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FREE RIDING

May 2012

Adar, E. and B.A. Huberman. 2000. "Free Riding on Gnutella." First Monday 5(10). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2556

Araral, E. 2009. "What Explains Collective Action in the Commons? Theory and Evidence from the Philippines." World Development 37(3):687-697.

Araral, E.K. 2006. "Decentralization Puzzles: A Political Economy Analysis of Irrigation Reform in the Philippines." (Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 2006). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3550

Ballabh, V. and V. Shunmugam. 1998. "Distributed Governance in Basin Management: A Paradisiacal Denoument?" The Social Engineer 7(2):129-145.

Barkin, J.S. and G.E. Shambaugh, eds. 1999. Anarchy and the Environment: The International Relations of Common Pool Resources. New York: State University of New York Press.

Baron, D.P. 2010. "Morally Motivated Self-Regulation." American Economic Review 100(4):1299-1329.

Barrett, S. 1999. "A Theory of Full International Cooperation." Journal of Theoretical Politics 11(4):519-541.

Barrett, S. 1992. Convention on Climate Change: Economic Aspects of Negotiations. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Bednar, J. 2006. "Is Full Compliance Possible? Conditions for Shirking with Imperfect Monitoring and Continuous Action Spaces." Journal of Theoretical Politics 18(3):347-375.

Bierbrauer, F. 2006. "Distortionary Taxation and the Free-Rider Problem." Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn Germany. (Reprints of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, no. 2006/6). http://www.coll.mpg.de/pdf_dat/2006_6online.pdf

Bierbrauer, F. 2005. "Optimal Income Taxation and Public Good Provision in a Two-Class Economy."(25) Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn, Germany. (Preprints of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, no. 2005/25).

Bierbrauer, F. and M. Sahm. 2006. "Informative Voting and the Samuelson Rule." Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn, Germany. (Preprints of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, no. 2006/18).

Bigman, D. 1992. "Unanimity and Exclusion as Mechanisms to Eliminate Free Riding in Public Goods: Diagrammatical Illustrations." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 19:101-117.

Binger, B.R. and E. Hoffman. 1983. "Non-linear Prices and the Optimal Allocation of Public Goods." Presented at the Public Choice Society Meetings, March 24-26, 1983, Savannah, GA. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5746

Borcherding, T.E. and D. Filson. 2002. "Group Consumption, Free-Riding, and Informal Reciprocity Agreements." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 47(3):237-257.

Bretzke, H. and J. Vassileva. 2003. "Motivating Cooperation on Peer to Peer Networks." Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2702:218-227.

Brewer, S. 1999. "Experimental Economics Research: A Provision Point Public Goods Exercise." Presented at the Workshop Colloquium, Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, February 22, 1999.

Briassoulis, H. 2002. "Sustainable Tourism and the Question of the Commons." Annals of Tourism Research 29(4):1065-1085.

Brubaker, E.R. 1975. "Free Ride, Free Revelation, or Golden Rule?" Journal of Law and Economics 18:147-161.

Brunner, E.J. 1998. "Free Riders or Easy Riders? An Examination of the Voluntary Provision of Public Radio." Public Choice 97(4):587-604.

Buchanan, J. 1999. "Ethical Rules, Expected Values, and Large Numbers." In The Logical Foundation of Constitutional Liberty, Vol. 1. G. Brennan, H. Kliemt, and R. D. Tollison, eds. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. (The Collected Works of James M. Buchanan).

Buchanan, J. 1999. "Rights, Efficiency, and Exchange: The Irrelevance of Transactions Cost." In The Logical Foundation of Constitutional Liberty, Vol. 1. G. Brennan, H. Kliemt, and R. D. Tollison, eds. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. (The Collected Works of James M. Buchanan).

Buchanan, J. 1979. "The Potential for Taxpayer Revolt in American Democracy." In Policy Studies Review Annual, 1979. R. H. Haveman and B. B. Zellner, eds. Beverly Hills: Sage. (Policy Studies Review Annual, Vol. 3).

Cadsby, C.B. and E. Maynes. 2005. "Gender, Risk Aversion, and the Drawing Power of Equilibrium in an Experimental Corporate Takeover Game." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 56(1):39-59.

Carpenter, J.P., A.G. Daniere, and L.M. Takahashi. 2004. "Cooperation, Trust, and Social Capital in Southeast Asian Urban Slums." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 55(4):533-551.

Chander, P. and H. Tulkens. 1995. "A Core-Theoretic Solution for the Design of Cooperative Agreements on Transfer Pollution." Center for Operations Research & Econometrics, Universite Catholoque de Louvain, Belgium. (CORE Reprint 1158).

