|Vol. 4 · No. 2
|Co-Directors--Elinor and Vincent Ostrom||Newsletter Editor--Margaret Polski
Newsletter Design--Patty Dalecki
Building Civil Society
Now Seating Institutional Scholars
Call for Papers
Contributors to this issue include:
Robert B. Hawkins, Jr.
The Center for the Study of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change (CIPEC) is off and running thanks to support from the National Science Foundation, and Indiana University College of Arts and Sciences and the Research and University Graduate School. This collaborative research effort among four research centers, including the Workshop, crosses multiple social science disciplines to study the relationship between deforestation and reforestation processes, and institutional arrangements. Researchers are using state-of-the-art observation techniques like satellite remote sensing, Geographic Inforinatton Systems (GIS), and other field methods appropriate to assessing global change.
CIPEC uses three broad questions to organize its research agenda:
How is human behavior at household and community levels linked to regional and global change phenomena?
How can macro-scale physical processes observed and modeled at a global level be linked to meso and micro human organizational and decision-making processes?
How do institutional arrangements influence the direction and size of the impact of human driving forces, such as population and transportation networks, on forest eco-systems and global change?
Initial research locations include the Amazonian region of Brazil where substantial deforestation has occurred, the drier tropical forest of Central America and Mexico where an extremely diverse set of institutions exists, and a nine-county region in southern Indiana where reforestation has occurred. A common set of research instruments is being used in each of these locations so that biotic, abiotic, and anthropomorphic influence on forests can be studied comparatively and over time.
In addition to research, CIPEC activities include interdisciplinaxy training through a three-week Summer Institute, Summer Faculty Fellowships, short-term individual or small group trainee-ships, and graduate research assistantships. For more information about CIPEC activities, visit their web site at:
Building Civil Society: A Civic Agenda By Ronald Oakerson
A number of new initiatives in civic education in the United States have Workshop connections. One of the products of Lin Ostroms recent tenure as President of the American Political Science Association was the creation of the APSA Task Force on Civic Education for the Next Century. The first effort by the APSA to focus on civic education in several decades, it comes at a. point when numerous scholars are expressing alarm at what appears to be a sudden decline in civic engagement on the part of American citizens, especially younger citizens. At the same time, the Institute for Contemporary Studies (ICS) launched its New Civics Project to publish and disseminate teaching ideas and materials for college-level civic education. In connection with that project, I am currently at work on a new text in introductory American government, with funding from the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation.
Much of this array of civic-related activity emerged from discussions around the theme of community that took place at the Hacienda San Antonio in Colima, Mexico, in early 1996. Participating in these discussions were Lin and Vincent Ostrom, Bob Hawkins of ICS, Roy Godson of the National Strategy Information Center, Hillel Fradkin of the Bradley Foundation, David Nething of the North Dakota state senate, Will Marshall of the Progressive Policy Institute, the late Al Shanker of the American Federation of Teachers, and myself, among others. The group reached a general understanding on the need to refocus undergraduate education in American politics around civic objectives as part of a broader effort to reinforce patterns of self-governance, now seen to be deteriorating.
The APSA Task Force, co-chaired by Mel Dubnick of Rutgers University and Jean Bethke Elshtain of the University of Chicago, is pursuing an agenda that is intended to alert the political science profession to its civic responsibilities. Among Workshoppers, both Lin and I are members. By the turn of the century, the Task Force will report to the profession on relevant findings from research, educational objectives and strategies for undergraduates, and approaches to civic education at pre-college levels. In the meantime, we are sponsoring sessions at the annual meetings intended to spark discussion. Last year in Washington, a Hyde Park session focused on civil society and its relation to American politics. This year in Boston, the Task Force is co-sponsoring a panel titled "Introducing American Politics and Government:
What Should Students Know and How Should They Learn?" The panel, chaired by yours truly, will consider the appropriateness of various civic-education ends and means in the context of the introductory American government course taken by large numbers of undergraduates throughout the nation. If you plan to be in Boston, let me strongly encourage you to attend.
The New Civics Project has also been active at APSA meetings. Last year, members of New Civics organized a very successful short-course titled "How Not to Reinforce the Cynicism of Undergraduates When Teaching American Politics." This year, another short-course is planned on "Teaching Civic Virtue: A Workshop on Citizenship," scheduled for Wednesday, September 2, in Boston. The session will focus on the specific virtues required of citizens in a self-governing society. New Civics has also initiated a network of political scientists interested in reinvigorating civic education, now numbering more than 120. Anyone interested in registering for the APSA short-course or enrolling in the New Civics Network should contact me at Houghton College, Houghton, NY 14744 (e-mail: email@example.com).
