|Edited by: Margaret Polski
Layout & Design by: Patty Dalecki
|Volume 3, Number
2, June 1997
Co-Directors: Elinor & Vincent Ostrom
Library to the World
The thought of a library containing the world's largest collection in a subject that serves an international community of users conjures up images of a ten-story building, an army of librarians, a mountain of books, and a sea of tables and chairs. It probably doesn't bring to mind the one-room Workshop Research Library hidden away on the third floor of 513 N. Park. Yet, the library's collection of common pool resources (CPR) and collective action is increasingly recognized as the definitive collection in this area of research with around 20,000 items including books, articles, working papers, reports, journals, and newsletters.
This collection is now accessible through the library's Web homepage and the homepage it maintains for the International Association for the Study of Common Property (IASCP)—both addresses are listed on the back cover of this publication. Connecting via computer, users from all over the world are visiting the library for information: a doctoral student in Spain, a research biologist with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, a librarian in Norway, an economics professor in Australia, and an irrigation researcher in India are just a few of the library's 1997 "virtual" patrons. Over 1,000 people visited the Workshop/CPR/IASCP "library" alone in March and April.
Most people who contact the library have already completed searches on the online CPR bibliographies and want further assistance. Queries range from help with locating resources on pastoralism in Ecuador to requesting copies of papers found in online searches. Some requests are more complex, drawing on the library staff's in-depth subject knowledge such as: What is a good introductory work on institutional economics? What are core works on CPRs? Which theories are most often applied in CPR studies?
Do you have a question or need information for your research? E-mail or call us at (812) 855-9636 or (812) 855-8672.
John Branigin, Library
With encouragement and assistance from Lin Ostrom and Jimmy Walker, Chris Gerrard, an Agricultural Economist in the World Bank's Economic Development Institute Environment and Natural Resources Division (EDIEN), is integrating experimental economics and institutional analysis in regional training programs. These "Training-of-Trainers" (TOT) workshops are part of a long-term objective to build analytical and training capabilities in agricultural policy analysis and institutional reform in Sub-Saharan Africa—all in a larger effort to contribute to strengthening rural sectors in developing countries.
Chris put these methods
to work in a recent TOT workshop on Institutional Reform for Sustainable
Natural Resource Management in Akosombo, GHANA. This 5-day workshop, co-organized
by EDIEN and the Institute of Statistical, Social, and Economic Research
at the University of Ghana, focused on strengthening research and training
capabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa. While institutional analysis was woven
into all aspects of a very hardworking program—the daily schedule averaged
over 10 hours per day—key components included an artful adaptation of Jimmy
Walker's "Operational Game," and Lin Ostrom's ICS video, "Crafting Institutions
for Self-Governing Irrigation Systems." Jimmy's experimental game was used
as one means to understand the effects of institutional design on common
pool resource (CPR) use. At the EDI workshop, three teams of seven participants
played six rounds of a game involving a renewable CPR and two teams of
ten played ten rounds of two games involving a nonrenewable CPR. Chris
obtained familiar results with these pedagogical experiments: both the
efficiency and symmetry of selected strategies improved with the introduction
of face-to-face communication. And, participants rated the experience as
among the highlights of the workshop !
Trust Me, Trust Me Not
Are Japanese people more likely to trust others to cooperate than American people? It is often said that the Japanese are more cooperative than the Americans and it is widely assumed that this propensity makes it easier to overcome individual differences to achieve collective goals. Yet scholars are finding contradictory evidence. In a series of experiments involving a logically identical decision environment, Watabe, Shigeru, Hayashi, and Yamagishi (1996) obtain startlingly different cooperation rates among Japanese participants. And survey results consistently demonstrate that general trust levels are much higher in American society than in Japanese society.