Chaudhuri, A. 2011. "Sustaining Cooperation in Laboratory Public Goods Experiments: A Selective Survey of the Literature." Experimental Economics 14(1):47-83.

Chen, Y. and C.R. Plott. 1993. "The Groves-Ledyard Mechanism: An Experimental Study of Institutional Design." Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. (Social Science Working Paper, no. 867). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5646

Cherry, T.L., S. Kroll, and J.F. Shogren. 2005. "The Impact of Endowment Heterogeneity and Origin on Public Good Contributions: Evidence from the Lab." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 57(3):357-365.

Chong, D. 1996. "Rational Choice Theory's Mysterious Rivals." In The Rational Choice Controversy: Economic Models of Politics Reconsidered.  J. Friedman, ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Copeland, B.R. 1990. "Strategic Enhancement and Destruction of Fisheries and the Environment in the Presence of International Externalities." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 19(3):212-226.

Croson, R.T.A. 1997. "Feedback in Voluntary Contribution Mechanisms: An Experiment in Team Production." In Research in Experimental Economics.

Croson, R.T.A. 1996. "Partners and Strangers Revisited." Economics Letters 53:25-32.

Cunningham, B.M., P.J. Alexander, and N. Adilov. 2004. "Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Communities." Information Economics and Policy 16(2):197-213.

Damania, R. and P.G. Fredriksson. 2000. "On the Formation of Lobby Groups." Journal of Economic and Behavioral Organization 41(4):315-335.

Dawes, R.M., J.M. Orbell, R.T. Simons, and A.J.C. van de Kragt. 1986. "Organizing Groups for Collective Action." American Political Science Review 80:1171-1185.

Dawson, N.L. and K. Segerson. 2008. "Voluntary Agreements with Industries: Participation Incentives with Industry-Wide Targets." Land Economics 84(1):97-114.

Delmas, M. and A. Keller. 2005. "Free Riding in Voluntary Environmental Programs: The Case of the U.S. EPA WasteWise Program." Policy Sciences 38(2/3):91-106.

Diekmann, A. 1985. "Volunteer's Dilemma." Journal of Conflict Resolution 29(4):605-610.

Dietz, T., N. Dolsak, E. Ostrom, and P.C. Stern. 2002. "The Drama of the Commons." In The Drama of the Commons.  E. Ostrom et al., eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Dougherty, K.L. 2002. "The Theory of Collective Action Before Mancur Olson." Presented at the Public Choice Meetings, San Diego, March 22-24, 2002.

Edwards, V. 1994.  "Managing the Commons: A Conceptual Model for Analysis of Institutional Change and Its Application to the Management of Common Land in the New Forest (Manuscript Draft)." http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3912

Edwards, V.M. 1995. "The New Forest Commons, Hampshire: Horse-riders, Mountain-bike riders, Free-riders." Presented at "Reinventing the Commons," the fifth annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, May 24-28, 1995, Bodoe, Norway. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/624

Eeckhout, J. and B. Jovanovic. 2002. "Knowledge Spillovers and Inequality." American Economic Review 92(5):1290-1307.

Ellickson, R.C. 1998. "New Institutions for Old Neighborhoods." Duke Law Journal 48(1):75-110. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2877

Engel, C. 2005. Generating Predictability: Institutional Analysis and Design. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Epstein, G.S. and Y. Mealem. 2009. "Group Specific Public Goods, Orchestration of Interest Groups with Free Riding." Public Choice 139(3-4):357-369.

Falaschetti, D. and G. Miller. 2001. "Moral Hazard and Credible Commitment in Constitutional Design." Journal of Theoretical Politics 13(4):389-411.

Fang, H. 2001. "Social Culture and Economic Performance." American Economic Review 91(4):924-937.

Feeny, D., S. Hanna, and A.F. McEvoy. 1996. "Questioning the Assumptions of the 'Tragedy of the Commons' Model of Fisheries." Land Economics 72(2):187-205.

Feld, L.P., W.W. Pommerehne, and A. Hart. 1996. "Private Provision of a Public Good: A Case Study." In The Political Economy of Environmental Protection: Analysis and Evidence.  R. D. Congleton, ed. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Ferraz de Fonseca, I., M. Bursztyn, and B.S. Allen. 2012. "Trivializing Sustainability: Environmental Governance and Rhetorical Free-riders in the Brazilian Amazon." Natural Resources Forum 36(1):28-37.

Fershtman, C. and S. Nitzan. 1988. "Dynamic Voluntary Provision of Public Goods." Presented at the Colloquium at the Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis, Indiana University, October 10, 1988.