Finally, let me mention my writing project. For many years
I have wanted to write an introductory American government text that would give adequate
attention to the many roles of citizens in American politics, while presenting political
activity in a civic context. Now, with the help of the Bradley Foundation, I am able to do
so. With a working title of Keepers of the Republic: Citizens and Politics in America,
the book will stress the continuity of the American political tradition rooted in civic
engagement and, in so doing, integrate the treatment of local, state, and national
institutions from a citizen perspective. At least, that is my hope and intention. The
manuscript is scheduled for completion by the end of 1998 and should be ready for
classroom use by the fall of 1999. Anyone interested in classroom-testing selected
chapters this coming fall should contact me this summer.
In an artful proof that institutions matter, Indiana University has acquired its first endowed chair for institutional scholarship. To boost endowments for professional chairs, the university recently offered to match the in-come generated by endowments made during 1998. A very attractive, graduated incentive scheme induced two of our most committed institutional scholars to endow a chair for you guessed itinstitutional scholars. Lin and Vincent Ostrom have committed themselves to make a combination of cash gifts and an irrevocable bequest to fund a chair based in the Workshop that will support institutional research. In turn, IEJ has agreed to provide a one-to-one income match. Hence, III will contribute $1 to the endowment for every $1 of income that the Ostroms gift earns.
Over time, this arrangement promises to provide the Workshop with the means to attract some of the very best institutional scholars in the world. The purpose of the "Workshop Research Chair for Visiting Scholars" is to support visiting institutional research scholars for one to two years at the Workshop. The chair will provide an opportunity for a scholar to bring work to completion, advance work to publication, and work with the faculty and graduate students associated with the Workshop. Research must promise to contribute to understanding the conception, design, and consequences of institutional arrangements in the development and emergence of human civilization. The Ostroms hope this gift will enable succeeding generations of Workshop students and scholars to continue to contribute to the growth and development of democratic societies.
A tentative agenda for the conference/ reunion is given below. The final agenda and format for paper presentations will be modified as plans further develop.
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 9
Visitors begin their arrivals
Afternoon: Workshop Open House
Evening: Welcome Reception at Woodburn House
THUFSDAY, JUNE 10
Morning/Afternoon; Paper presentations
organized across four themes
Evening: Left open for self-organized activities
FRIDAY, JUNE 11
Morning/Afternoon: Paper presentations organized
across four themes
Evening; Conference Banquet
SATURDAY, JUNE 12(REUNION)
Morning: Plenary sessions
focusing on an institutional analysis of the Workshop itself and a discussion of other
efforts to organize workshops at other universities
Afternoon: Reunion Picnic at McCormicks Creek State Park
Informal "get togethers"
Morning: Brunch at the Ostroms house
Afternoon: Boating on Lake Monroe
This is our first official announcement of our second "Workshop on the Workshop," at Indiana University, Bloomington, June 9-13, 1999. As with the first "Workshop on the Workshop," our plans include several days of conference activities plus a one-day reunion of prior Workshop students and staff combined to mark the 25th anniversary of the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis.
As we continue planning, we invite you to submit an abstract concerning research you would like to present. Those interested in making a presentation should submit an abstract (no more than 500 words) to James Walker at the Workshop address by September 15, 1998. Alternatively, abstracts can be sent to the Theme Arrangers (see Conference Themes below).
If you are interested in attending the conference, but not in presenting a paper, or if you are interested in participating in reunion activities, please send a brief note of your interest to Patty Dalecki (firstname.lastname@example.org). Registration information and additional conference and reunion information will also be made available in early fall through a mailing.
Paper presentations and discussion will be organized around four primary themes. A summary of these broad themes is presented below.
I. DEMOCRACY AS TRANSFORMATION: BUILDING POTENTIALS FOR SELF-GOVERNANCE IN SOCIETIES AT WAR WITH THEMSELVES
Mike McGinnis (email@example.com )
Vincent Ostrom (firstname.lastname@example.org )
Warfare has traditionally been viewed as engagements between states. Much of what has transpired in the twentieth century involves a different pattern of warfaresocieties at war with themselves. To organize coercion on a large enough scale to sustain internal wars or the widespread repression of predatory states, rulers and other leaders must appeal to group loyalties. In pursuit of illusory visions, societies can entrap themselves into thinking that some groups of humans are unworthy of compassion or consideration. Ideas and ideologies are used as weapons in wars of words, and politics degenerates into a struggle for the control of the state. Whoever wins this struggle proceeds to dominate policy and repress opponents. Under such circumstances, great experiments in political reform become monumental disasters.
