Indiana University
  • People
  •  
  •  

The Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis

Menu:

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE & INSTITUTIONS

May 2012

Aagesen, D. 2004. "Burning Monkey-Puzzle: Native Fire Ecology and Forest Management in Northern Patagonia." Agriculture and Human Values 21(2-3):233-242.

Abeto, R., Z. Calilung, J.P. Talubo, and B. Cumatang. 2004. "Community Mapping in the Philippines: A Case Study on the Ancestral Domain Claim of the Higa-onons in Impasug-ong, Bukidnon." Philippine Association for Intercultural Development, Inc. (PAFID), Quezon City, Philippines. Presented at the Regional Community Mapping Network Workshop, November 8-10, 2004, Diliman, Quezon City,

Abram, D. 2002. "Reciprocity: The Mutuality of Wild Intelligence." Resurgence 212:6-11.

Acharya, B.K. 1994. "Nature Cure and Indigenous Healing Practices in Nepal: A Medical Anthropological Perspective." In Anthropology of Nepal: Peoples, Problems, and Processes. M. Allen, ed. Kathmandu, Nepal: Mandala Book Point.

Acres, B.D. 1984. "Local Farmers' Experience of Soils Combined with Reconnaissance Soil Survey for Land Use Planning: An Example from Tanzania." Soil Survey and Land Evaluation 4(3):77-86.

Adams, J.S. and G. Binder. 1996. "Is Sustainable Use Sustainable?" Conservation Issues 3(3)

Adams, W.M. 1996. "Irrigation, Erosion, and Famine: Visions of Environmental Change in Marakwet, Kenya." In The Lie of the Land: Challenging Received Wisdom on the African Environment. M. Leach and R. Mearns, eds. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann in association with the International African Institute.

Adoukonou-Sagbadja, H., R. Vodouhe, and K. Akpagana. 2006. "Indigenous Knowledge and Traditional Conservation of Fonio Millet (Digitaria Exilis, Digitaria Iburua) in Togo." Biodiversity and Conservation 15(8):2379-2395.

Adriansen, H.K. 2008. "Understanding Pastoral Mobility: The Case of Senegalese Fulani." Geographical Journal 174(3):207-222.

Afiff, S. and C. Lowe. 2007. "Claiming Indigenous Community: Political Discourse and Natural Resource Rights in Indonesia." Alternatives 32(1):73-98.

African Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (ARCIK). 1996. "Agriculture and Rural Development." In Annotated Bibliographies on Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Ibadan, Nigeria: Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER).

Agrawal, A. 2005. "Politics of Indigenous Knowledge." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36:73-84.

Agrawal, A. 2002. "Indigenous Knowledge and the Politics of Classification." International Social Science Journal 54(173):287-297.

Agrawal, A. 1996. "Not Having One's Cake, Nor Eating It: Intellectual Property and 'Indigenous' Knowledges." Presented at the Colloquium Series of the Program in Agrarian Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, April 19, 1996. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/134

Agrawal, A. 1995. "Dismantling the Divide Between Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge." Development and Change 26:413-439. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4201

Agrawal, A. 1995. "Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge: Some Critical Comments." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 3(3):3-33.

Aguilar-Støen, M., S.R. Moe, and S.L. Camargo-Ricalde. 2009. "Home Gardens Sustain Crop Diversity and Improve Farm Resilience in Candelaria Loxicha, Oaxaca, Mexico." Human Ecology 37(1):55-77.

Aguilar, G. 2003. "Access to Genetic Resources and Protection of Traditional Knowledge in Indigenous Territories." In Trading in Knowledge: Development Perspectives on TRIPS, Trade, and Sustainability. C. Bellman, G. Dutfield, and R. Melendez-Ortiz, eds. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Aguilar, R. 2001. "Case Study Presentation: Ang Karagatang Ninuno ng Tagbanua-Calamianen: Isang Ulat at Pagpapakilala/The Ancestral Waters of the Tagbanua-Calamianen: A Report and Introduction." In Marine and Coastal Resources and Community-Based Property Rights: A Philippine Workshop. T. Gimenez-Maceda et al., eds. Quezon City, Philippines: Tanggol Kalikasan, Inc.

Ahmed, M.M.M., ed. 1994. Indigenous Knowledge for Sustainable Development in the Sudan. Khartoum, Sudan: University of Khartoum.

Ahmed, S. and G. Stoll. 1996. "Biopesticides." In Biotechnology: Building on Farmers' Knowledge. J. Bunder et al., eds. London: Macmillan.

Aho, M. 1996. "The Inter-Governmental Panel on Forests and New Challenges for International Development Co-Operation in Forestry Research." In Caring for the Forest: Research in a Changing World (Congress Report, Volume II). E. Korpilahti et al., eds. Jyväskylä, Finland: Finnish IUFRO World Congress Organising Committee.

Akabogu, E. 2002. "Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Integrity of the Commons and Emerging Regimes of Intellectual Property Rights in a Globalising World." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Globalisation," the Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, June 17-21, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1859

Alayón H, L. 2006. "External Regulations and Local Appropriations in the Management of a Resource in Old Providence and Santa Catalina Islands." Presented at "Survival of the Commons: Mounting Challenges and New Realities," the Eleventh Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bali, Indonesia, June 19-23, 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2055

Albert, E.M. 1970. "Conceptual Systems in Africa." In The African Experience: Volume 1: Essays. J.N. Paden and E.W. Soja, eds. Evanston, IL: Northwestern Univesity Press.

Albrecht, D.E. 1990. "Transactions between State Managers and Native Fishermen: Co-management on the Kuskokwim River, Alaska." Presented at "Designing Sustainability on the Commons," the first annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Durham, NC, 27-30 September, 1990. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1228

Aligica, P.D. 2010. "Elinor Ostrom--Nobel Prize in Economics 2009." Economic Affairs 30(1):95-96.

Allen, S. 2006. "The Consequences of Modernity for Indigenious Peoples: An International Appraisal." International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 13(4):315-340.

Almudi, T., F. Berkes, and D.C. Kalikoski. 2008. "Better Together: Partnership Building in a Brazilian Coastal Protected Area." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2253

Alsanabani, M., A. Aw-Hassan, and A. Bamatraf. 1997. "Impact of Land Tenure on Mountain Terrace Maintenance in Yemen." Presented at the "Workshop on Property Rights, Collective Action, and Technology Adoption," ICARDA Headquarters, Aleppo, Syria, November 22-25, 1997.

Altieri, M.A., ed. 1993. Crop Protection Strategies for Subsistence Farmers. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Altieri, M.A. 1990. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Agricultural Projects: Guidelines for Planning. H.L. Vukasin, ed. New York: Coordination in Development; Volunteers in Technical Assistance.

Alves, R.R.N. and I.L. Rosa. 2010. "Trade of Animals Used in Brazilian Traditional Medicine: Trends and Implications for Conservation." Human Ecology 38(5):691-704.

Amarai, B. 2005. "Fisheries and Fishing Effort at the Indigenous Reserves Ashaninka/Kaxinawá, River Breu, Brazil/Peru." Acta Amazonica 35(2):133-144.

Andah, B.W. 1992. Nigeria's Indigenous Technology. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan Unversity Press.

Anderson, J. 2005. "Indigenous Knowledge, Intellectual Property, Libraries and Archives: Crises of Access, Control and Future Utility." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):85-98.

Andrews, T.D. 1988. "Selected Biblography of Native Resource Management Systems and Native Knowledge of the Environment." In Traditional Knowledge and Renewable Resource Management. M.M.R. Freeman and L.N. Carbyn, eds. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta. (Occasional Publication, no. 23).

Angel Chacón V., M. 2004. "Multiple Spatial Representations of Underrepresented Indigenous Lands and Oral Based Knowledge of Sustainable Practices." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risks and Opportunities," the Tenth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Oaxaca, Mexico, August 9-13, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2059

Angura, T. O. 1996. "Grassroots Indicators Among the Langi and Their Impotance to Distric and National Planning." In Grassroots Indicators for Desertification: Experience and Perspective from Eastern and Southern Africa. H. Hambly and T.O. Angura, eds. Ottawa: IDRC Books.

Anjarwati, E. 2008. "Mainstreaming Local Wisdom: Indigenous People Collective Action in Rainforest Management (The Case of Indonesia and Philippines)." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/856

Anton, D.J. 1995. Diversity, Globalization, and the Ways of Nature (CD-ROM). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.

Antweiler, C. 1998. "Local Knowledge and Local Knowing: An Anthropological Analysis of Contested 'Cultural Products' in the Context of Development." Anthropos 93(4/6):469-.

Anyidoho, K. 2002. "The Back Without Which There is No Front." (Working Paper) African Studies Program, Indiana University, Bloomington. Presented at African Dialogues: Oral Heritage & Indigenous Knowledge, Working Conference, May 10-11, 2002.

Appell, G.N., ed. 1985. Modernization and the Emergence of a Landless Peasantry: Essays on the Integration of Peripheries to Socioeconomic Centers. Williamsburg, VA: Department of Anthropology, College of William and Mary.

Appiah-Opoku, S. and B. Hyma. 1999. "Indigenous Institutions and Resource Management in Ghana." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 7(3):15-17.

Appiah, M. et al. 2009. "Dependence on Forest Resources and Tropical Deforestation in Ghana." Environment, Development and Sustainability 11(3):471-487.

Arambiza, E. and M. Painter. 2006. "Biodiversity Conservation and Quality of Life of Indigenous People in the Bolivian Chaco." Human Organization 65(1):20-34.

Araral, E. 2009. "What can Institutional Analysis Tell Us about Long Lived Societies? The Case of the 2000 Year Old Ifugao Society." Presented at Workshop on the Workshop 4, Indiana University, Bloomington, June 3-6, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1947

Argumedo, A. and M. Pimbert. 2005. "Traditional Resource Rights and Indigenous People in the Andes." International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6151

Ariyo, J.A. and M.A. Gashua. 1996. "Indigenous On-Farm Techniques of Coping with Droughts in the Sahel Region of Nigeria." Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography 27(1)

Arnold, J.E.M. 1993. "Management of Forest Resources as Common Property." Commonwealth Forestry Review 72(3):157-161.

Arnold, J.E.M. and P.A. Dewees, eds. 1997. Farms, Trees and Farmers: Responses to Agricultural Intensification. London: Earthscan.