Fischer, M.-E., B. Irlenbusch, and A. Sadrieh. 2004. "An Integration Common Pool Resource Experiment." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 48:811-836.

Fischer, M.-E., B. Irlenbusch, and A. Sadrieh. 2002. "An Intergenerational Common Pool Resource Experiment." (Working Paper) http://www.innovationsoekonomie.de/discussion-paper/economics/2002-003E.pdf

Fisher, J. et al. 1991. "Heterogenous Demand for Public Goods: Effects on the Voluntary Contributions Mechanism." (Working Paper)

Frey, B.S. 2010. "Lin Ostroms Contribution to Economics: A Personal Evaluation." Public Choice 143(3-4):303-308.

Furtom, H., J. Sauer, and M.S. Jensen. 2009. "Free-Riding on Rent Seeking: An Empirical Analysis." Public Choice 140(3-4):479-500.

Gaube, T. 2005. "Altruism and Charitable Giving in a Fully Replicated Economy." Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn. (Preprints of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, no. 8). http://www.mpp-rdg.mpg.de/pdf_dat/2005_8online.pdf

Gauthier, B. 1990. "Hierarchies and Delegation: Sequential Production and Process in an Organizational Setting." School of Business and Center in Political Economy, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. (Political Economy Working Paper, no. 138).

Glazer, A. 1993.  "Political Equilibrium under Group Identification." In Information, Participation, and Choice: An Economic Theory of Democracy in Perspective.  B. Grofman, ed. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Goldberg, J., L. Markóczy, and G.L. Zahn. 2005. "Symmetry and the Illusion of Control as Bases for Cooperative Behavior." Rationality and Society 17(2):243-270.

Goodman, J.C. and P.K. Porter. 2004. "Political Equilibrium and the Provision of Public Goods." Public Choice 120(3-4):247-266.

Green, J., E. Kohlberg, and J.-J. Laffont. 1976. "Partial Equilibrium Approach to the Free Rider Problem." Journal of Public Economics 6:375-394.

Griffon, M. 1992. "l'École du 'Public Choice'." Centre de Cooperation International en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, Montpellier, France. Presented at a seminar on "International Economics and Agriculture", September 7-10, 1992, Montpellier, France.

Grossman, P.J. and J. Pope. 1990. "An Empirical Test of Free-Rider Behavior." University of Western Australia, Perth.

Güth, W. and S. Nitzan. 1997. "The Evolutionary Stability of Moral Objections to Free Riding." Economics and Politics 9(2):133-149.

Hampton, J. 1987. "Free-Rider Problems in the Production of Collective Goods." Economics and Philosophy 3:245-273.

Hannon, B. 2005. "Pathways to Environmental Change." Ecological Economics 52(4):417-420.

Hardin, R. 2003. "The Free Rider Problem." In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  E. Zalta, ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/free-rider/

Hardin, R. 1982. Collective Action. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hechter, M. 1990. "The Emergence of Cooperative Social Institutions." In Social Institutions: Their Emergence, Maintenance, and Effects. M. Hechter, K. D. Opp, and R. Wippler, eds. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. (Sociology and Economics: Controversy and Integration).

Heckathorn, D.D. 1989. "Collective Action and the Second-Order Free-Rider Problem." Rationality and Society 1(1):78-100.

Hernandez, S.P. 2005. "Comparative Economic and Institutional Analysis between Two Regulatory Mechanism to Reduce the Illegal Traffic of Biodiversity: Command and Control Regulation vs. Individual Transferable Quotas Applied to Sea Turtles in Colombia." (Working Paper) Alexander von Humboldt Biological Resources Research Institute,  Bogota, Colombia.

Highes, D., G. Coulsen, and J. Walkerdine. 2005. "Free Riding on Gnutella Revisited: The Bell Tolls?" IEEE Distributed Systems Online 6(6)

Hoffman, E. 1997. "Public Choice Experiments." In Perspectives on Public Choice: A Handbook.  D.C. Mueller, ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Holmstrom, B. 1982. "Moral Hazard in Teams." Bell Journal of Economics 13:324-340.

Isaac, R.M., D. Schmidtz, and J.M. Walker. 1989. "The Assurance Problem in a Laboratory Market." Public Choice 62:217-236.

Isaac, R.M. and J.M. Walker. 1991. "Costly Communication: An Experiment in a Nested Public Goods Problem." In Laboratory Research in Political Economy.  T. R. Palfrey, ed. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Isaac, R.M. and J.M. Walker. 1988. "Communication and Free-Riding Behavior: The Voluntary Contribution Mechanism." Economic Inquiry 26(4):585-608.