The illusions and entrapments of societies at war with themselves cannot be overcome merely by the establishment of the political and economic institutions of liberal democracy. The struggle to achieve democracy is itself a great experiment that can result in a disaster of devastating proportions. In parliamenta~y democracies, governance is too easily reduced to the imposition of statutory enactments meant to apply to nation-states as a whole while ignoring the existence o( ecological diversity. The~ heated rhetoric of electoral competition may lead to internal war or ethnic cleansing. If government is conceptualized as a resource to be captured and used for narrow purposes, then cornmunities will lose their capacity to order their own affairs fri the ways ifiost appropriate to their local circumstances.
A fundamental change in the way peoples conceptualize collective endeavors is required if societies at war with themselves are to realize their potentials for self-governance. To counteract the emotion-laden justifications for war, reformers need to draw upon those aspects of local culture oonsistent with and supportive of historical traditions or ongoing experiences of self-governance. If people are to govern themselves, to make constructiye use of contestation among alternative viewpoints, then they must draw upon their own sentiments, thoughts, and ways of relating to one another in interdependent communities of relationships.
Scholars have an important responsibility to avoid the use of ideas as wars of words. We need to rethink the place of scholarship as a habit of mind and a method of thought applicable to the achievement of problem-solving capabilities broadly construed. ~Io pursue inquiries about societies that are at war with themselves and how to address the transformations necessary to achieve democratic self-governing societies, we encourage the submission of proposals that provide diagnostic assessments of (1) societies at war with themselves and the ways that such struggles may be provoked by partisan politics; (2) the potential contribution of customary law and indigenous cultures to democratic, self-governing capabilities; or (3) the evolution of various components.cultural, economic, intellectual, legal, moral, ontological, political, psychological, sociologicalthat may be necessary to achieving the transformations for constituting democratic self-governing societies.
II. METROPOLITAN GOVERNANCE
Roger Parks (email@example.com)
John Williams (firstname.lastname@example.org )
The Workshop has a tradition of research on public service delivery, government size and performance, and the organization of local public economies. This research produced methodological innovations for measuring performance of public agencies and the behavior of their staff, analytic innovations for measuring governance structures in metropolitan areas, and substantive findings that countered the common prescriptions of would-be metropolitan reformers of the 1960s, 70s, and 80s.
Metropolitan governance structures are once again the subject of discussion and debate in the United States and other nations. Recent publications advocating changes in metropolitan governance include David Rusks Cities Without Suburbs, Anthony Downss New Visions for Metropolitan America, Neil Peirces Citistates, Henry Cisneross Interwoven Destinies, Myron Orfields Metropolitics, and a forthcoming National Academy report on metropolitan problems and structure. Also forthcoming is a revised edition of Ron Oakersons Organization of Local Public Economies, in our view the clearest statement of the Workshops understanding of metropolitan govemance issues.
Contemporaneous with these recent publications have been several initiatives to alter the structure of particular metropolitan areas. These include consolidation referendums in at least Louisville, Sacramento, Spokane, and Knoxvilleall defeated at the polls (there are probably more that we are unaware of or forgetting). Metropolitan Toronto is now MegaCity by act of the provincial government. Tucson is embroiled in incorporation debates stimulated by a change in its local government constitution initiated by the Arizona legislature and under attack in Arizona courts. Buffalo is wrestling with regional restructuring of several services.
This set of panels seeks contributions in all areas of Workshop interest in local government. Papers ranging from studies of particular local service delivery arrangements and their effects to theoretical reformulations of the Workshop approach to metropolitan governance in light of renewed interest nationally, and a new constellation of metropolitan problems are welcome.
Clark Gibson (email@example.com)
Larry Schroeder (firstname.lastname@example.org )
Scholars affiliated with the Workshop have increasingly applied Workshop approaches and concerns to developing regions. Various themes characterize this "development" branch of the Workshops work. One is the extensive work on common-pool, resources, as characterized by Elinor Ostroms Governing the Commons, which attempts to determine the conditions under which the local-level governance of natural resources can lead to socially-desirable outcomes. Not only has a new stream of literature been in part generated by Workshop work regarding common-pool resources, but government and non-government groups have adopted some variants of institutional analysis as they seek to cope with the difficulties of managing natural resources.