Curiosity piqued, Lin Ostrom and Jimmy Walker forged a cross-society research collaboration with Japanese scholars Nahoko Hayashi, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and Toshio Yamagishi, Hokkaido University, to investigate these differences. This past year, the collaborating authors replicated the 1996 study conducted by Watabe et al. with American subjects. Recruiting undergraduates at Indiana University, they designed a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that the level of general trust in the cooperativeness of others is lower among Japanese people than among American people. Based on distinctions between trust and assurance developed by Yamagishi and Yamagishi (1994), the authors argue and support with their experimental results that for Americans, cooperation is based on general trust in the cooperative nature of humans whereas for Japanese, cooperation is based on the illusion of control over other's decisions. This distinction implies that general trust and the illusion of control play different roles in societies.
Based on these experiments, the authors are able to confirm the hypothesis that illusion of control plays a relatively more important role in Japanese society and general trust plays a more important role in American society.
The authors find that the role of reciprocity is quite strong in one-shot sequential games where second movers have knowledge of first movers' decisions. These findings are consistent with the Watabe et al. (1996) argument that many participants treat a one-shot Prisoners Dilemma matrix as an assurance matrix, cognitively transforming the payoff structure of the PD game into an assurance game. That is, give information about a partner's decisions, individuals will reciprocate in kind, cooperating when their partner cooperates and defecting when their partner defects. Hayashi, Ostrom, Walker, and Yamagishi (1997) ultimately argue that their results demonstrate that differences in beliefs regarding the nature of social relations and human nature are critical in decision making in interdependent social situations.
Hayashi, Nahoko, Elinor Ostrom, James Walker, and Toshio Yamagishi. 1997. "Reciprocity, Trust, and the Illusion of Control: A Cross-Societal Study." Working paper. Bloomington: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis.
Watabe, Motoki, Shigeru Terai, Nahoko Hayashi, and Toshio Yamagishi. 1996. "Cooperation in the One-shot Prisoner’s Dilemma Based on Expectations of Reciprocity." Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 36:183-96.
Yamagishi, Midori and Toshio Yamagishi. 1989. "Trust, Commitment, and the Development of Network Structures." Presented at the Workshop for the Beyond Bureaucracy Research Project, Hong Kong, December 18-21.
Peter Bogason and Theo Toonen convened a group of scholars at Rungstedgaard, DENMARK, December 15-17, 1996, to discuss eleven papers on the development of interorganizational policymaking. Peter reports that the papers and discussion were wide-ranging, analyzing coordination issues, substantive problems of particular types of networks, conceptual, and methodological approaches.
the co-convenors Tom Burns and Lars Carlsson, Benny Hjern, Nora Machado,
H. Brinton Milward, David O. Porter, Paul A. Sabatier, Fritz W. Scharpf,
and Gary Wamsley. Laurence O'Toole and B. Guy Peters contributed papers
but did not attend. The proceedings will be published by the British journal,
Public Administration, in a special Spring 1988 publication edited by
Bogason and Toonen.
Minoti Returns to the Archives
Minoti Chakravarty-Kaul writes (April 17, 1997): Here is a brief account of happenings on my front. As I had written earlier, I had gone to London for the University College Colloquium and had provided a paper on "Customary Law and the Imperial Judiciary in the Nineteenth Century," which was the only paper on the Imperial Encounter with the indigenous system of law. It was well received.
In the meantime since the work in college is less now, I am getting on to work on the second book [The Great Discourse]. There is a part of the archival material which remains and I am working on that. I discovered a little bit of information about a system which seemed to have existed in the Punjab which will surprise you as much as it did me. It seemed that the villages had a custom of locating thieves, specially of cattle, and handing them over to the authorities of the king or the ruler. According to the document, this meant that the village had responsibility for criminal matters in addition to fiscal and legal responsibilities. Also, that the British officials believed that the Bengal Code, which regulated the legal system, would not wipe out the custom. It is very exciting now to do archival work all over again. I love to delve in history.