Arora, V. 2006. "The Forest of Symbols Embodied in the Tholung Sacred Landscape of North Sikkim, India." Conservation & Society 4(1):55-83. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3156

Arunotai, N. 2006. "Moken Traditional Knowledge: An Unrecognised Form of Natural Resources Management and Conservation." International Social Science Journal 187(58):139-150.

Aryal, I.K., P.B. Chemjong, and S.P. Neopane. 1993. "Exploration and Promotion of Local Resources: Use of Banmara (Eupatorium adenophorum) in the Diet of Goats." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang, G.J. Gill, and G.B. Thapa, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Aryal, S.P. 2002. "Indigenous Knowledge and Practices in Shringighaat Simuniya Saatgaon Irrigation System." In Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems in the Changed Context: Proceedings of the Second International Seminar Held on 18-19 April 2002, Kathmandu, Nepal. P. Pradhan and U. Gautam, eds. Kathmandu: Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems Promotion Trust.

Asibey, E.O.A., M.G. Khalikane, and M. Worede. 2000. "Links Between Indigenous Knowledge and Modern Technology: Seeds of Hope." In African Perspectives: Practices and Policies Supporting Sustainable Development. D. Turnham, ed. Gentofte, Denmark: Scandinavian Seminar College.

Aswani, S. 1998. "Patterns of Marine Harvest Effort in Southwestern New Georgia, Solomon Islands: Resource Management or Optimal Foraging?" Ocean and Coastal Management 40(2-3)

Aswani, S. and I. Vaccaro. 2008. "Lagoon Ecology and Social Strategies: Habitat Diversity and Ethnobiology." Human Ecology 36(3):325-341.

Atran, S. et al. 1997. "Folkecology and Commons Management in the Maya Lowlands." (Working Paper)

Atteh, O.D. 1992. Indigenous Local Knowledge as Key to Local Level Development: Possibilities, Constraints and Planning Issues in the Context of Africa. Ames, IO: Technology and Social Change Programme, Iowa State University in collaboration with Leiden Ethnosystems and development Programme (LEAD), Leiden University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, no. 20).

Atua, T., T. Tameaese, and T. Efi. 2005. "Clutter in Indigenous Knowledge, Research and History: A Samoan Perspective." Social Policy Journal of New Zealand 25:61-69.

Aviles, P. 2006. "Seven Ways of Looking at a Mountain: Tetzcotzingo and the Aztec Garden Tradition." Landscape Journal 25(2):143-157.

Awa, N.E. 1989. "Underutilization of Women's Indigenous Knowledge in Agriculture and Rural Development Programs: The Effect of Stereotypes." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren, L J. Slikkerveer, and S.O. Titilola, eds. Ames, IA: Studies in Technology and Social Change.

Ayantunde, A. et al.2008. "Botanical Knowledge and its Differentiation by Age, Gender and Ethnicity in Southwestern Niger." Human Ecology 36(6):881-889.

Bahati, J. 2002. "Relating Indigenous Knowledge to Forest Conditions: Access to Land and Forest Resources." Presented at 'African Dialogues: Oral Heritage and Indigenous Knowledge,' Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, May 10-11, 2002.

Bahati, J.B., A.Y. Banana, and W.G. Ssembajjwe. 2008. "Multi-Stakeholder Governance in Land and Forestry in Uganda: Conflict Mitigation, Scale, Knowledge and Collective Action." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2208

Bahati, J.B. 2002. "Relating Indigenous Knowledge to Forest Conditions: Access to Land and Forest Resources." Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4733

Baines, G.B.K. 1989. "Issues in the Application of Traditional Knowledge to Environmental Science." In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Collection of Essays. R.E. Johannes, ed. Cambridge, UK: IUCN.

Banana, A.Y. and G.P. Turiho-Habwe. 1997. "A Socio-Economic Analysis of Forest Foods Consumption in Hoima and Masindi Districts of Uganda." African Crop Science Conference Proceedings 3:1435-1442.

Bandyopadhyay, A.K., and G.S. Saha. 1998. "Indigenous Methods of Seed Selection and Preservation on the Andaman Islands in India." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 6(1):3-6.

Banerjee, M. 1998. "The Long Road to Khari Baoli: Environment Discourse and the Market for Medicinal Plants." Presented at "Crossing Boundaries," the seventh annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 10-14, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/879

Barborak, J.R. 1998. "Buffer Zone Management: Lessons for the Maya Forest." In Timber, Tourists, and Temples: Conservation and Development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico. R.B. Primack et al., eds. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Barreiro, J. 1991. "Indigenous Peoples Are the 'Miner's Canary' of the Human Family." In Learning to Listen to the Land. W.B. Willers, ed. Washington, DC: Island.

Barrow, E.G.C. 1989. "Trees, People, and the Dry Lands: The Role of Local Knowledge." In Agroforestry Development in Kenya: Proceedings of the Second Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry Held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-16 November 1988.  Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF.

Barsh, R.L. and J.S.Y. Henderson. 2003. "Biodiversity and Canada's Aboriginal Peoples." In Indigenous Peoples: Resource Management and Global Rights. S. Jentoft et al., eds. Delft, Netherlands: Eburon Delft.

Barton, D. 1994. Indigenous Agroforestry in Latin America: A Blueprint for Sustainable Agriculture? Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute. (NRI Socio-economic Series 6).

Bastida-Munoz, M.C. and G.A. Patrick. 2006. "Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights: Beyond TRIPS Agreements and Intellectual Property Chapters of FTAS." Michigan State Journal of International Law 14(2/3):259-290.

Basurto, F. et al. 1996. "Ciclo Agrícola y Fenología de Phaseolus Coccineus L. en Sistemas de Agricultura Tradicional en la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México." In Etnoecológica, vol. 3, no. 4-5 (August 1996). V.M. Toledo, ed. Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico: Centro de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

Bebbington, A. 1991. "Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge Systems, Human Interests, and Critical Analysis: Reflections on Farmer Organization in Ecuador." Agriculture and Human Values 8(1-2):14-24.

Bebbington, A.J. 1994. "Composing Rural Livelihoods: From Farming Systems to Food Systems." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Bebbington, A.J. 1993. "Rural Peoples' Knowledge, Farmer Organisations and Regional Development: Implications for Agricultural Research and Extension." Overseas Development Institute, London, Agricultural Research and Extension Network (AGREN), London. (Network Paper, no. 41).

Beck, W. and M. Somerville. 2005. "Conservations between Disciplines: Historical Archaeology and Oral History." World Archaeology 37(2):468-483.

Becker, C.D. and K. Ghimire. 2003. "Synergy Between Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Conservation Science Supports Forest Preservation in Ecuador." Conservation Ecology 8(1) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2584

Becker, C.D. and R. Leon. 1999. "Indigenous Forest Management in the Bolivian Amazon: Lessons from the Yuracaré People." In People and Forests: Communities, Institutions, and the Governance of Forests. C.C. Gibson, M.A. McKean, and E. Ostrom, eds. Bloomington, IN: Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis.

Beckford, C. and D. Barker. 2007. "The Role and Value of Local Knowledge in Jamaican Agriculture: Adaptation and Change in Small-Scale Farming." Geographical Journal 173(2):118-128.

Behera, S. 1997. "Forests, Tribes and Resources." In Local Knowledge of Forests and Forest Uses Among Tribal Communities in India: Proceedings of an International Seminar Jointly Organized by the Chair of Forest Policy and Forest Economics, ETH Zurich, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and Max Mueller Bhavan, New Delhi. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. Zurich: Departement Wald- und Holzforschung, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. (Forstwissenschaftliche Beiträge der Professur Forstpolitik und Forstökonomie 19).

Bellon, M.R. 1995. "Farmers' Knowledge and Sustainable Agroecosystem Management: An Operational Definition and an Example from Chiapas, Mexico." Human Organization 54(3):263-272.

Belshaw, D. 1979. "Taking Indigenous Technology Seriously: The Case of Inter-cropping Techniques in East Africa." IDS Bulletin 10(2):24-27.

Berg, T. 1992. "Indigenous Knowledge and Plant Breeding in Tigray, Ethiopia." Forum for Development Studies 1:13-22.

Berkes, F. 2009. "Community Conserved Areas: Policy Issues in Historic and Contemporary Context." Conservation Letters 2:19-24.

Berkes, F. 2008. Sacred Ecology. New York: Routledge.

Berkes, F. 2004. "Knowledge, Learning and the Resilience of Social-Ecological Systems." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risks and Opportunities," the Tenth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Oaxaca, Mexico, August 9-13, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2385

Berkes, F. 1999. "Role and Significance of 'Tradition' in Indigenous Knowledge." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 7(1):19.

Berkes, F. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.

Berkes, F. 1998. "Indigenous Knowledge and Resources Management Systems in the Canadian Subarctic." In Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. F. Berkes and C. Folke, eds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Berkes, F. 1995. "Indigenous Knowledge and Resource Management Systems: A Native Canadian Case Study from James Bay." In Property Rights in a Social and Ecological Context; Case Studies and Design Applications. S. Hanna and M. Munasinghe, eds. Washington, DC: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and the World Bank.

Berkes, F. 1993. "Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Perspective." In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases. J.T. Inglis, ed. Ottawa: International Program on Traditional Ecological Knowledge and International Development Research Centre.

Berkes, F. 1988  "Environmental Philosophy of the Chisasibi Cree People of James Bay." In Traditional Knowledge and Renewable Resouce Management in Northern Regions. M.M.R. Freeman and L.N. Carbyn, eds. Edmonton, Alberta: Boreal Institute for Northern Studies.

Berkes, F. and T. Adhikari. 2006. "Development and Conservation: Indigenous Businesses and the UNDP Equator Initiatives." International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 3(6):671-690.

Berkes, F. and M.K. Berkes. 2009. "Ecological Complexity, Fuzzy Logic, and Holism in Indigenous Knowledge." Futures 41(1):6-12.

Berkes, F., M.K. Berkes, and H. Fast. 2007. "Collaborative Integrated Management in Canada's North: The Role of Local and Traditional Knowledge and Community-Based Monitoring." Coastal Management 35(1):143-162.

Berkes, F., J. Colding, and C. Folke. 2000. "Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management." Ecological Applications 10(5):1251-1262.