Another Workshop theme regarding development pertains to the provision of collectively consumed goods and services in low-income and transition countries. Among the issues addressed include questions related to decentralization of service provision, coproduction of those services, and the sustainability of infrastructure investments. These issues, together with broader issues concerning the role of the state in market-based economies, have become even more salient with the demise of socialist alternatives to development. The Workshops institutional approach is now firmly rooted in the landscape of efforts to understand common-pool resources and service provision in the developing world.
In this group of panels at the second "Workshop on the Workshop," we encourage colleagues to submit papers that address these features of the Workshops work in development. Possible paper topics include, but are not limited to, the extent to which institutional analysis can be applied to other aspects in the development field, the extent to which Workshop colleagues have successfully analyzed the processes of development (and the extent to which policymakers have been influenced by the research), and applications or extensions of institutional approaches to specific cases of resources or service provision.
IV. SOCIAL DILEMMAS AND COORDINATION PROBLEMS
Elinor Ostrom (email@example.com)
James Walker (firstname.lastname@example.org )
Social dilemmas involve structures of incentives within a group context that may lead individuals to make decisions that are rational from an individualistic noncooperative perspective but inefficient relative to the groups perspective. In addition, in some decision situations, individuals simply face coordination problems over alternative outcomes. Individuals in such situations frequently do not have a low-cost means of coordinating on a Pareto-superior equilibrium.
One of the most challenging problems facing individuals attempting to reduce the inefficiencies attained in both social dilemma and coordination problems is the development of norms of cooperative behavior and the design of institutions that alter the decision situation in a way that promotes more efficient outcomes. The science and art,of designing appropriate institutions that are perceived by participants to be efficacious, as well as fair, continues to develop. Examples of such institutional change include the design and enforcement of alternative monitoring and sanctioning mechanisms. Evidence that at least some minimal level of monitoring and sanctioning is needed to enhance levels of rule-following must be compared with the evidence that excessive monitoring reduces trust and can be counterproductive. Tailoring rules to the specifics of local conditions is also an ongoing challenge.
In this group of panels at the second "Workshop on the Workshop," we hope to encourage colleagues to submit papers related to: (1) evidence of norms in social dilemma settings that affect the degree of observed cooperation and (2) the effects of different kinds of institutional rules on reducing inefficiencies in both social dilemma and coordination situations. For the latter case, focusing on situations that allow for repeated opportunities for interaction, we are particularly interested in exploring various institutional arrangements related to: (a) monitoring and sanctioning, (b) signaling as a device to promote increased efficiency, and (c) the type anct completeness of information that participants have about the changing structure of the situation they are in, and the impact of such information on outcomes.
Special Issue on "Ten Years After 1989: What Have We Learned?"
Articles are invited that examine questions such as what have we learned over the past ten years that has either confirmed views that we held on the eve of the collapse of communism, transformed those beliefs, or shattered them? For example, do we have a different understanding today about the ability of communist regimes to transform themselves, the mutability of societies and cultures under communism, capitalism, and democracy, or the requisites for democratization and economic liberalization? In particular, what do the lessons found in Russia and Eastern Europe say to scholars and practitioners in other regions of the world?
Scholars from all disciplines and practitioners are both encouraged to participate. Preference will be given to manuscripts that review findings from more than a single research project and more than one country. Manuscripts should be no more than 10,000 words in length, and 8,000 words is preferable.
Inquiries concerning this project may be addressed to the guest editor:
Philip G. Roeder
Department of Political Science
University of California-San Diego
La Jolla, CA 92093-0521
Manuscripts should be submitted to:
University of Illinois at
57 East Armory Avenue
Champaign, IL 61820
The deadline for submission is November 1, 1998.
Dean, Institute of Economics, IAW, University of Hamburg, reports that the Institute of Allocation has recently produced work on evolutionary stability in social environments, strategic standardization in Europe, and contemporary liberalism. For information and lAW publications, email Dr. Holler at:
Polycentric Circles is funded by voluntary contributions. An annual donation of $10.00 from those wishing to contribute to the Newsletter Fund would be most appreciated.
Please make checks payable to:
(designating Workshop Newsletter Funds)
and send to the attention of Linda Smith at the Workshop address.
Thank you for your support!
Remember, to make this a newsletter from the broad Workshop family, we need your help. Please send us brief notes regarding recent publications, new research projects, changes in location, or other information you think would be appropriate to be communicated to our colleagues. Brief summaries of research findings are particularly welcome. Depending on the volume of materials we receive, we will include as much of this information as we can.