Vincent’s response to Minoti:
I am delighted to learn of your having a paper on "Customary Law and the Imperial Judiciary in the Nineteenth Century." The British, Dutch, and French empires are deserving of careful studies as initial thrusts toward global societies. We need careful studies of what we can learn from the "imperial encounter" and from what we might call "republican empires" in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Somehow, we wanted to free ourselves of imperial traditions without appreciating that we also have a great deal to learn about human experience from those decades where at least some effort was being made to achieve a rule of law in light of diverse cultural traditions. In my judgment, many of the liberators may have burdened their countrymen with more oppressive measures than the empires that grew out of republican traditions.
I find your reference
to villagers exercising a kind of criminal jurisprudence to be most interesting.
Dele Ayo from Awolowo University in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, is working on a book
about "Public Administration and Community Affairs among the Yoruba in
Nigeria." The reference is to indigenous institutions. He has a chapter
on "Security," which deals with crime in the local community. If you have
something written up on this, both Dele and I would find it most interesting.
Indeed, there might be the possibility of publishing a short article or
research note in a journal that they are developing at Ile-Ife called the
African Journal of Institutions and Development.
|East Meets West
Bai Gang, director
and Liu Junning, executive director of the Research Center for Public Policy
in the Chinese Academy of Science, have invited Lin and Vincent Ostrom
to Beijing for a 10-day period to pursue discussions about collaborative
efforts between the Workshop and the Public Policy Research Center. The
Center is currently publishing a Chinese-language journal, Res Publica.
English translation of the table of contents for volume III (1997)
indicates the close tie to works in institutional analysis and development,
public choice, the new institutional economics, and constitutional political
economy, including the translation of essays by James Buchanan, Walter
Murphy, and Vincent Ostrom. The translation and publication of other works,
as well as the discussion of mutual research interests with Chinese scholars,
will be the subject of discussion. Former Workshoppers Deng Yuzhuang, Lam
Wai Fung (Danny), and Yu Xunda will join the discussions in Beijing from
August 3-13 immediately before the meeting of the International Political
Science Association in Seoul, KOREA. We anticipate that a Chinese delegation
will visit Bloomington at a later date.
In an email, Phil Sabetti writes (May 8, 1997): I did manage to finish, by the end of April, another book project, provisionally entitled The Search for Good Government: Understanding Italian Democracy. Last week, I sent it to McGill-Queen's University Press for review. A few days ago, I mailed you the introductory chapter and the table of contents. You will recognize some of the others as you have read them in earlier versions.
Working on "the search for good government" has given me new ideas on how to proceed with Cattaneo and what I need to do to give my institutional analysis a more comparative bite. While the Cattaneo project is on "Democracy and Civilization," the subsequent project I anticipate will be on "Democracy as Civilization." The basic ideas behind this project will be on how to craft institutional for self-governance, Workshop ideas no doubt, and I intend to apply them to look at how such crafting has taken or not taken place in different parts of the globe. I now feel pretty confident to range beyond Italy and Canada.
I often think of you and I hope you don't mind if I have shared with you some of my ideas and work plans for the next five years or so. But the time the next Workshop on the Workshop Conference takes place, I should be ready!
Vincent’s Response to Phil:
As I read what you
have to say, it occurs to me that we somehow need to build a new tradition
in comparative analysis. This is what you are doing. We somehow need to
recognize that people, in some basic sense, build their social and political
realities. What the officialdom in the formal regime may do is only a part
of the story. We have allowed stereotypes expressed in some abstract ideology
to get in our way and prevent us from seeing what people do in constructing
their own opportunities. If concepts do not work, people will make their
own adaptations. These may become rather perverse when the officialdom
thinks it can govern and people go their own way. We somehow need to bring
the different levels of analysis together to see what kinds of social realities
come into being. How these might be modified to yield improvements in the
way people live their lives and how they come to understand the meaning
of life is of rather basic importance. We as scholars have not taken our
responsibility very seriously. We too frequently act as spectators reporting
the drama of a theater that is little more than a farce.