Berkes, F. and I.J. Davidson-Hunt. 2006. "Biodiversity, Traditional Management Systems, and Cultural Landscapes: Examples from the Boreal Forest of Canada." International Social Science Journal 58(187):35-47.

Berkes, F. and C. Folke. 1995. "A Framework for the Study of Indigenous Knowledge: Linking Social and Ecological Systems." Presented at "Reinventing the Commons," the fifth annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, May 24-28, 1995, Bodoe, Norway. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/668

Berkes, F., C. Folke, and M. Gadgil. 1995. "Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Biodiversity, Resilience and Sustainability." In Biodiversity Conservation. C.A. Perrings et al., eds. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Berkes, F., P. George, and R.J. Preston. 1991. "Co-Management: The Evolution in Theory and Practice of the Joint Administration of Living Resources." Alternatives 18(2):12-18. Revision of the paper presented at the second annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Winnipeg, Manitoba, September 26-29, 1991. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1506

Berkes, F. and N. Turner. 2005. "Knowledge, Learning and the Resilience of Social-ecological Systems." In Managing the Commons: Conservation of Biodiversity. L. Merino and J. Robson, eds. Mexico: Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible A.C.

Berkes, F. and N.J. Turner. 2006. "Knowledge, Learning and the Evolution of Conservation Practice for  Social-Ecological System Resilience." Human Ecology 34(4):479-494.

Berman, M. et al. 2004. "Adaptation and Sustainability in a Small Arctic Community: Results of an Agent-Based Simulation Model." Arctic 57(4):401-414. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2719

Berman, M. and G. Kofinas. 2004. "Hunting for Models: Grounded and Rational Choice Approaches to Analyzing Climate Effects on Subsistence Hunting in an Arctic Community." Ecological Economics 49(1):31-46.

Berman, T., P. Seitel, and A. McCann. 2001. "Local Empowerment and International Cooperation: A Report on the Working Conference 'A Global Assessment of the 1989 Recommendation on the Safeguarding of Traditional Culture and Folklore'." Cultural Survival Quarterly 24(4):28-31.

Berry, J. 1970. "Language Systems and Literature." In The African Experience: Volume 1: Essays. J.N. Paden and E.W. Soja, eds. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Bharara, L.P. and K. Seeland. 1993. "Indigenous Knowledge and Drought in the Arid Zone of Rajasthan, India: Weather Prediction as a Means to Cope with a Hazardous Climate." Professur für Forstpolitik und Forstökonomie, Departement Wald- und Holzforschung, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zurich. (Arbeitsberichte: Internationale Reihe, Nr. 93/3).

Bharara, L.P. 2000. "People's Perception and Indigenous Knowledge of Land Resources Conservation in Rajasthan." In Man in the Forest. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld.

Bhattacham, K.B. 1996. "Induced and Indigenous Self-Help Organizations in the Context of Rural Development:  A Case Study of the GTZ Supported Self-Help Promotion Programs in Nepal." In Social Economy and National Development: Lessons from the Nepalese Experience. M.K. Dahal and H. Mund, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Nepal Foundation for Advanced Studies.

Bielawski, E. 1995. "Inuit Indigenous Knowledge and Science in the Arctic." In Human Ecology and Climate Change: People and Resources in the Far North. D.L. Peterson and D.R. Johnson, eds. Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis.

den Biggelaar, C. 1991. "Farming Systems Development: Synthesizing Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge Systems." Agriculture and Human Values 8(1-2):25-36.

Bilbao, B.A., A.V. Leal, and C.L. Mendez. 2010. "Indigenous Use of Fire and Forest Loss in Canaima National Park, Venezuela. Assessment of and Tools for Alternative Strategies of Fire Management in Pemón Indigenous Lands." Human Ecology 38(5):663-673.

Bjorkan, M. and M. Qvenild. 2010. "The Biodiversity Discourse: Categorisation of Indigenous People in a Mexican Bio-prospecting Case." Human Ecology 38(2):193-204.

Blaikie, P., K. Brown, and P. Sillitoe. 1997. "Knowledge in Action: Local Knowledge as a Development Resource and Barriers to its Incorporation in Natural Resource Research and Development." Agricultural Systems 55(2):217-.

Blakeney, M. 1997. "Bioprospecting and the Protection of Traditional Medical Knowledge of Indigenous Peoples: An Australian Perspective." European Intellectual Property Review 19(6)

Blenckner, S. 2001. "Turning the Page for Hydrosolidarity in Spain Inherited Paradigms Favor Well-off Farmers." Stockholm Water Front:10-11. Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI), Sweden. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5174

Boateng, B. 2005. "Square Pegs in Round Holes? Cultural Production, Intellectual Property Frameworks, and Discourses of Power." In CODE: Collaborative Ownership and the Digital Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bocco, G. and V.M. Toledo. 1997. "Integrating Peasant Knowledge and Geographic Information Systems: A Spatial Approach to Sustainable Agriculture." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 5(2):10-13.

Bodeker, G. 2003. "Traditional Medical Knowledge, Intellectual Property Rights and Benefit Sharing." Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law 11(2):785-814.

Boef, W. et al., eds. 1993. Cultivating Knowledge: Genetic Diversity, Farmer Experimentation and Crop Research. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Boege, E. 1996. "Mito y Naturaleza en Mesoamérica: Los Rituales Agrícolas Mazatecos." In Etnoecológica, vol. 3, no. 4-5 (August 1996). V.M. Toledo, ed. Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico: Centro de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

Boelens, R. 2008. The Rules of the Game and the Game of the Rules: Normalization and Resistance in Andean Water Control. The Netherlands: Wageningen University.

Bohensky, E.L. and Y. Maru. 2011. "Indigenous Knowledge, Science, and Resilience: What Have We Learned from a Decade of International Literature on 'Integration'?" Ecology and Society 16(4) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/7856

Boisvert, V. and A. Caron. 2000. "The Convention on Biological Diversity: An Ambivalent Attempt to Reconcile Communal Rights and Private Property." Presented at "Constituting the Commons: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millennium," the Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bloomington, IN, May 31-June 4, 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/920

Bollier, D. 2005. "Globalization, Cultural Diversity and the Commons: Remarks by David Bollier." Presented at UNESCO and Cultural Policymaking: Imperatives for U.S. Arts and Culture Practitioners and Organizations, Washington, DC, January 11, 2005. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4959

Bonny, E. and F. Berkes. 2008. "Communicating Traditional Environmental Knowledge: Addressing the diversity of Knowledge, Audiences and Media Types." Polar Record 44:243-253.

Borrows, J. 2005. "Indigenous Legal Traditions in Canada." Washington University Journal of Law and Policy 19:167-224.

Bose, P. 2008. "Strengthening Institutions: Panacea for Tribal Forest Governance in India." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1076

Bostedt, G. and T. Lundgren. 2010. "Accounting for Cultural Heritage--A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration with Focus on Swedish Reindeer Husbandry." Ecological Economics 69(3):651-657.

Bourbonnais-Spear, N., J. Poissant, V. Cal, and J.T. Arnason. 2006. "Culturally Important Plants from Southern Belize: Domestication by Q'eqchi' Maya Healers and Conservation." Ambio 35(3):138-140.

Bousquet, F, G. Trebuil, and B. Hardy, eds. 2005. Companion Modeling and Multi-Agent Systems for Integrated Natural Resource Management in Asia. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

Boyaci, M. 2006. "A Comparison of Conventional and Ecological Agricultural Knowledge Systems in Turkey: Raisin Case." Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 28(2):5-24.

Boydell, S. 2007. "Myth, Embeddedness and Tradition: Property Rights Perceptions from the Pacific." In Sustainable Resource Use: Institutional Dynamics and Economics. A. Smajgl and S. Larson, eds. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Brahy, N. 2005. "The Contribution of Databases and Customary Law to the Protection of Traditional Knowledge." Les Carnets du Centre de Philosophie du Droit 117

Bray, D.B. 2010. "Capitalism Meets Common Property." Americas Quarterly:31-35.

Bray, D.B. et al. 2003. "Mexico's Community-Managed Forests as a Global Model for Sustainable Landscapes." Conservation Biology 17(3):672-677.

Bray, D.B. and A. Velazquez. 2009. "From Displacement-based Conservation to Place-based Conservation." Conservation and Society 7(1):11-14. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5335

Briggs, J. and J. Sharp. 2004. "Indigenous Knowledge and Development: A Postcolonial Caution." Third World Quarterly 25(4):661-676.

Brinkman, T.J., T. Chapin, G. Kofinas, and D.K. Person. 2009. "Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes." Ecology and Society 14(1):36. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art36/

Brodt, S.B. 2000. "Explorations into the Conservation of Indigenous Knowledge for Resource Management in India." In Man in the Forest. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld.

Broerse, J.E.W. and B. Visser. 1996. "Assessing the Potential." In Biotechnology: Building on Farmers' Knowledge. J. Bunders, B. Haverkort, and W. Hiemstra, eds. London: Macmillan.

Brondizio, E.S. and R.R. Chowdhury. 2010. "Spatiotemporal Methodologies in Environmental Anthropology: Geographic Information Systems, Remote Sensing, Landscape Changes, and Local Knowledge." In Environmental Social Sciences: Methods and Research Design. Ismael Vaccaro, Eric Alden Smith, and Shankar Aswani, eds. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Brooker, J. 2010. "SF and the Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) of Indigenous Peoples." InterAction--The Journal of Solution Focus in Organisations 2(2):77-87.

Brosius, J.P. 2004. "Global Conservation and the Politics of Scale." Presented at Columbia University, New York, 2004.

Brosius, J.P. 2004. "Indigenous Peoples and Protected Areas at the World Parks Congress." Conservation Biology 18(3):609-612.

Brouwer, J. 2000. "Trees for Timber and Trees for the Forest: Aspects of Indigenous Knowledge of Wood and Stone in Karnataka, India." In Man in the Forest. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld.

Browder, J. O. 1995.  "Redemptive Communities: Indigenous Knowledge, Colonist Farming Systems, and Conservation of Tropical Forests." Agriculture and Human Values 12(1):17-30.