When in Rome...
The International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) research program was recently invited by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to participate in the Task Force Meeting for the Community Forestry and Population Issues jroject held in Rome, Italy ftom 20-24 April 1998. Representing the Workshop, George Varughese presented a paper based on his dissertation research that challenges the oft-heard thesis that forest degradation is due to population growth.
Based on research conducted over four years by the IFRI-Nepal research team, George argues that change in forest conditions is not significantly associated with population growth. Instead, institutional growth and innovation at community levels are more important variables. Drawing on data from 18 sites that vary substantially in regard to population, forest conditions, and the extent of collective action undertaken by forest users, he finds a strong relationship between the condition of forest resources and the level of collective activity undertaken in a community. Investments in monitoring, in particular, appear to determine significantly the difference between a flourishing resource and one just able to meet the needs of users.
To obtain a copy of Georges paper, entitled, "Coping with Changes in Population and Forest Resources: Institutional Mediation in the Middle Hills of Nepal," email him at email@example.com or write to Patty Dalecki at the Workshop address.
reports that he has recently been appointed by Indiana Governor Frank OBannon to serve on a study committee to review the status of Indianas freshwater lakes. In addition to a busy law practice and active family life, Mark serves on a number of public boards and is currently investigating Ihe relationship between voting patterns and annexation issues. He recently retired from 16 years on the Fort Wayne City Council, where he found ample opportunity to explain the public choice approach to allocating public goods. A commitment to public service runs in the GiaQuinta family his dad, age 76, is running for his fourth term in the Indiana House of Representatives
Senior Manager of the Health and Humm Services Division of a growing, public sector consulting firm, David M. Griffith and Associates, Ltd., is seeking recent or soon-to-be social science and business graduates with advanced degrees who have an interest in working with local, state, and federal government clients on a broad range of health and human service issues. Garys office telephone number is (317) 575-4911.
has accepted a position as Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science, University of Oklahoma in Norman, beginning in August 1998.
reports that he is leaving the National Science Foundation (NSF) a month early to join the "GTE Big Ride," a 3,000 mile bicycle ride across the United States, to raise funds for the American Lung Association. The ride begins in Seattle, Washington, on June 15, and fmishes in Washington, D.C., on August 1, 1998.
About 1,000 people will ride, each committing to raise a minimum of $6,000, and support themselves during the trip. Rick indicates he has even promised not to smoke while on his bike!
Director, Western Rural Development Center, Oregon State University, reports that the WRDC has produced case studies of three rural, western counties that have confronted rapid growth. For information about these studies, which are based on a model developed at the Aspen Institute, contact Dr. Youmans at (541) 737-3621 or visit the WRDC website at:
Visiting Scholar at the Workshop during the 1995-96 academic year, has been appointed tenured Professor of Social Ethics in the Theological Department of the Catholic University of Eichstaett, Eichstaett, Germany.
Chi-Kan Richard Hung
has been awarded a joint Ph.D. in Public Policy and Political Science at Rhafter successfully defending his dissertation, "Credit Risk Management and Rules: The Expenence of Group-Based Micro-Credit Programs in the U.S." He is currently writing and searching for a teaching or research position in public policy in the U.S. or Asia.
is joining the faculty at Ohio State University, School of Natural Resources, to research jnd teach in environmental and natural resource policy. With his wife, Kristin, and daughter, Amelia, he is moving to Columbus on July 1, and begins work Augnst 1. In July, they will take a trip to Norway where they will visit the Jan Aage Riseth family as well as the Saxi. familythanks to friendships developed when those visiting scholars were in residence at the Workshop several years ago. While at Ohio State University, Tom will continue his CIPEC affiliation and work on the Indiana land use study.
has been awarded a Ph.D. in Political Science at IU after successfully defending his dissertation, "Constitutional Orders and Deforestation: A Cross-National Analysis of the Humid Tropics." He is currently writing for publication, and working on a CIPEC research team while he looks for a job in an applied setting dealing with governance and performance of natural resources systems.
Jose Apesteguia, Department of Economics, Public University of Navarre, Pamplona, SPAN. Jose is a Ph.D. student in Economics with interests in institutional theory and particularly in institutional evolution from a bounded rationality perspective.
Charla Britt, Graduate Field of Development Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Charla is a Ph.D. candidate writing her dissertation on the dialogical development of community forestry policy and praxis in Nepal. Her research focuses on new developments in forest user networking, and the formation of the Federation of Community Forestry Users in Nepal, a national organization representing the interests of forest user groups.