Isaac, R.M. and J.M. Walker. 1988. "Group Size Effects in Public Goods Provision: The Voluntary Contributions Mechanism." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 103:180-199.

Isaac, R.M. and J.M. Walker. 1986. "Communication and Free Riding Behavior: The Voluntary Contribution Mechanism." (Working Paper) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4140

Isaac, R.M. and J.M. Walker. 1986. "Group Size Effects in Public Goods Provision:  The Voluntary Contribution Mechanism." University of Arizona Department of Economics, Tucson, AZ.

Isaac, R.M., J.M. Walker, and A.W. Williams 1990. "Group Size and the Voluntary Provision of Public Goods: Experimental Evidence Utilizing Very Large Groups." Preliminary report Presented at the Fall Meetings of the Economic Science Association, October 28-29, 1989, Tucson, AZ. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2187

Isik, H.B. 2004. "Performance-Based Voluntary Group Contracts for Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Control." (Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University).

De Jasay, A. 2008. Social Contract, Free Ride: A Study of the Public Goods Problem. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.

Jiang, J., H. Bai, and W. Wang. 2004. "Trust and Cooperation in Peer-to-Peer Systems." Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3032:371-378.

Jordahl, H. and C.-Y. Liang. 2009. "Merged Municipalities, Higher Debt: On Free-Riding and the Common Pool Problem in Politics." Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Sweden. (Uppsala University Economics Working Paper No. 2006:27). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6448

Kaboolian, L. and B.J. Nelson. 1998. "Creating Organizations of Concord: Lessons for Collective Goods Theory." (Working Paper)

Klein, D.B. 1990. "The Voluntary Provision of Public Goods? The Turnpike Companies of Early America." Economic Inquiry 28:788-812.

Kosfeld, M., A. Okada, and A. Riedl. 2006. "Institution Formation in Public Goods Games." Institute for Emperical Research in Economics, University of Zurich. (Working Paper Series, No. 299).

Krishnan, R., M.D. Smith, Z. Tang, and R. Telang. 2004. "The Impact of Free-Riding on Peer-to-Peer Networks." Presented at the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, January 5-8, 2004. http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/2004/2056/07/205670199c.pdf

de Kwaadsteniet, E.W. 2007. "Uncertainty in Social Dilemmas." (Ph.D. Dissertation, Universiteit Leiden, 2007).

Lagunoff, R.D. and A. Matsui. 1993. "Agitators and Free Riders on the Path to Cooperation: The Evolution of Cooperation in Mechanisms for Public Projects." Center for Analytic Research in Economics and the Social Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. (CARESS Working Paper no. 93-14).

Landry, R. 1990. "The Theory of Interest Groups since Olson; A Review and a Reinterpretation." Presented at the Canadian Political Science Association Meeting, Learned Societies of Canada, Victoria, May 27-29, 1990.

Lee, M. 1991. "The Evolution of Institution: An Evolutionary Game Theory Approach." Presented at the Mini-Conference, Workshop in Political Theory & Policy Analysis, Bloomington, IN, Spring, 1991. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1464

Lemley, M.A. 2004. "Property, Intellectual Property, and Free Riding." Stanford Law School, Stanford, CA. (John M. Olin Program in Law and Economics Working Papers, no. 291). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6438

Levati, M.V. 2002. "Explaining Private Provision of Public Goods by Conditional Cooperation: An Evolutionary Approach." Presented at the Institutional Analysis and Development Mini-Conference, May 2003, Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

Linares, F. 2004. "Hawks, Zealots and Hypocrites, But Not Free Riders: The Logic of Cooperation in Llano del Beal: A Qualitative Case Study." Rationality and Society 16(4):437-476.

List, J.A., E.H. Bulte, and J.F. Schogren. 2002. "'Beggar Thy Neighbor:' Testing for Free Riding in State-Level Endangered Species Expenditures." Public Choice 111(3-4):303-315.

Loehman, E., F.N. Quesnel, and E.M. Babb. 1996. "Free-rider Effects in Rent-Seeking Groups Competing for Public Goods." Public Choice 86:35-61.

Lohmann, S. 1996. "Electoral Incentives, Informational Asymmetries, and the Policy Bias toward Special Interests." Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. (Social Science Working Paper, no. 995).

Lohmann, S. 1996. "The Poverty of Green and Shapiro." In The Rational Choice Controversy: Economic Models of Politics Reconsidered.  J. Friedman, ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Luccasen, R.A. 2003. "Contributions and Crowd-Out of Public Goods: Competing Theories and Experimental Evidence." (Ph.D.  Dissertation, Texas A&M University, 2003).