Brown, M.F. 2003. Who Owns Native Culture? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Brush, S.B. 2005. "Farmers' Rights and Protection of Traditional Agricultural Knowledge." CGIAR Systemwide Program on Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi), International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC. (CAPRi Working Paper, no. 36). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4055

Brush, S. and D. Stabinsky. 1995. Valuing Local Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Bruyninckx, H. 2004. "The Convention to Combat Desertification and the Role of Innovative Policy-Making Discourses: The Case of Burkina Faso." Global Environmental Politics 4(3):107-127.

Bryan, J. 2009. "Where Would We be Without Them? Knowledge, Space and Power in Indigenous Politics." Futures 41(1):24-32.

Budathoki, K., G.B. Gurung, and D.P. Lohar. 1993. "Vegetable Crops: Indigenous Knowledge and Technology in the Western Hills of Nepal." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang, G.J. Gill, and G.B. Thapa, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Bunders, J. et al. 1996. "An Integrated Approach to Biotechnology Development." In Biotechnology: Building on Farmers' Knowledge. J. Bunders, B. Haverkort, and W. Hiemstra, eds. London: Macmillan.

Bunders, J., B. Haverkort, and W. Hiemstra, eds. 1996. Biotechnology: Building on Framers' Knowledge. London: Macmillan Education.

Byrne, A. 2005. "Indigenous Knowledge and Libraries." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):211-216.

Caddy, E. 2004. "Sociopolitical Dimensions of Indigenous Common Property Tenure in Southern Belize." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risks and Opportunities," the Tenth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Oaxaca, Mexico, August 9-13, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/273

Cai, M. 1998. "Participation of Farmers, Scientists and Grassroots Government in Rehabilitation of Degraded Forest Land." Presented at "Crossing Boundaries," the seventh annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 10-14, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1648

Calamia, M.A. 1999. "A Methodology for Incorporating Traditional Ecological Knowledge with Geographic Information Systems for Marine Resource Management in the Pacific." SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 10:2-12.

Callicott, J.B. 1994. Earth's Insights: A Multicultural Survey of Ecological Ethics from the Mediterranean Basin to the Australian Outback. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Callicott, J.B. and R.T. Ames, eds. 1989. Nature in Asian Traditions of Thought: Essays in Environmental Philosophy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. (SUNY Series in Philosophy and Biologoy).

Campbell, B. 2005. "Changing Protection Policies and Ethnographies of Environmental Engagement." Conservation & Society 3(2):280-322. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3058

Campion, P. and Shrum. 2002. "Environmental Attitudes of Scientists in Ghana, Kenya, and Kerala: Evidence on NGOs and Traditional Research Sectors." Journal of Asian and African Studies 37(1):17-42.

Cantoni, G., ed. 1996. Stabilizing Indigenous Languages. Flagstaff, Arizona: Northern Arizona University.

Capistrano, R.C.G. 2010. "Reclaiming the Ancestral Waters of Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines: The Tagbanua Experience with Fishing Rights and Indigenous Rights." Marine Policy 34(3):453-460.

Carmack, E. and R. MacDonald. 2008. "Water and Ice-Related Phenomena in the Coastal Region of the Beaufort Sea: Some Parallels between Native Experience and Western Science." Arctic 61(3):265-280. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5532

Carneiro, R. 1978. "The Knowledge and Use of Rain Forest Trees by the Kuikuru Indians of Central Brazil." In The Nature and Status of Ethnobotany. R.I. Ford, ed. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology.

Cashman, K. 1989. "Agricultural Research Centers and Indigenous Knowledge Systems in a Worldwide Perspective: Where Do We Go From Here?" In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren, L.J. Slikkerveer, and S.O. Titilola, eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University.

Castro, A.H.P. 1992. "Social Forestry: A Cross-Cultural Analysis." In Ecosystem Rehabilitation: Preamble to Sustainable Development. M.K. Wali, ed. The Hague, Netherlands: SPB Academic.

Castro, A.P. 1995. Facing Kirinyaga: A Social History of Forest Commons in Southern Mount Kenya. London: Intermediate Technology. (IT Studies in Indigenous Knowledge and Development).

Castro, A.P. and K. Ettenger. 1997. "Indigenous Knowledge and Conflict Management: Exploring Local Perspectives and Mechanisms for Dealing with Community Forestry Disputes." Prepared for the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Community Forestry Unit, for the Global Electronic Conference on 'Addressing Natural Resource Conflicts Through Community Forestry,' January-April 1996.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/ac696e/ac696e09.htm

Catley, A. 2006. "Use of Participatory Epidemiology to Compare the Clinical Veterinary Knowledge of Pastoralists and Veterinarians in East Africa." Tropical Animal Health and Production 38(3):171-184.

Caulfield, R.A. 1988. "The Role of Subsistence Resource Commissions in Managing Alaska's New National Parks." In Traditional Knowledge and Renewable Resource Management. M.M.R. Freeman and L.N. Carbyn, eds. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta. (Occasional Publication, no. 23).

Ceddia, M.G., J. Heikkilä, and J. Peltola. 2009. "Managing Invasive Alien Species with Professional and Hobby Farmers: Insights from Ecological-Economic Modelling." Ecological Economics 68(5):1366-1374.

Cetinkaya, G. 2008. "Challanges for the Preservation and Promotion of Traditional Knowledge in the Satoyama Ecosystems, Nota Peninsula, Japan." Human Ecology Review 16(1):27-40.

Chaiken, M.S. 2010. "Community-Based Assessments of Risk and Vulnerability: Combating Hunger in Africa with Local Knowledge." Anthropology News 51(7):6-8.

Chalmers, L. 1998. "Overlaps in the Indigenous Knowledge Traditions of Iban Women." Dialectical Anthropology 23(2):151-.

Chandler, P. 1994. "Adaptive Ecology of Traditionally Derived Agroforestry in China." Human Ecology 22(4):415-422.

Chandler, P.M. 1991. "The Indigenous Knowledge of Ecological Processes among Peasants in the People's Republic of China." Agriculture and Human Values 8(1-2):59-66.

Chandrakanth, M.G., A. Ravishankar, R. Parmesh, and M.S. Suneetha. 2002. "Medicinal Plants Revisited: An Institutional Inquiry in the Common Property Resource Regime." In Institutionalizing Common Pool Resources. D.K. Marothia, ed. New Delhi: Concept.

Chang, W.B.C. 1992. "Native Hawaiians and the Reconstruction of Communal Property Values." Presented at "Inequality and the Commons," the third annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Washington, DC, September 17-20, 1992. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1613

Chapagain, B.K., R. Subedi, and N.S. Paudel. 2009. "Exploring Local Knowledge of Climate Change: Some Reflections." Journal of Forest and Livelihood 8(1):106-110.

Chapeskie, A., I. Davidson-Hunt, and R. Fobister. 1998. "Passing on Ojibway Lifeways in a Contemporary Environment." Presented at "Crossing Boundaries," the seventh annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 10-14, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/563

Chapin, M., Z. Lamb, and B. Threlkeld. 2005. "Mapping Indigenous Lands." Annual Review of Anthropology 34:619-638.

Chiengthong, J. 2003. "The Politics of Ethnicity, Indigenous Culture and Knowledge in Thailand, Vietnam and Lao PDR." In Social Challenges for the Mekong Region. M. Kaosa-Ard and J. Dore, eds. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Social Research Institute.

Chisenga, J. 2002. "Indigenous Knowledge: Africa's Opportunity to Contribute to Global Information Content." South African Journal of Library and Information Science 68(1):16-20.

Cho, Y.H. 2006. "Korean Public Administration and Indigenous Theory Building." International Review of Public Administration 10(2):1-5.

Chou, C. 2006. "Multiple Realities of the Growth Triangle: Mapping Knowledge and the Politics of Mapping." Asia Pacific Viewpoint 47(2):241-256.

Choudhari, L.N. 2005. "Development and Introduction of FMIS Curriculum." In Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems and Governance Alternatives: Proceedings of the Third International Seminar, Kathmandu, Nepal, September 9-10, 2004. P. Pradhan and U. Gautam, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems Promotion Trust.

Christoffersen, L.E. and D. Turnham. 2000. "Policy Relevance for Africa and Donors." In African Perspectives: Practices and Policies Supporting Sustainable Development. D. Turnham, ed. Gentofte, Denmark: Scandinavian Seminar College.

Cicin-Sain, B. and R.W. Knecht. 1995. "Analysis of Earth Summit Prescriptions on Incorporating Traditional Knowledge in Natural Resource Management." In Property Rights and the Environment: Social and Ecological Issues. S. Hanna and M. Munasinghe, eds. Washington, DC: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and the World Bank.

Clapp, R.A. and C. Crook. 2002. "Drowning in the Magic Well: Shaman Pharmaceuticals and the Elusive Value of Traditional Knowledge." Journal of Environment and Development 11(1):79-102.

Clark, B. 2002. "The Indigenous Environmental Movement in the United States: Transcending Borders in Struggles Against Mining, Manufacturing, and the Capitalist State." Organization and Environment 15(4):410-442.

Cleveland, D.A. 1998. "Balancing on a Planet: Toward an Agricultural Anthropology for the Twenty-First Century." Human Ecology 26(2):323-340.

Cleveland, D.A. and S.C. Murray 1997.  "The World's Crop Genetic Resources and the Rights of Indigenous Farmers." Current Anthropology 38(4):477-.

Colchester, M. 2005. "Maps, Power, and the Defense of Territory: The Upper Mazaruni Land Claim in Guyana." In Communities and Conservation: Histories and Politics of Community-Based Natural Resource Management. J.P. Brosius, A.L. Tsing, and C. Zerner, eds. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira. (Globalization and the Environment, no. 3).

Colding, J. 2001. "Local Institutions, Biological Conservation and Management of Ecosystem Dynamics." (Ph.D. Dissertation, Stockholm University, 2001).

Colfer, C.J. P., ed. 2008. Human Health and Forests: A Global Overview of Issues, Practice, and Policy. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Colfer, C.J. P. and Y. Byron. 2001. People Managing Forests: The Links between Human Well-being and Sustainability. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Collier, D. 2006. "Access to and Control over Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in South and Southern Africa: How Many Wrongs Before a Right?" Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology 7:529-564.

Compton, J.L. 1989. "Strategies and Methods for the Access, Integration, and Utilization of Indigenous Knowledge in Agriculture and Rural Development." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren, L.J. Slikkerveer, and S.O. Titilola, eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Connolly, A. 2006. "Judicial Conceptions of Tradition in Canadian Aboriginal Rights Law." The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 7(1):27-44.