Neeraj Joshi, Department of Extension Education and Rural Sociology, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, NEPAL. Neerajs work involves computer analysis and research on institutional analysis of irrigation systems in Nepal.
Corinne Kaiser, Department of Economics, University of Duisburg, Duisburg, GERMANY. A Ph.D. student in Economics working on her dissertation, Corinne is interested in international integration, the political economy of trade policy, and the future role of the World Trade Organization.
Henning Karcher, Chief, Country Operations Division, Regional Bureau for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Development Programme. Dr. Karcher is preparing for his upeoming assignment as UNDP Resident Representative/UN Resident Coordinator to the Kingdom of Nepal. Building upon existing studies, and discussion with members of the Workshop and the IIZI faculty, he will prepare Nepal-specific issue papers covering governance, poverty alleviation, management of natural resources and the environment, provision of basic social services, management of the economy, and gender main-streaming.
Audun Sandberg, Nordland Research Institute, Bode Regional University, Bodo, NORWAY. Professor Sandberg is conducting research on the institutional aspects of coastal zone management, and in the potential for local self-governance of biodiversity. While in North America, Sandberg has made presentations at the Workshop, the CPRNet seminar at the World Bank, Washington, D.C., and the 7th IASCP Common Property conference in Vancouver, Canada.
Nirmal Sengupta, Madras Institute of Develdpmental Studies, Gandhinagar, Chennai, INDIA. Dr. Sengupta is working on a book about the development of irrigation systems in India as an example of the evolution of knowledge in a dynamic system. He is also working with Lin Ostrom to develop a dynamic model of irrigation systems.
Sujai Shivakumar, Department of Economics, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. Sujai is a post-doctoral fellow interested in applying his background in Constitutional Political Economy to understand how todays transitioning economies are faring given how their institutional structure enables them the stability to develop and the flexibility to adapt.
Hong Keun Yune, Department of Public Administration, Seoul National Polytechnic University, Seoul, KOREA. Dr. Yune has been interested in the institutional arrangements affecting the government-business relationship. He is currently working on a study that explains the economic liberalization process in Korea.
Minoti Chakravarty-Kaul, Reader in Economics, Lady Shri Ram College, New Delhi, INDIA, 3/14-28
Kisuk Cho and Byungil Choi, Graduate School of International Studies, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, KOREA, 2/12-21
Salvador Espinosa, Information & Economic Promotion Coordinator, Representacion del Gobierno del Estado de Guanajuato en Mexico, MEXICO, 4/16-23
Jimoh Ibrahim, Executive Secretary, African Centre for Policy Studies, International Secretariat, Idimu-Lagos, NIGERIA, 1/29-2/3
Andreas Obser, Institut fur Politikwissenschaft, Universitat Leipzig, Leipzig, GERMANY, 3/21-4/6
Ganesh Shivakoti, Department of Agricultural Economics, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Rampur, Chitwan, NEPAL, 3/17-4/1
Mao Shoulong, Director of Policy and Law Section, Institute of Public Administration. Renmin University of China, Beijing, CHINA, 1/30-2/15
Ken Bickers, Political Science
Jerome Busemeyer, Psychology
Kathryn Firmin-Sellers, Political Science
Roy Gardner, Economics
Clark Gibson, Political Science
Charlotte Hess, Workshop & School of Library and Information Science
Kerry Krutilla, School of Pu~Iic and Environmental Affairs (SPEA)
Tom Lyon, Business Economics & Public Policy, Kelley School of Business
Mike McGinnis, Political Science
Burt Monroe, Political Science
Lloyd Orr, Economics
Roger Parks, SPEA
Eric Rasmusen, Business Economics & Public Policy, Kelley School of Business
David Schmidt, Economics
Larry Schroeder, SPEA
James Walker, Economics
John Williams, Political Science
Lam, Wai Fung. 1998. Governing Irrigation Systems in Nepal:Institutions, Infrastructure, and Collective Action. Oakland, CA: ICS Press. 275 pages ISBN 1-55815-505-9 $24.95 (There is a 20% discount to IASCP members.)
The following review is based on Elinor Ostroms Foreword to this book and an ICS working paper based on the book, "Can the United States Afford a State-Governed Society?," by Robert B. Hawkins (to receive a copy of the paper send an email to: HawkinsBob@compuserve.com).