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Maier-Rigaud, F.P., P. Martinsson, and G. Staffiero. 2005. "Ostracism and the Provision of a Public Good:  Experimental Evidence." Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn, Germany. (Working Paper Series, No. 2005_24.). http://www.coll.mpg.de/pdf_dat/2005_24online.pdf

Marwell, G. and R.E. Ames. 1980. "Experiments on the Provision of Public Goods, IIl. Provision Points, Stakes, Experience, and the Free-Rider Problem." American Journal of Sociology 85(4):926-937.

McMillan, J. 1979. "The Free-Rider Problem: A Survey." Economic Record 55:95-107.

McMillan, J. 1979. "Individual Incentives in the Supply of Public Inputs." Journal of Public Economics 12:87-98.

Mestelman, S. and D. Feeny. 1988. "Does Ideology Matter?: Anecdotal Experimental Evidence on the Voluntary Provision of Public Goods." Public Choice 57:281-286.

Miller, F.P. 2009. Public Good: Public Good, Free Rider Problem, Assurance Contract, Collective Action, Common-Pool Resource, Externality, Lindahl Equilibrium, Mechanism Design, Natural Monopoly, Public Choice Theory, Public Goods Game, Public Works. Beau Bassin, Mauritius: Alphascript.

Miller, J.H. and J. Andreoni. 1990. "A Coevolutionary Model of Free Riding Behavior: Replicator Dynamics as an Explanation of the Experimental Results." Presented at the Conference on Experimental Research on the Provision of Public Goods and Common-Pool Resources, Bloomington, IN, May 18-20, 1990.

Moir, R. 1999. "When Incentive Compatibility Backfires: Individual Analysis of the Lottery Mechanism." (Working Paper)

Montoro-Pons, J.D. and Fr. Garcia-Sobrecases. 2000. "Collective Action, Free-Riding and Evolution." (Working Paper)

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Mukhopadhaya, K. 2003. "Jury Size and the Free Rider Problem." Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 19(1):24-44.

Neumayer, E. 2001. "How Regime Theory and the Economic Theory of International Environmental Cooperation Can Learn from Each Other." Global Environmental Politics 1(1):122-147.

Newell, L.W. 2003. "Analyzing Public Preferences and Valuations for Forested Wetlands in Rhode Island: Comparisons of Real-Money and Hypothetical Survey Presentations." (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Rhode Island, 2003).

Niou, E.M.S. and G. Tan. 2002. "External Threat and Collective Action." (Working Paper)

Nitzan, S. and S. Slutsky. 1988. "More on Free Riding and Uncertainty." Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. (Working Paper, no. W88-12).

Nunn, C.L. 2000. "Collective Benefits, Free-Riders, and Male Extra-Group Conflict." In Primate Males.  P.  M. Kappeler, ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Oates, W.E. 2005. "The Many Faces of the Tiebout Model." (Working Paper)

Orbell, J.M., R.M. Dawes, and A.J. C. van de Kragt 198? "An Experimental Test of the Behavioral Symmetry Hypothesis." (Working Paper)

Ostrom, E. 2010. "Revising Theory in Light of Experimental Findings." Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 73(1):68-72.

Ostrom, E. 2009. "Social Cooperation in Collective-Action Situations." In Beitrage der Genossenschaftlichen Selbsthilfe zur Wirtschaftlichen und Sozialen Entwicklung [Contributions of Cooperative Self-Help to Economic and Social Development]. Hans Jurgen Rosner and Frank Schulz-Nieswandt, eds. Berlin: LIT Verlag. (Neue Kolner Genossenschaftswissenschaft, Bd. 5).

Ostrom, E. 2008. "Tragedy of the Commons." In The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. S. Durlauf and L. Blume, eds. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5887

Ostrom, E.. 2004. "Understanding Collective Action." International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), CGIAR System-wide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights, Washington, DC. (Focus 11, Brief 2).

Ostrom, E. 1999. "Polycentricity, Complexity, and the Commons." PEGS 9(2):37-41. Committee on the Political Economy of the Good Society, Department of Government and Politics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

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Park, E.-S. 2000. "Warm-Glow Versus Cold-Prickle: A Further Experimental Study of Framing Effects on Free-Riding." Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 43(4):405-421.

Pecorino, P. 2001. "Market Structure, Tariff Lobbying and the Free-Rider Problem." Public Choice 106(3-4):203-220.

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Price, M.E., L. Cosmides, and J. Tooby. 2002. "Punitive Sentiment as an Anti-Free Rider Psychological Device." Evolution and Human Behavior 23:203-231.

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