Coombe, R.J. 1998. "Intellectual Property, Human Rights and Sovereignty:  New Dilemmas in International Law Posed by the Recognition of Indigenous Knowledge and the Conservation of Biodiversity." Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 6(1):59-115.

Coombe, R.J. and A. Herman. 2004. "Rhetorical Virtues: Property, Speech, and the Commons on the World-Wide Web." Anthropological Quarterly 77(3):559-574.

Cooper, A. 2007. Inventing the Indigenous: Local Knowledge and Natural History in Early Modern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cordell, J.C. 1978. "Swamp Dwellers of Bahia." Natural History 87:62-74.

Cordell, J.C. 1974. "The Lunar-Tide Fishing Cycle in Northeastern Brazil." Ethnology 13:379-392.

Cornwall, A., I. Guijt, and A. Welbourn. 1994. "Acknowledging Process; Methodological Challenges for Agricultural Research and Extension." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Crate, S.A. 2006. "Elder Knowledge and Sustainable Livelihoods in Post-Soviet Russia: Finding Dialogue across the Generations." Arctic Anthropology 43(1):40-51.

Crona, B.I. 2006. "Supporting and Enhancing Development of Heterogeneous Ecological Knowledge among Resource Users in a Kenyan Seascape." Ecology and Society 11(1) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3455

Crona, B. and Ö. Bodin. 2006. "What You Know is Who You Know? Communication Patterns among Resource Users as a Prerequisite for Co-management." Ecology and Society 11(2) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2613

Cronkleton, P. and P. Pacheco. 2008. "Communal Tenure Policy and the Struggle for Forest Lands in the Bolivian Amazon." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2110

Cruikshank, J. 2005. Do Glaciers Listen? Local Knowledge, Colonial Encounters, and Social Imagination. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press.

Dahl, A.L. 1989. "Traditional Environmental Knowledge and Resource Management in New Caledonia." In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Collection of Essays. R E. Johannes, ed. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Dahlberg, A.C. and P.M. Blaikie. 1999. "Changes in Landscape or in Interpretation? Reflections Based on the Environmental and Socioeconomic History of a Village in NE Botswana." Environment and History 5(2):127-174.

Dahlberg, A.C. and S.B. Trygger. 2009. "Indigenous Medicine and Primary Health Care: The Importance of Lay Knowledge and Use of Medicinal Plants in Rural South Africa." Human Ecology 37(1):79-94.

Dahlberg, K.A. 1996. "World Food Problems: Making the Transition from Agriculture to Regenerative Food Systems." In Building Sustainable Societies: A Blueprint for a Post-Industrial World. D. Pirages, ed. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Daily, G.C. and P.R. Ehrlich. 1996. "Global Change and Human Susceptibility to Disease." Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 21:125-144.

Dalzell, P. 1998. "The Role of Archaeological and Cultural Historical Records in Long-range Coastal Fisheries Resources Management Strategies and Policies in the Pacific Islands." Ocean and Coastal Management 40(2-3).

Dan-Azumi, J. 2010. "Agricultural Sustainability of Fadama Farming Systems in Northern Nigeria: The Case of Karshi and Baddeggi." International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 8(4):319-330.

Daniggelis, E. 1994. "Jangal  Resource Use: Adaptive Strategies of Rais and Sherpas in the Upper Arun Valley of Eastern Nepal." In Anthropology of Nepal: Peoples, Problems, and Processes. M. Allen, ed. Kathmandu, Nepal: Mandala Book Point.

Darus, B. 1985. "The Management and Development of Southeast Asian Small-Scale Fisheries and the Example of the Bubun Coastal Village Development Project, North Sumatera Province, Indonesia." In The Traditional Knowledge and Management of Coastl Systems in Asia and the Pacific. K. Ruddle and R.E. Johannes, eds. Jakarta, Indonesia: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Regional Office for Science and Technology for Southeast Asia.

Das, H.C. 1997. "Man's Relationship with Forest: Deification of Trees and Plants." In Local Knowledge of Forests and Forest Uses Among Tribal Communities in India: Proceedings of an International Seminar Jointly Organized by the Chair of Forest Policy and Forest Economics, ETH Zurich, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and Max Mueller Bhavan, New Delhi. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. Zurich: Departement Wald- und Holzforschung, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. (Forstwissenschaftliche Beiträge der Professur Forstpolitik und Forstökonomie 19).

Das, S. and R. Laub. 2005. "Understanding Links Between Gendered Local Knowledge of Agrobiodiversity and Food Security in Tanzania." Mountain Research and Development 25(3):218-222.

David, Shelton H., K. Ebbe, and A. Hetzner, eds. 1995. Traditional Knowledge and Sustainable Development: Proceedings of a Conference Sponsored by the World Bank Environment Department and the World Bank Task Force on the International Year of the World's Indigenous People held at the World Bank, Washington, D.C., September 27-28, 1993. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Davidson-Harden, A., S. Spronk, D. McDonald, and K. Bakker. 2009. Local Control and Management of Our Water Commons: Stories of Rising to the Challenge. A. Davidson-Harden, ed. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Council of Canadians. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4945

Davidson-Hunt, I.J. 2006. "Adaptive Learning Networks: Developing Resource Management Knowledge through Social Learning Forums." Human Ecology 34(4):593-613.

Davidson-Hunt, I.J. et al. 2004. "From Innovation to Codification: Conversations with Iskatewizaagegan Elders Regarding creativity, memory and plants in Anishinaabe society." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risks and Opportunities," the Tenth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Oaxaca, Mexico, August 9-13, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1268

Davidson-Hunt, I. and F. Berkes. 2003. "Learning as You Journey: Anishinaabe Perception of Social-Ecological Environments and Adaptive Learning." Conservation Ecology 8(1) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/7616

Davies, J. 2006. "Capitalisation, Commoditisation and Obligation among Ethiopia's Afar Pastoralists." Nomadic Peoples 10(1):29-52.

Dávila, M.A.V. 1996. "El Amash y el Pistoqué: Un Ejemplo de la Etnoecología de los Chontales de Tabasco, México." In Etnoecológica, vol. 3, no. 4-5 (August 1996). V.M. Toledo, ed. Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico: Centro de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

Davis, D.K. 2005. "Indigenous Knowledge and the Desertification Debate: Problematising Expert Knowledge in North Africa." Geoforum 36(4):509-524.

Davis, S.H., ed. 1993. Indigenous Views of Land and the Environment. Washington, DC: The World Bank. (Discussion Papers, No. 188). http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1993/01/01/000009265_3970311122038/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf

Davis, S. 1985. "Traditional Management of the Littoral Zone among the Yolngu of North Australia." In Traditional Knowledge and Management of Coastal Systems in Asia and the Pacific. K. Ruddle and R. Johannes, eds. Jakarta, Indonesia: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Regional Office for Science and Technology for Southeast Asia.

Day, R. 2001. "Who Is these We that Gives the Gift? Native American Political Theory and the Western Tradition." Critical Horizons 2(2):173-201.

Degen, A.A. et al. 2010. "Goat Production and Fodder Leaves Offered by Local Villagers in the Mid-Hills of Nepal." Human Ecology 38(5):625-637.

Dehaene, S., V. Izard, P. Pica, and E. Spelke. 2006. "Core Knowledge of Geometry in an Amazonian Indigene Group." Science: 381-384.

Dei, G.J.S. 1993. "Indigenous African Knowledge Systems: Local Traditions of Sustainable Forestry." Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 14(1):28-41.

Delaney, A. and C. Hess. 2005. "Indigenous Knowledge." Common Property Resource Digest 72:10-11. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3539

Dennis, D. 2007. "Global Biopiracy: Patents, Plants, and Indigenous Knowledge (Ikechi Mgbeoji)." Culture and Agriculture 29(1):55-56.

DeObaldia, I. 2005. "Western Intellectual Property and Indigenous Cultures: The Case of the Panamanian Indigenous Intellectual Property Law." Boston University International Law Journal 23(2):337-394.

Derman, W. 2002. "Cultures of Development: Committees, Workshops and Indigenous Knowledges." Presented at African Dialogues: Oral Heritage and Indigenous Knowledge, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, May 10-11, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/160

Desai, P.N. 2007. "Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property Protection: Past and Future." Science and Public Policy 34(3):185-197.

DeWalt, B.R. 1994. "Using Indigenous Knowledge to Improve Agriculture and Natural Resource Management." Human Organization 53(2):123-131.

Dhakal, B. 1993. "The Buk Method of Potato Farming in the High Hills of Nepal." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang, G.J. Gill, and G.B. Thapa, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Dhakal, N.H. 1993. "Indigenous Management of Water Resources in the Kharkola Basin of Gorkha District." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang, G.J. Gill, and G.B. Thapa, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Dhewa, C. 2008. "Is Traditional Medical Practice in Africa still Community Property?: Lessons from Zimbabwe." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2172

Diawara, G. 1992. "Irrigation and the Soninke People: Organisational and Management Problems: Current Situation and Prospects." Overseas Development Institute, London. (Irrigation Management Network Paper, no.16). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4594

Diaz, Jorge Luis Andreve. 2008.  "Mother Earth, Mother Sea." Samudra Report 50:21-22.
http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5528
Digital Library of the Commons

Díaz, L. et al. 2008. "Integral Peasant Land-Use Planning: A Method for Strengthening Local Institutions for Community-Based Management of Natural Resources." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1213

Dictaan-Bang-Oa, E.P. 2006. "Traditional Water Management Practices among the Kankanaey." Cultural Survival Quarterly 29(4):23-25.

Diegues, A.C. 2002. "The Myth of Wilderness and the Fate of Traditional Communities in the Brazilian Amazon." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Globalisation," the Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, June 17-21, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/295

Diemont, S., J. Martin, and S. Levy-Tacher. 2006. "Energy Evaluation of Lacandon Maya Indigenous Swidden Agroforestry in Chiapas, Mexico." Agroforestry Systems 66(1):23-42.

Doho, G. 2002. "Indigenous Knowledge and Burning Issues in Africa: The Exemplarity of Secret Societies." Presented at African Dialogues: Oral Heritage and Indigenous Knowledge, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, May 10-11, 2002.

