO: Mayya Sengupta holds a PhD in Economics from Indiana University. Her areas of specialization are Industrial Organization, Game Theory, and Experimental Economics. Her research focuses on the use of experimental methods in the investigation of individual behavior in contests where multiple agents invest resources/effort to win an economic award.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
DOES WATER SCARCITY LEAD TO OVERUSE? EVIDENCE FROM FIELD EXPERIMENTS
Presented by Dr. Esther Blanco, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Finance, University of Innsbruck, Austria
Abstract: The increased variability in rainfall patterns due to climate change can lead to different adaptive actions by socio-economic agents. This paper presents the results from an economic experiment aiming to explore the response of water users in rural areas of Colombia to exogenous changes in the availability of water resources. Participants played a common pool resources experiment in two stages. In the first stage all participants played with a resource of a certain size. In the second stage one group continued playing a baseline treatment and in addition a slight scarcity and extreme scarcity treatment were introduced. In these treatments the experimentalists exogenously reduced the resource available for players in one third and two third respectively. Our results suggest that users do not respond to slight scarcity but extreme scarcity results in increased levels of appropriation of the resource, closer to Nash predictions. This would support that increased scarcity associated to climate change scenarios would entail higher extraction levels by water users, reinforcing the potential welfare and environmental damages of droughts.
BIO: Dr. Esther Blanco has a multidisciplinary background focused on the management of social-ecological systems. She has a PhD in Economics (excellent cum laude), focusing on how institutional changes affect the incentives of behavior of users of natural resources, particularly on the development of voluntary environmental action. Her formal training in economics is complemented by a Bachelor in Environmental Sciences, a Postgraduate in Environmental Education and Globalization, and an MSc in Tourism and Environmental Economics. Her major research interests include environmental and natural resource economics, game theory, and experimental economics. Dr. Blanco's research program deals with the role of incentives in alleviating social dilemmas for the management of natural resources, including water management under climate change scenarios, wildlife conservation in protected areas, and firms' corporate social responsibility among others.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
ON OTHER REGARDING CONCERNS, CONSTITUTIONAL RULES, AND BOUNDED RATIONALITY
Abstract: The presentation will focus on three special topics, namely:
BIO: Werner Güth is Director of the Strategic Interaction Group at the Max Planck Institute of Economics in Jena. He has studied economics at the University of Münster where he also received his doctoral degree and habilitation. He was professor for economic theory at the University of Cologne, the University of Frankfurt (Main) and Humboldt University of Berlin. Research stays took him to various universities and research institutions in Europe, Asia, Australia and the United States. He was President of the International Association for Research and Economic Psychology and of the Society for Experimental Economics. Werner Güth is honorary professor of economics of Schiller University in Jena, member of the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences, Coordinator of the International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behaviour to a Fundamentally Uncertain World and a member of the Graduate Program "Human Behaviour in Social and Economic Change". In 2010 he received honorary doctorate degrees from the Universities of Tübingen and Karlsruhe. His main research topics are game theory, experimental economics and microeconomics. He considers himself more as a social scientist with strong interests in psychology, philosophy, (evolutionary) biology and the political sciences.
Werner Güth, Satisficing Players
Werner Güth and Hartmut Kliemt, Procedurally Fair Provision of Public Projects: An Axiomatic Characterization
CADAVERIC HUMAN KIDNEYS AS A COMMON POOL RESOURCE
Presented by Prof. Dr. Hartmut Kliemt, Head of Legal Studies and Ethics Department, Institute for International Health Management, Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, Germany
Abstract: Human organs are commonly treated as common pool resources. Governing that commons raises ethical, property rights' and organizational issues. These are illustrated by a stylized description of the evolution of the institutions of kidney allocation in Germany under Eurotransplant "rationing" rules. Both purely private organization — due to "club-failure" — and central "ethical governance" do not work. Intermediate levels of centralization and a mixture of individual and collective property rights led to superior results in Eurotransplant. However, now the general proclivity towards "central governance" runs its course with interesting parallels to typical developments of political federal structures.