The Tocqueville Endowment for the Study of Institutions continues to grow. We are very proud to report what our collective efforts have achieved:
|(in thousands of $)|
|INFLATION RATE 2.8% (Twelve-month rate of consumer-price inflation in the U.S.) Source: The Economist.|
Finding the Institutional Foundations for Rural Infrastructure
Larry Schroeder presented
a key background paper, "Analyzing Institutional Arrangements for Rural
Infrastructure," at the International Workshop on Rural Infrastructure,
hosted by the Economic Development Institute, the Transportation, Water,
and Urban Development Department, and the Agriculture and Natural Resources
Department of the World Bank in Washington, D.C., May 19-23. The workshop
convened about 120 international policymakers and experts to share experiences
and new approaches to designing human foundations for self-sustaining infrastructure
in developing countries. Major themes included legal and institutional
provision frameworks, financing, the process of institutional reform, and
capacity-building for ongoing institutional reform. Background papers described
past experience with rural infrastructure projects and case study presentations
described projects underway. Finally, participants engaged in action planning
in regional working groups to develop guiding principles and strategies
for participatory and decentralized institutional reform.
Institutional Failures in Santa Fe
Lin made a presentation
on institutional failures at the MacArthur Foundation Santa Fe Institute,
May 16-19, on the state of research on the relationship between inequity,
economic growth, and sustainability of human and natural systems.
Clark Gibson, Fellow in Institutional Analysis, CIPEC, will join the Political Science faculty of Indiana University, Bloomington, this fall, as Assistant Professor. Clark currently teaches the IFRI course in the Workshop and assists in building IFRI and CIPEC research collaborations in Latin America.
Charlotte Hess, Workshop Librarian, has received grants from the IU Office of International Programs and the Librarians Association for sabbatical work at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, this fall. Charlotte’s project involves building a reciprocal exchange relating to institutional analysis, CPRs, and environmental literatures.
Julie England, Systems Analyst at CIPEC, begins her 2nd decade of service after celebrating 10 years with IU in September. When asked for the secret to her longevity, Julie, who is known for being a quick-witted and dedicated colleague, replied: "A challenging job and terrific co-workers." Thanks, Julie!
Double congratulations to Tom Koontz, Doctoral Candidate in the Department of Political Science and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs, and his wife, Kristin. On March 31, their daughter, Amelia was born, weighing in at 4 lb. 8 oz. On April 10, Tom successfully defended his dissertation, "Federalism and Natural Resource Policy: Comparing State and National Management of Public Forests." Tom will be a postdoctoral scholar with CIPEC next year and will be seeking a faculty position at a college or university in political science, public policy, or natural resource/environmental policy.
Myungsuk Lee, Sung Kyun Kwan University, Seoul, KOREA, is proud to announce the birth of a daughter on April 30. Mother, Father, and baby are doing fine.
Elinor Ostrom has been selected to receive the 1997 Frank E. Seidman Distinguished Award in Political Economy. The award recognizes distinguished contributions to Political Economy by social scientists who, by conventional or innovative approaches, have demonstrated their dedication to improving human conditions.
Aseem Prakash, Doctoral Candidate in Political Science and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs, will join the faculty of George Washington University this fall. He has been appointed Assistant Professor of Strategic Management and Public Policy in the School of Business and Public Management.
Workshop Editorial Assistant, was married to David Kreie, May 31, 1997.
They are making a home together in Brown County.
George Varughese left Bloomington in April 1996 to begin his dissertation research. He was last seen scouring the IFRI database and consulting to our Collaborating Research Centers in Kathmandu, Nepal. So, how’s it going?
Clark Gibson and Dusty
Becker met Nilda Saldise, a 1996 IFRI trainee, in Ecuador, May 6-8,
to develop research collaborations with NGOs and universities. Clark also
met with Krister Andersson, an advisor to the Ministry of Environment.
Democracy at Irvine
Lin and Vincent were
invited by Harry Eckstein to discuss Vincent’s book, The Meaning of
Democracy and the Vulnerability of Democracies, at the Center for the
Study of Democracy, University of California, Irvine, May 14-15.