Dommen, A.J. 1989. "A Rationale for African Low-Resource Agriculture in Terms of Economic Theory." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren et al., eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Doumbia, A. and N. Doumbia. 2004. The Way of Elders: West African Spirituality and Tradition. Saint Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications.

Dove, M.R. 2006. "Indigenous People and Environmental Politics." Annual Review of Anthropology 35:191-250.

Dove, M.R. 2002. "Hybrid Histories and Indigenous Knowledge Among Asian Rubber Smallholders." International Social Science Journal 54(173):349-359.

Dove, M.R. 1993. "The Responses of Dayak and Bearded Pig to Mast-Fruiting in Kalimantan: An Analysis of Nature-Culture Analogies." In Tropical Forests, People and Food: Biocultural Interactions and Applications to Development. C.M. et al. Hladik, eds. Carnforth, United Kingdom: Parthenon. (East-West Center Reprints, Environment Series, no. 7).

Dove, M.R. 1986. "Plantation Development in West Kalimantan II: The Perceptions of the Indigenous Population." Borneo Research Bulletin 18(1):3-26.

Downes, D. 1994. "Owning and Trading Biodiversity: Immediate and Long-Term Issues." In Biological Diversity: Exploring the Complexities; Section II: A Compilation of Some of the Papers Presented at an International Conference, 25-27 March, 1994, Tucson, AZ. International Conference on Biological Diversity, ed. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

Doyle, T. 2005. Environmental Movements in Majority and Minority Worlds: A Global Perspective., ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Drafor, I. 2011. "Rural Household Capacity Building: Innovative Approaches to Ensure Adoption of Record Keeping by Farm Households." International Journal of Agricultural Management 1(1):24-28.

Drahos, P. 1997. "Indigenous Knowledge and the Duties of Intellectual Property Owners." Intellectual Property Journal 11(2):179-.

Drechsel, P. and S. Varma. 2007. "Recognizing Informal Irrigation in West Africa." International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. (Water Policy Briefing, no. 26). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4679

Drinkwater, M. 1994. "Knowledge, Consciousness and Prejudice: Adaptive Agricultural Research in Zambia." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Dudgeon, R.C. 1998. "A Political Anthropology of TEK in the Canadian Subarctic." Presented at "Crossing Boundaries," the seventh annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 10-14, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1028

Durga, K.C. and U. Pradhan. 1993. "Indigenous Knowledge and Organizational Processes: Experiences and Lessons from Local Nepali Irrigation Systems." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang, G.J. Gill, and G.B. Thapa, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Durie, M. 2005. "Indigenous Knowledge within a Global Knowledge System." Higher Education Policy 18(3):301-312.

Dutfield, G. 2004. Intellectual Property, Biogenetic Resources, and Traditional Knowledge. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Ebner, R. 1996. "Local Knowledge of Trees Among the BHL in Southern Rajasthan: With Special Reference to Its Value and Implications for Rural Development." Professur für Forstpolitik und Forstökonomie, Departement Wald- und Holzforschung, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zurich. (Arbeitsberichte: Internationale Reihe, Nr. 96/4).

Edwards, S.E. and M. Heinrich. 2006. "Redressing Cultural Erosion and Ecological Decline in a Far North Queensland Aboriginal Community (Australia): The Auruken Ethnobiology Database Project." Environment, Development and Sustainability 8(4):569-583.

Eikeland, S. 1998. "Flexibility in the Fishing Commons." In Commons in a Cold Climate: Coastal Fisheries and Reindeer Pastoralism in North Norway: The Co-Management Approach. S. Jentoft, ed. Pearl River, NY: Parthenon. (Man and the Biosphere Series, no. 22).

Eira, I.M.G. et al. 2008. "The Challenges of Arctic Reindeer Herding: The Interface between Reindeer Herders Traditional Knowledge and Modern Understanding of the Ecology, Economy, Sociology and Management of Sámi Reindeer Herding." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/968

Eisemon, T.O. 1989. "Becoming a 'Modern' Farmer: The Impact of Primary Schooling on Agricultural Thinking and Practices in Kenya and Burundi." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren, L.J. Slikkerveer, and S.O. Titilola, eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Ellen, R. 2004. "From Ethno-Science to Science, or 'What the Indigenous Knowledge Debate Tells Us about How Scientists Define Their Project'." Journal of Cognition and Culture 4(3-4):409-450.

Ellen, R. 1994. "Rhetoric, Practice, and Incentive in the Face of the Changing Times: A Case Study in Nualulu Attitudes to Conservation and Deforestation." (Working Paper) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4539

Ens, E.J. et al. 2012. "Australian Approaches for Managing 'Country' Using Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Knowledge." Ecological Management and Restoration 13(1):100-107.

Eriksen, S., C. Øyen, S. Kasa, and A. Underthun. 2009. "Weakening Adaptive Capacity? Effects of Organizational and Institutional Change on the Housing Sector in Norway." Climate and Development 1(2):111-129.

Espinosa-García, F.J. and R. Díaz-Pérez. 1996. "El Uso Campesino de Plantas Arvenses Como Forraje en el Valle de México." In Etnoecológica, vol. 3, no. 4-5 (August 1996). V.M. Toledo, ed. Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico: Centro de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

Esselman, P.C. and J.J. Opperman. 2010. "Overcoming Information Limitations for the Prescription of an Environmental Flow Regime for a Central American River." Ecology and Society 15 http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6001

Evans, K. at el. 2006. "Guide to Participatory Tools for Forest Communities." Center for International Forestry Research, Jakarta, Indonesia. http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BKristen0601.pdf

Fadnavis, M. 2003. "Use of Minor Forest Produce for Medicinal Purpose by Commons of Bhandara District of Central India." Presented at Traditional Lands in the Pacific Region: Indigenous Common Property Resources in Convulsion or Cohesion, Brisbane, Australia, September 7-9, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1513

Failing, L., R. Gregory, and M. Harstone. 2007. "Integrating Science and Local Knowledge in Environmental Risk Management: A Decision-Focused Approach." Ecological Economics 64(1):47-60.

Fairhead, J. and M. Leach. 1996. Misreading the African Landscape: Society and Ecology in a Forest-Savanna Mosaic. New York: Cambridge University Press. (African Studies Series, 90).

Fairhead, J. and M. Leach. 1994. "Declarations of Difference." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Falanruw, M.V.C. 1989. "Nature-Intensive Agriculture: The Food Production System of Yap Islands." In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Collection of Essays. R.E. Johannes, ed. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Farley, C.H. 1997. "Protecting Folklore of Indigenous Peoples: Is Intellectual Property the Answer?" Connecticut Law Review 30(1):1-.

Farooquee, N.A. and A. Nautiyal. 1999. "Traditional Knowledge and Practices of Bhotiya Pastoralists of Kumaon Himalaya: The Need for Value Addition." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 6:60-67.

Farooquee, N.A. and K.G. Saxena. 1996. "Conservation and Utilization of Medicinal Plants in High Hills of the Central Himalayas." Environmental Conservation 23(1):75-80.

Fast, H. and F. Berkes. 1999. "Climate Change, Northern Subsistence, and Land-Based Economies." In Securing Northern Futures: Developing Research Partnerships. D. Wall et al., eds. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta. (Occasional Publication, no. 45).

Faye, D.J. 2004. "Biorespecting, Genetic Patenting and Indigenous Populations: Challenges under a Restructured Information Commons." Journal of World Intellectual Property 7(3):401-428.

Feit, H.A. 1988. "Self-Management and State-Management: Forms of Knowing and Managing Northern Wildlife." In Knowing the North: Reflections on Tradition, Technology, and Science. W.C. Wonders, ed. Edmonton, Alberta: Boreal Institute for Northern Studies. (Occasional Publication Series, no. 21).

Felt, L.F. 1994. "Two Tales of a Fish: The Social Construction of Indigenous Knowledge among Atlantic Canadian Salmon Fishers." In Folk Management in the World's Fisheries: Lessons for Modern Fisheries Management. C.L. Dyer and J.R. McGoodwin, eds. Niwot, CO: The University Press of Colorado.

Fernando, J.L. 2003. "NGOs and Production of Indigenous Knowledge under the Condition of Postmodernity." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 590:54-72.

Field, J. 2008. Social Capital. New York: Routledge.

Field, L. 1991. "Tools for Indigenous Agricultural Development in Latin America: An Anthropologist's Perspective." Agriculture and Human Values 8(1-2):85-92.

Finger, J.M. and P. Schuler, eds. 2004. Poor People's Knowledge: Promoting Intellectual Property in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fischer, M. 2005. "Culture and Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Emergent Order and the Internal Regulation of Shared Symbolic Systems." Cybernetics and Systems 36(8):735-752.

Fisher, R.J. 1989. "Indigenous Systems of Common Property Forest Management in Nepal." Environment and Policy Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu, HI. (EAPI Working Paper, no. 18).

Fleskens, L. and F. Jorritsma. 2010. "A Behavioral Change Perspective of Maroon Soil Fertility Management in Traditional Shifting Cultivation in Suriname." Human Ecology 38(2):217-236.

Foale, S. 2006. "The Intersection of Scientific and Indigenous Ecological Knowledge in Coastal Melanesia: Implications for Contemporary Marine Resource." International Social Science Journal 58(187):129-137.

Foale, S. 1998. "Assessment and Management of the Trochus Fishery at West Nggela, Solomon Islands: An Interdisciplinary Approach." Ocean and Coastal Management 40(2-3)

Folke, C. and F. Berkes. 1995. "Mechanisms that Link Property Rights to Ecological Systems." In Property Rights and the Environment. S. Hanna and M. Munasinghe, eds. Washington, DC: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and the World Bank.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1994. What Is a Tree? Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Ford, R.I., ed. 1978. The Nature and Status of Ethnobotany. Ann Arbor, MI: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan. (Anthropological Papers, No. 67).

Forline, L.C. 2000. "Using and Sustaining Resources: The Guajá Indians and the Babassu Palm (Attalalea Speciosa)." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 8(3):3-7.

Forster, P. 1995. The Tanzanian Peasantry: Further Studies. Brookfield, VT: Avebury.

Fox, J.B. 2009. "Indigenous Science." Cultural Survival Quarterly 33(1):14-20. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/7956

Fraser, D.J. et al. 2006. "Integrating Traditional and Evolutionary Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation: A Population Level Case Study." Ecology and Society 11(2) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2670

Freeman, M.M.R. and L.N. Carbyn, eds. 1988. Traditional Knowledge and Renewable Resource Management. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta, University of Alberta. (Occasional Publication, no. 23).