In this volume, Wai Fung Lam analyzes and compares two types of governance systems for developing rural infrasti-ucture: state-governed technocratic systems, and indigenous self-governing systems. Comparing the two types of governance systems for irrigation in Nepal, he fmds~hat farmer-governed systems have significantly higher levels of productivity with water delivered more effectively, reliably, and equitably. Moreover, they are better maintained than state-governed systems. Self-governing users are also more entrepreneurial. They spend more time on, and have much higher levels of, knowledge about the resources they use, and the organizational and governance requirements of these resources.
In addition to providing a detailed analysis of the problems of common pool resources and the incentives that users face when trying to govern and manage these resources, this investigation provides some major lessons for future development of rural irtfrastmcture. In particular, technical assessment should include the indigenous knowledge learned by farmers from many years of working in a specific environment. A key question has to be how those responsible for the day-to-day management of a resource system actually make the physical system a productive input to agricultural production. Sound infrastructure design requires knowledge of property rights, and how farmers conceptualize their mutual responsibilities and joint benefits. It also requires knowing how they will mobilize resources in the future to monitor common use, and its relationship to responsibilities to pay for continued governance and management.
Scholars, policymakers, donors, and activists throughout the world are
working to devise programs that involve the participation of farmers and villagers in
rural areas. Lams study will be of interes~to all those who wish to enhance the
problem-solving capabilities of those who undertake the day-to-day responsibilities of
managing infrastructure projects in rural areas.
Gibson, Clark, Margaret A. McKean, and Elinor Ostrom, eds. 1998. Forest Resources and Institutions. Forests, Trees and People Programme, Working Paper no. 3. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), May.
CHAPTER 1: "Explaining Deforestation: The Role of Local Institutions" (BY CLARK GIBSON, MARGARET A. McKEAN, AND ELINOR OSTROM)
CHAPTER 2: "Common Property: What Is It, What Is It Good For, and What Makes It Work?" (BY MARGARET A. McKEAN)
CHAPTER 3: "Group Size and Successful Collective Action: A Case Study of Forest Management Institutions in the Indian Himalayas" (BY ARUN AGRAWAL)
CHAPTER 4: "Successful Forest Management: The Importance of Security of Tenure and Rule Enforcement in Ugandan Forests" (BY ABWOLI Y. BANANA AND WILLIAM GOMBYA-SSEMBAJJWE)
CHAPTER 5: "Social Norms and Human Foraging: An Investigation into the Spatial Distribution of Shorea robusta in Nepal" (BY CHARLES M. SCHWEIK)
CHAPTER 6: "The Lack of Institutional Supply: Why a Strong Local Community in Western Ecuador Fails to Protect its Forest" (BY C. DUSTIN BECKER AND CLARK GIBSON)
CHAPTER 7: "Indigenous Forest Management in the Bolivian Amazon: Lessons from the Yuracare People" (BY C. DUSTIN BECKER AND ROSARIO LEON)
CHAPTER 8: "Coping with Changes in Population and Forest Resources: Institutional Mediation in the Middle Hills of Nepal" (BY GEORGE VARUGHESE)
APPENDIX I: "IFRI Research Strategy" (BY ELINOR OSTROM AND MARY BETH WERTIME)
Hackett, Steven C. 1998. Environmental and Natural Resources Economics: Theory, Policy, and the Sustainable Society. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. (ISBN 0-7656-0109-5)
Ivanicka, Koloman. 1997. Institutionalization and Social Order: Application of the Chaos Theory to Institutional Analysis. Banska Bystrica: University of Matej Bel, Faculty of Political Science & International Affairs. (ISBN 80-8055-026-3)
BACK IN PRINTON-DEMAND AVAILABILITY:
Ostrom, Elinor, Larry Schroeder, and Susan Wynne. 1993. Institutional Incentives and Sustainable Development: Infrastructure Policies in Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. (ISBN 0-8133-1619-7)
Raadschelders, Jos C.N. 1998. Handbook of Administrative History. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. (ISBN l-56000-315-4)
Bhatt, Nitin, and Shui-Yan Tang. 1998. "The Problem of Transaction Costs in Groupbased Microlending: An Institutional Perspective." World Development 26(4) (April).
Ostrom, Elinor. 1998. "A Behavioral Approach to the Rational Choice Theory of Collective Action." APSA 1997 Presidential Address. American Political Science Review 92(1) (March): 1-22.
___. 1998. "Building Capacity through Multidisciplinary Thematic Research." In Capacity Building of Environmental Economics in Developing Countries, pp. 18-19, Synthesis of Experience Workshop, Marstrand, Sweden, May 9-10, 1996.