ARUN AGRAWAL, Political Science Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Arun is spending the year in Bloomington. His book, Greener Pastures: Markets, Politics and Community among a Migrant Pastoral People, is now finished. He is now completing his second book, Community, Resources and Politics: Forest Councils in the Middle Himalaya. (Correction from previous issue: During 1996-97, Arun was on leave from the University of Florida, not Yale University, as was indicated by mistake in the last issue.)
S.B. (DELE) AYO, Department of Public Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NIGERIA. Dele is working on a monograph study that compares state administrative patterns with indigenous institutional arrangements among the Yoruba in Nigeria.
PASCALE DELNOOZ, Fondation Université Luxembourg, BELGIUM. Pascale is a Ph.D. student in Economics with an interest in environmental sciences and self-governing community forestry.
JULIA DUANY, Post-doctoral Fellow, is interested in applying Workshop methods to understanding and reforming social welfare conditions for women and children in the Sudan.
WAL DUANY, Visiting Research Fellow, is working on a book about the peace process among the Nuer in the Sudan. He and Julia are particularly interested in grass-roots initiatives within Christian communities to promote peace and conciliation.
NAHOKO HAYASHI, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, JAPAN. Nahoko is collaborating with Lin Ostrom, Jimmy Walker, and Toshio Yamagishi on a cross-societal study of reciprocity and trust in situations that approximate a one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma.
Department of Law, Warsaw University, POLAND. Malgorzata continues
to work on a project she began last year related to developments in intellectual
property law, genetic engineering, and agricultural production.
Carmen Cigarroa, Guatemala
Nadia Rabasahla Horning, Madagascar
Charles Kiprono Koech, Kenya
|Paul Ongugo, Kenya
Sergio Pivaral, Guatemala
Jean Roland Raharison, Madagascar
Vololoniaina Rakotozafy, Madagascar
a graduate student in the history department at IU, has taken over Sara
Colburn’s part-time receptionist duties. Sara is finishing up Master’s
degrees in Music in Voice and Early Music.
Burt Monroe, IU, "Information Aggregation Under Alternative Electoral Systems," 1/20.
Elinor Ostrom, Workshop, IU, "Self-Governance of Common-Pool Resources," 1/27.
Brian Collins, IU, "Reducing the Costs of Democracy: Economic Growth in U.S. States, 1983-1992," 2/3 .
Kerry Krutilla, School of Public and Environment Affairs, IU, "Environmental Policy and Rent-Seeking," 2/10 .
Nahoko Hayashi, Hokkaido University, "Selective Play: Social Embeddedness of Social Dilemmas," 2/17.
Tony Matejczyk, IU, "Zoning Exceptions in Cities: Politics and Outcomes," 2/24.
Elmus Wicker, IU, "Were Panics of the National Banking Era Preventable?," 3/3.
Toshio Yamagishi, Hokkaido University, "Trust and Gullibility," 3/10 .
Martin Sefton, University of Manchester, "When Are Nash Equilibria Self-Enforcing? An Experimental Analysis," 3/24.
Sharon Jones, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, "A Method for Evaluating the Usefulness of Climate-Change Research Policy Decisions," 3/31.
Michael McGinnis, IU, "Rent Seeking, Redistribution, and Reform in the Governance of Global Markets," 4/7.
Mark Lichbach, University of Colorado, "The Rebel's Dilemma and the Cooperator's Dilemma: Reflections on the Collective Action Problem," 4/14.
Barbara Allen, Carleton College, "Federal Liberty and the Art of Association in Tocqueville's Analysis," 4/21.
School of Public and Environmental Affairs, IU, "Analyzing Institutional
Arrangements for Rural Infrastructure," 4/28.
Gibson, Clark. Forthcoming. Peasants, Poachers, and Politicians: The Political Economy of Wildlife in Africa. Cambridge University Press.
Lam, Wai Fung. Forthcoming 1997. Institutions, Infrastructure, and Performance in the Governance and Management of Irrigation Systems: The Case of Nepal. San Francisco, CA: Institute for Contemporary Studies Press.
Ostrom, Vincent. 1997. The Meaning of Democracy and the Vulnerability of Democracies: A Response to Tocqueville’s Challenge. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. [In the last newsletter, we incorrectly listed ICS Press as the publisher.]