Freudenberger, K.S. 1994. "Challenges in the Collection and Use of Information on Livelihood Strategies and Natural Resource Management." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Freudenberger, M.S. and K.S. Freudenberger. 1993. "Fields, Fallow, and Flexibility: Natural Resource Management in Ndam Mor Fademba, Senegal: Results of a Rapid Rural Appraisal." International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK. (Drylands Paper no. 5).

Fröde, A. and C. Masara. 2007. "Community-Based Ecological Monitoring: Manual for Practitioners." Southern Alliance for Indigenous Resources (SAFIRE), Zimbabwe. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5484

Gadgil, M. 2002. "Recognizing and Rewarding Common Pool Knowledge Resources." In Institutionalizing Common Pool Resources. D.K. Marothia, ed. New Delhi: Concept.

Gadgil, M. and F. Berkes. 1991. "Traditional Resource Management Systems." Resource Management and Optimization 8(3-4):127-141.

Gadgil, M., F. Berkes, and C. Folke. 1993. "Indigenous Knowledge for Biodiversity Conservation." Ambio 22(2-3):151-156.

de Gans, G. 1986. "Taking Indigenous Knowledge Seriously: The Case of Pastoral Strategies among Turkana Nomads." ILEIA Newsletter 5:14-16.

García-Quijano, C.G. 2007. "Fishers' Knowledge of Marine Species Assemblages: Bridging between Scientific and Local Ecological Knowledge in Southeastern Puerto Rico." American Anthropologist 109(3):529-536.

Garwood-Houng, A. 2005. "Protocols: Meeting the Challenges of Indigenous Information Needs." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):149-158.

Gasser, M. 2006. "Machine Translation and the Future of Indigenous Languages." I Congreso Internacional de las Lenguas y Literaturas Indoamericanas, Temuco, Chile, October 2006.

Gearheard, S. and J. Shirley. 2007. "Challenges in Community-Research Relationships: Learning from Natural Science in Nunavut." Arctic 60(1):62-74. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2738

Geertz, C. 1983. Local Knowledge; Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. New York: Basic Books.

Geiser, U. 1995. "Indigenous Resource Management and External Development Interventions in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka: From Conflicts to Synergies?" GeoJournal 35(2):185-186.

Gerke, S. and H.D. Evers. 2006. "Globalizing Local Knowledge: Social Science Research on Southeast Asia, 1970-2000." Sojourn 21(1):1-21.

Gerwing, K. and T. McDaniels. 2006. "Listening to the Salmon People: Coastal First Nations' Objectives Regarding Salmon Aquaculture in British Columbia." Society and Natural Resources 19(3):259-273.

Ghate, R. 2004. "Traditional and Non-Traditional Indigenous Informal Institutions in Forest Management." Expert Group on Development Issues (EGDI) and United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER). Presented at the EGDI and UNU-WIDER Conference Unlocking Human Potential: Linking the Informal and Formal Sectors, Helsinki, Finland, September 17-18, 2004.

Ghosh, S. 2003. "The Traditional Terms of the Traditional Knowledge Debate." Columbia Journal of Asian Law 17(1):73-1117.

Gibson, J. 2006. "Community in Resources, Tradition in Knowledge." Critical Studies 28(1):173-206.

Gibson, J. 2005. Community Resources: Intellectual Property, International Trade and Protection of Traditional Knowledge. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Giesch, C. 2003. "Traditional Use of Blue Pine (Pinus Wallichiana) and Its Impact on the Forest Structure in Central Bhutan." In Indigenous Knowledge, Forest Management and Forest Policy in South Asia (Proceedings of an International Seminar held in Kathmandu, Nepal in 1998). K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no. 5).

Gilchrist, G., M. Mallory, and F. Merkel. 2005. "Can Local Ecological Knowledge Contribute to Wildlife Management? Case Studies of Migratory Birds." Ecology and Society 10(1) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3203

Gill, G.J. 1993. "Indigenous Systems in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang, G.J. Gill, and G.B. Thapa, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Ginzburg, O. 2005. The Hungry Man. Geneva, Switzerland: Hungry Man Books.

Ginzburg, O. 2005. There You Go! Geneva, Switzerland: Hungry Man Books.

Glasson, G., N. Mhango, A. Phiri, and M. Lanier. 2010. "Sustainability Science Education in Africa: Negotiating Indigenous ways of Living with Nature in the Third Space." International Journal of Science Education 32(1):125-141.

Godbole-Chaudhuri, P., D. Srikantaiah, and J. van Fleet. 2008. "Indigenous Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights: Confronting Modern Norms to Promote Sustainability." Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education 2(4):276-294.

Godoy, R., N. Brokaw, and S. Wei. 1998. "Of Trade and Cognition: Markets and the Loss of Folk Knowledge Among the Tawahka Indians of the Honduran Rain Forest." Journal of Anthropological Research 54(2):219-.

Goeschl, T. and D.C. Igliori. 2006. "Property Rights for Biodiversity Conservation and Development: Extractive Reserves in the Brazilian Amazon." Development and Change 37(2):427-451.

Goetghebuer, T. and J.-P. Platteau. 2004. "Community Ties and Land Inheritance in the Context of Rising Outside Opportunities: Evidence from the Peruvian Highlands." (Working Paper) Centre for Research on the Economics of Development (CRED), Faculty of Economics, Namur, Belgium.

Gombya-Ssembajjwe, W. 1995. "Sacred Forests in Modern Ganda Society." The Uganda Journal 42:32-44.

Gombya-Ssembajjwe, W. 2000. "Sacred Forests: An Alternative Way of Conserving Forest Resources." In Community-Based Forest Resource Management in East Africa. W.S. Gombya-Ssembajjwe and A.Y. Banana, eds. Kampala, Uganda: Uganda Forestry Resources and Institutions Centre (UFRIC).

Gomez Espinoza, J.A. and G.G. Gonzalez. 2006. "Agricultural Indigenous and Farmers Traditional Knowledge: Rescue, Sistematization and Incorporation to the IEAS." Ra Ximhai 2(1):97-126. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2517

González, A., J. Lobato, A. Velázquez, and A. Torres. 2003. "El Manejo del Venado Cola Blanca: La Experiencia de una Comunidad Indígena para el Manejo y Uso Sustentable de la vida Silvestre." In Las Enseñanzas de San Juan: Investigación Participativa para el Manejo Integral de Recursos Naturales. A. Velázquez, A. Torres, and G. Bocco, eds. México City: Instituto Nacional de Ecología.

Graham, L. and S. McJohn. 2005. "Indigenous Peoples and Intellectual Property." Washington University Journal of Law and Policy 19:313-338.

Gramajo, S.E. 1997. Autogestion Comunitaria de Recursos Naturales: Estudio de Caso en Totonicapan. Guatemala, Guatemala: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales/Programa Guatemala. (Debate 37).

Gratani, M. et al. 2011. "Is Validation of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge a Disrespectful Process? A Case Study of Traditional Fishing Poisons and Invasive Fish Management from the Wet Tropics, Australia." Ecology and Society 16(3) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/7650

Green, E.C., K.J. Goodman, and M. Hare. 1999. "Ethnobotany, IPR and Benefit-Sharing: The Forest People's Fund in Suriname." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 7(1):8-11.

Greenaway, A., F. Carswell, G. Harmsworth, and S. Russell. 2011. "Making Sense, Taking Action in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Exploring the Situated-ness of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies." Presented at International Conference on Climate Change & Social Issues 2011, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 14-15 December, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/7744

Greene, R.T. 1999. "Community Culture Invention: Instant Self Anthropology Using Community Quality Cabarets." SPC Traditional Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 10:13-23.

Grenand, P. and F. Grenand. 1996. "Living in Abundance: The Forest of the Wayampi (Amerindians from French Guiana)." In Current Issues in Non-Timber Forest Products Research. J.E.M. Arnold and M.R. Perez, eds. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research.

Grenand, P. and F. Grenand. 1996. "'Il ne faut pas trop en faire': Connaissance du vivant et gestion de l'environnement chez les Wayapi (Amérindiens de Guyane)." In Les ressources naturelles renouvelables; Pratiques et representations. J.-Y. Weigel, ed. Paris: Orstom. (Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, vol. 32, no. 1).

Grice, A.C., J. Cassady, and D.M. Nicholas. 2012. "Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Knowledge and Values Combine to Support Management of Nywaigi Lands in the Queensland Coastal Tropics." Ecological Management and Restoration 13(1):93-97.

Grove, R. 1996. "Indigenous Knowledge and the Significance of South-West India for Portuguese and Dutch Constructions of Tropical Nature." Modern Asian Studies 30(1):121-143.

Gujja, B., D. Sraban, S. Hajara, and V. Goud. 2009. "Adapting to Climate Change in the Godavari River Basin of India by Restoring Traditional Water Storage Systems." Climate and Development 1(3):229-240.

Gumbula, J.N. 2005. "Exploring the Gupapuyna Legacy: Strategies for Developing the Galiwin'ku Indigenous Knowledge Centre." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):25-28.

Gunn, A., G. Arlooktoo, and D. Kaomayok. 1988. "The Contribution of the Ecological Knowledge of Inuit to Wildlife Management in the Northwest Territories." In Traditional Knowledge and Renewable Resource Management. M.M.R. Freeman and L.N. Carbyn, eds. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta. (Occasional Publication, no. 23).

Gupta, A.K. 1994. "Compensating Local Communities for Conserving Biodiversity: Shall We Save the Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs so Long?" (Working Paper) Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India. (IIMA Working Paper No.1206). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4236

Gupta, A.K. 1993. "Search for Sustainable Solutions: How Do We Build Upon Indigenous Ecological Knowledge System?" (Working Paper) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4311

Gupta, A.K. 1992. "Eco Institutional Perspectives on Maintaining Diversity." Indian Institute of Management, Ahmenabad, India. (Working Paper, no. 3). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4335

Gupta, H.K. and A. Gupta. 2008. "Traditional Forest Knowledge (TFK), Commons and Forest Landscape Management: An Indian Perspective." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/869

Gurung, J.D. 1999. "Women, Children and Well-Being in the Mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region." Unasylva 50(196):12-19.