BIO: After teaching philosophy for some twenty years at the university of Duisburg-Essen Hartmut Kliemt went to the Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, a private business school, to start an interdisciplinary program "Management, Philosophy and Economics" (jointly with Bernd Lahno) in 2006. His work in "moral science" is located in the British Moralist tradition of philosopher economists — revitalized by the use of decision and game theoretic language and insights. Associated with the Virginia School of Political Economy, Kliemt worked on the philosophy of practical science (law, medicine and business administration), health ethics and health economics, as well as political philosophy. Being guided by the quite visible hand of Werner Gueth when it comes to formal methods Kliemt also worked on the foundations of decision and game theory and the basics of an indirect evolutionary approach to social explanation. He is a critical rationalist who is skeptical about cognitive ethical theory in general and of (contractarian) theories of justice in economics and philosophy in particular. His most recent book is "Economics and philosophy I", Munich, Oldenbourg, 2009 volume II pending. Journals in which he published are from the fields of economics, philosophy, medicine, law, business administration, political science. Presently he pursues also a DFG research project on priority setting in medicine, FOR655.
COOPERATION AND COLLECTIVE TITLING: EVIDENCE FROM A NEW PROPERTY REGIME IN THE COLOMBIAN PACIFIC COAST
Presented by Dr. María Claudia López, Assistant Professor, Department of Rural and Regional Development, School of Environmental and Rural Studies, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia; and Visiting Research Scholar, Department of Public Finance, University of Innsbruck, Austria (coauthor: Maria Alejandra Velez
Abstract: This paper examines how formalization of collective property rights in Afro-Colombian territories of the Pacific Coast affect cooperation among their inhabitants. To address this question we conducted public good field experiments to measure propensity to cooperate with 240 inhabitants of titled and untitled territories. Our findings suggest that experimental cooperation decreases once the community receives the collective property right over its territory. This result it is consistent with the hypothesis that collective action may increase while the community is in the process of formalizing the property right, however, once obtained, cooperation decreases due to a weak institutional process.
BIO: María Claudia López's academic and professional training are founded on a deep belief that finding policy solutions to challenging dilemmas, such as natural resource management, requires integrating disciplinary perspectives and methods. She is an economist, specializing in natural resources and environmental economics with a master's in rural development from the Universidad Javeriana in Colombia, and a PhD in Resource Economics from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. She also completed a 2 year postdoctoral fellowship at the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis. She is currently an assistant professor at the Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá, Colombia, and a visiting researcher at the University of Innsbruck, Austria.
Her research uses multiple methods, including field experiments, institutional analysis, econometrics, and participatory research, to understand how rural communities can collaborate successfully in the management of commonly held natural resources. She is firmly committed to participating in work projects that have both theoretical significance and practical benefits for the communities she works with.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.
CAUSAL EVIDENCE ON THE RESOURCE CURSE
Presented by Andreas Leibbrandt, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Economics, University of Chicago, and Visiting Scholar, Workshop, IUB
Abstract: There is contradicting observational evidence whether societies with abundant natural resources are blessed or cursed. We make use of experimental methods and specifically designed economic experiments to investigate whether resource abundance affects sustainability in the absence and presence of institutions. We provide causal evidence for the existence of the resource curse in the absence of institutions. Groups of individuals with access to a large resource pool are less able to sustain resources as compared to groups with access to a small resource pool. However, we also show that there is no resource curse if users have the possibility to vote for institutions that limit resource overexploitation. These findings help to reconcile the contradicting evidence and are useful to predict which societies are more likely to experience the resource curse.
BIO: Andreas is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Economics Department of the University of Chicago and a Visiting Scholar at the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University. In 2009 he received a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Zurich. His M.A. is in Management & Economics, Psychology and Sociology. His main research interests lie in Public Economics, Environmental & Resource Economics, and Behavioral Economics. For my research he typically uses lab and field experiments.
There will not be a formal paper for this session.