Shivakoti, Ganesh, George Varughese, Elinor Ostrom, Ashutosh Shukla, and Ganesh Thapa, eds. 1997. People and Participation in Sustainable Development: Understanding the Dynamics of Natural Resource Systems. Proceedings of an International Conference held in Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal, March 17-21, 1996. Bloomington: Indiana University, Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis.
Carlsson, Lars. 1996. "De små lösningarna på ett stort problem." (Small Solutions of a Big Problem). Moderna Tider 72(7) (Oct.): 48-49.
Eggertsson, Thráinn. 1996. "The Social Science of Wealth." In Foundations of Research in Economics: How Do Economists Do Economics?, ed. Steven G. Medema and Warren J. Samuels, 60-75. Cheltenham, UK; Brookfield, VT.: Edward Elgar.
Gardner, Roy, Michael Moore, and James Walker. 1997. "Governing a Groundwater Commons: A Strategic and Laboratory Analysis of Western Water Law." Economic Inquiry 35 (April): 218-34.
Gardner, Roy, and Jürgen von Hagen. 1997. "Sequencing and the Size of the Budget: Experimental Evidence." In Understanding Strategic Interaction: Essays in Honor of Reinhard Selten, ed. Wulf Albers, Werner Güth, Peter Hammerstein, Benny Moldovanu, and Eric van Damme, 465-474. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Herr, Andrew, Roy Gardner, and James Walker. 1997. "An Experimental Study of Time-Independent and Time-Dependent Externalities in the Commons." Games and Economic Behavior 19:77-96.
Lam, Wai Fung. 1996. "Improving the Performance of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems: The Effects of Technological Investments and Governance Structure on Irrigation Performance in Nepal." World Development 24(8) (Aug.): 1,301-1,315.
Lam, Wai Fung. 1997. "Institutional Design of Public Agencies and Coproduction: A Study of Irrigation Associations in Taiwan." In Peter Evans, ed. State-Society Synergy: Government and Social Capital in Development. Berkeley: University of California, 11-47.
Lam, Wai Fung, Myungsuk Lee, and Elinor Ostrom. 1997. "The Institutional Analysis and Development Framework: Application to Irrigation Policy in Nepal." In Derick W. Brinkerhoff, ed. Policy Studies and Developing Nations: An Institutional and Implementation Focus, vol. 5. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 53-85.
Oakerson, Ronald J., and S. Tjip Walker. 1997. "Analyzing Policy Reform and Reforming Policy Analysis: An Institutionalist Approach." In Derick W. Brinkerhoff, ed. Policy Studies and Developing Nations: An Institutional and Implementation Focus, vol. 5. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 21-51.
Ostrom, Elinor. 1997. "Crossing the Great Divide: Coproduction, Synergy, and Development." In Peter Evans, ed. State-Society Synergy: Government and Social Capital in Development. Berkeley: University of California, 85-118.
Ostrom, Elinor, Roy Gardner, and James Walker. 1997. "Theory, Field, and Laboratory: The Continuing Dialogue." In Understanding Strategic Interaction: Essays in Honor of Reinhard Selten, ed. Wulf Albers, Werner Güth, Peter Hammerstein, Benny Moldovanu, and Eric van Damme, 386-393. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Ostrom, Elinor, and James Walker. 1997. "Neither Markets Nor States: Linking Transformation Processes in Collective Action Arenas." In Perspectives on Public Choice: A Handbook, ed. Dennis C. Mueller, 35-72. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, Vincent. 1996. "Faustian Bargains." Constitutional Political Economy 7:303-308.
Prakash, Aseem. 1996. Review of Lamont C. Hempel, Environmental Governance: The Global Challenge. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, in OTHERWISE, Vol. 2 (Fall): 12-14.
Williams, John T.,
and Brian K. Collins. 1997. "The Political Economy of Corporate Taxation."
American Journal of Political Science 41(1) (Jan.): 208-244.
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