___.1998. "The Comparative Study of Public Economies." The Frank E. Seidman Distinguished Award in Political Economy. Presentation of Acceptance Paper by 1997 Recipient, Elinor Ostrom, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN, September 26, 1997. Published by the P.K. Seidman Foundation, Memphis, TN, February 1998. Also published in: The American Economist 42(1) (Spring 1998): 3-17.
___. 1998. "Reflections on the Commons." In Managing the Commons, ed. John A. Baden and Douglas S. Noonan, 95-116. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Ostrom, Vincent. 1998. "Some Developments in the Study of Market Choice, Public Choice, and Institutional Choice." In Handbook of Public Administration, Second Edition, ed. Jack Rabin, W. Bartley Hildreth, and Gerald J. Miller, 1065-87. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Agrawal, Arun. 1997. Community in Conservation: Beyond Enchantment and Disenchantment. Conservation Development Forum (CDF) Discussion Paper. Gainesville: University of Florida.
Koontz, Tomas. 1997. "Differences between State and Federal Public Forest Management: The Importance of Rules." Publius 27(1) (Winter): 15-37.
Loveman, Brian. 1997. "Federalismo y Democratizacion en America Latina: Un Analisis Comparativo y Agenda de Reforma Parcial." (Federalism and Democratization in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis and Partial Reform Agenda.) In Cuadernos de Federalismo II: Reflexiones sobre la Agenda Legislativa del Federalismo, Documentos del Coloquio II, Ciudad de Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico, pp. 15-60.
Ostrom, Elinor. 1997. "La Agenda de la Reforma." In Cuadernos de Federalismo II: Reflexiones sobre la Agenda Legislativa del Federalismo, Documentos del Coloquio II, Ciudad de Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico, pp. 61-74.
Ostrom, Vincent. 1997. "El Federalismo en la Vida Cotidiana." (Federalism in the Affairs of Everyday Life) In Cuadernos de Federalismo I: Teoria y Praxis del Federalismo Contemporaneo, Documentos del Coloquio I, San Juan del Rio, Queretaro.
Sell, Jane. 1997. "Gender, Strategies, and Contributions to Public Goods." Social Psychology Quarterly 60(3):252-65.
Sell, Jane, and Veongi Son. 1997. "Comparing Public Goods with Common Pool Resources: Three Experiments." Social Psychology Quarterly 60(2): 118-37.
Wilson, Rick, and Jane Sell. 1997. "Liar, Liar...': Cheap Talk and Reputation in Repeated Public Goods Settings." Journal of Conflict Resolution 41(5) (Oct.): 695-717.
Jerome Busemeyer, 1/26, Department of Psychology, IU, "Decision Field Theory: A Dynamic-Cognitive Approach to Decision-Making in.an Uncertain Environment."
Pamela Schmitt, Kurtis Swope, and James Walker, 2/2, Department of Economics, IU, "Collective Action with Incomplete Commitment: Experimental Evidence."
Mao Shoulong, 2/9, Director of Policy and Law Section, Institute of Public Administration, Renmin University of China, Beijing, CHINA, "Recent Development in the Social Sciences in China."
Audun Sandberg, 2/16, Nordland Research Institute, Bod0 Regional University, Bod0, NORWAY, "Governing Coastal Resources in Western Ireland and Northern Norway: A Comparative Analysis."
Robert Stein, 2/23, School of Social Sciences, Rice University, Houston, TX, "The Effect of Contact and Context on White Attitudes Toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy."
TIm Feddersen, 3/2, Kellogg Graduate School of Management, MEDS, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, "Convicting the Innocent: The Inferiority of Unanimous Jury Verdicts under Strategic Voting" (coauthored with Wolfgang Pesendorfer).
Nirmal Sengupta, 3/9, Madras Institute of Developmental Studies, Gandhinagar, Chennai, INDIA, "The Production Function and Institutions."
Sujal Shivakumar, 3/23, Department of Economics, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, "Constitutional Constraints and the Market for Policy Advice."
Claudia Keser, 3/30, Institute for Statistic and Mathematical Economic Theory, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, GERMANY, "Mobility and Cooperation: On the Run."
Michael McGinnis, 4/6, Department of Political Science, IU, "Polycentric Order and Metropolitan Governance."
Timothy Frye, 4/13, Department of Political Science, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, "The State of the Market: Governing the New Russian Economy."
Michael McGinnis, 4/20, Department of Political Science, IU, "Polycentric Development and Resource Management" and "Polycentric Games and Institutional Analysis."
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