Gurung, J.D., ed. 1994. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Biodiversity Management: Proceedings of a MacArthur Foundation ICIMOD Seminar, April 13-15, 1994, Kathmandu, Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).

Gururani, S. 2002. "Construction of Third World Women's Knowledge in the Development Discourse." International Social Science Journal 54(173):313-323.

Gyawali, B.K. 1993. "Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Through Indigenous Techniques in Nepal." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang, G.J. Gill, and G.B. Thapa, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Haami, B. and M. Roberts. 2002. "Genealogy as Taxonomy." International Social Science Journal 54(173):403-412.

Hambly, Helen. 1995.  "Grassroots Indicators for Sustainable Development." IDRC Reports 23(1):24-26. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6016

Hamilton, R. and R. Walter. 1999. "Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Its Role in Fisheries Research and Design: A Case Study from Roviana Lagoon, Western Province, Solomon Islands." Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge 11:13-24.

Hansen, S.A. and J.W. VanFleet. 2003. Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property: A Handbook on Issues and Options for Traditional Knowledge Holders in Protecting their Intellectual Property and Maintaining Biological Diversity. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. http://www.community-wealth.org/_pdfs/articles-publications/commons/book-hansen-vanFleet.pdf

Harmsworth, G. 1998. "Indigenous Values and GIS: A Method and a Framework." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 6(3):3-7.

Hartley, T.W. and R.A. Robertson. 2009. "Stakeholder Collaboration in Fisheries Research: Integrating Knowledge Among Fishing Leaders and Science Partners in Northern New England." Society and Natural Resources 22(1):42-55.

Hartzell, M. 2005. "Making Sense of Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The Case of Traditional Chinese Medicine." Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies 23(2):155-175.

Heaslip, R. 2008. "Monitoring Salmon Aquaculture Waste: The Contribution of First Nations' Rights, Knowledge, and Practices in British Columbia, Canada." Marine Policy 32(6):988-996.

Heckenberger, M.J. et al. 2003. "Amazonia 1492: Pristine Forest or Cultural Parkland?" Science 301(5640):1710-1713.

Hemp, C. and A. Hemp. 2008. "The Chagga Homegardens on Kilimanjaro." IHDP Update 2:12-17. http://www.ihdp.unu.edu/article/597

Hendrix, M.K. 1983. Technology and Tradition in West African Maritime Fisheries: Tombo, Sierra Leone. Kingston, Ontario: International Center for Marine Resource Development, University of Rhode Island. (Working Paper, No. 8).

Hernández Salgar, A.M. 2003. "Traditional Knowledge and the Biotrade: The Colombian Experience." In Trading in Knowledge: Development Perspectives on TRIPS, Trade, and Sustainability. C. Bellman, G. Dutfield, and R. Melendez-Ortiz, eds. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Hernandez, L., H. Barral, and E. Anaya. 1996. "Résurgence d'un type d'élevage du XVIII c. siècle dans le nord du Mexique." In Les ressources naturelles renouvelables; Pratiques et representations. J.-Y. Weigel, ed. Paris: Orstom. (Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, vol. 32, no. 1).

Herrmann, T. 2006. "Indigenous Knowledge and Management of Araucaria Araucana Forest in the Chilean Andes: Implications for Native Forest Conservation." Biodiversity and Conservation 15(2):647-662.

Herrmann, T. and M.-C. Torri. 2009. "Changing Forest Conservation and Management Paradigms: Traditional Ecological Knowledge Systems and Sustainable Forestry: Perspectives from Chile and India." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 16(6):392-403.

Hersak, D. 2001. "There Are Many Kongo Worlds: Particularities of Magico-Religious Beliefs Among the Vili and Yombe of Congo-Brazzaville." Africa 71(4):614-640.

Hess, C.G. 1997. Hungry for Hope: On the Cultural and Communicative Dimensions of Development in Highland Ecuador. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Heyd, T. et al. 1996. "Comments on Article by Arun Agrawal." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 4(1):12-19.

Hinton, P. 1985. "An Approach to the Study of Traditional Systems of Coastal Resources Management in Thailand." In The Traditional Knowledge and Management of Coastal Systems in Asia and the Pacific. K. Ruddle and R.E. Johannes, eds. Jakarta, Indonesia: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Regional Office for Science and Technology for Southeast Asia.

Hoard, A. 2001. "The Commodification of Art: Ndeble Women in the Stream of Change." Cultural Survival Quarterly 24(4):37-40.

Hoehn, S. and B. Thapa. 2009. "Attitudes and Perceptions of Indigenous Fishermen Towards Marine Resource Management in Kuna Yala, Panama." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 16(6):427-437.

Hoffmann, I. and I. Mohammed. 2004. "Role of Nomadic Camels for Manuring Farmers' Fields in the Sokoto Close Settled Zone of Northwest Nigeria." Nomadic Peoples 8(1):99-112.

Houde, N. 2007. "The Six Faces of Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Challenges and Opportunities for Canadian Co-Management Arrangements." Ecology and Society 12(2) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2639

Howell, C.J., K.A. Schwabe, and A.H.A. Samah. 2010. "Non-Timber Forest Product Dependence Among the Jah Hut Subgroup of Peninsular Malaysia's Orang Asli." Environment, Development and Sustainability 12(1):1-18.

Hufford, M. 1998. "Tending the Commons: Ramp Suppers, Biodiversity, and the Integrity of 'The Mountains'." Folklife Center News 20(4):3-16.

Hughes, I. 1996. "Yolngu Rom: Indigenous Knowledge in North Australia." In Indigenous Organizations and Development. P. Blunt and D.M. Warren, eds. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Humphrey, C., M. Mongush, and B. Telengid. 1993. "Attitudes to Nature in Mongolia and Tuva: A Preliminary Report." Nomadic Peoples 33:51-61.

Hunt, B. and A.C.J. Vincent. 2006. "Scale and Sustainability of Marine Bioprospecting for Pharmaceuticals." Ambio 35(2):57-64.

Hunter, J. 2005. "Role of Information Technologies in Indigenous Knowledge Management." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):113-128.

Hunter, L.M. and L. Rinner. 2004. "The Association between Environmental Perspective and Knowledge and Concern with Species Diversity." Society and Natural Resources 17(6):517-532.

Huntington, H.P. 2002. "Can Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Wilderness Benefit One Another?" In Wilderness in the Circumpolar North: Searching for Compatibility in Ecological, Traditional, and Ecotourism Values. A.E. Watson, L. Alessa, and J. Sproull, eds. Ogden, UT: United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. (Proceedings Report RMRS, no. 26).

Huntington, H.P. and M.E. Fernández-Giménez. 1999. "Indigenous Knowledge in the Arctic: A Review of Research and Applications." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 7(3):11-14.

Hussain, I. et al. 2001. "A Framework for Analysing Socioeconomic, Health and Environmental Impacts of Wastewater Use in Agriculture in Developing Countries." International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. (IWMI Working Paper, no. 26). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4858

Hviding, E. 2006. "Knowing and Managing Biodiversity in the Pacific Islands: Challenges of Environmentalism in Marovo Lagoon." International Social Science Journal 58(187):69-85.

Ibrahim, Z. 2010. "The Anthropology of the Malay Peasantry: Critical Reflections on Colonial and Indigenous Scholarship." Asian Journal of Social Science 38(1):5-36.

Ifeka, C. and S. Abua. 2005. "Nigeria: Conservation, 'Traditional' Knowledge and the Commons." Review of African Political Economy 32(104/105):436-443.

Igoe, J., D. Brockington, and R. Duffy. 2008. Nature Unbound: The Past, Present, and Future of Protected Areas. London: Earthscan.

Igwe, A. 1994. Indigenous Technology: The Developmental Philosophy of Ogbonnaya Onu. Enugu, Nigeria: Fourth Dimension Publishers.

Ilahiane, H. 1999. "The Berber AGDAL Institution: Indigenous Range Management in the Atlas Mountains." Ethnology 38(1):21-.

Indigenous Biodiversity Information Network (IBIN), International Conservation Networking System (ICONS), Indigenous Knowledge Program (IKP), and the World Conservation Union (IUCN). 1999. Library of Traditional Knowledge and Biodiversity. Seattle, WA: International Conservation Networking System (ICONS).

INDISCO. 1996. The Way We Live: Indigenous Practices of the Ifugaos, Atis and Badjaos of the Philippines. Geneva: International Labour Organization. (INDISCO Case Studies no. 3).

Inglis, J.T., ed. 1993. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases. Ottawa, Canada: International Program on Traditional Ecological Knowledge and International Development Research Centre.

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD). 1999. "Partnerships in Sustainable Mountain Development: 1995-1998." International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, Nepal.

International Indigenous Peoples' Summit on Sustainable Development. 2002. "Indigenous Peoples' Plan of Implementation on Sustainable Development."Presented at the International Indigenous Peoples' Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, September 2, 2002.

Irvine, D. 2000. "Indigenous Federations and the Market: The Runa of Napo, Ecuador." In Indigenous Peoples and Conservation Organizations: experiences in Collaboration. R. Weber, J. Butler, and L. Larson, eds. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.

Ishengoma, J. 2005. "African Oral Traditions: Riddles among the Haya of Northwestern Tanzania." International Review of Education 51(2-3):139-153.

Ishihara, H. and U. Pascual. 2009. "Social Capital in Community Level Environmental Governance: A Critique." Ecological Economics 68(5):1549-1562.

Iyegha, D.A. 2000. "The Wisdom of Traditional Farming in Tropical Africa." Journal of Third World Studies 17(2):73-92.

Iyengar, S. and P. Dhar. 2011. "Treading an Uncommon Path: In the Quest for Equity and Sustainability." Sustaining Commons: Sustaining Our Future, the Thirteenth Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Hyderabad, India, January 10-14, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/7289

Jackson, J.B. 2004. "Contesting Culture as Property: Introductory Comments to the Symposium." Presented at "Contesting Culture as Property: A Symposium," Indiana University, Bloomington, December 9, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/562

Jacobs, P. 1988. "Towards a Network of Knowing and of Planning in Northern Canada." In Knowing the North: Reflections on Tradition, Technology, and Science. W.C. Wonders, ed. Edmonton, Alberta: Boreal Institute for Northern Studies. (Occasional Publication Series, no. 21).

Jagadish, B.C. and P. Lamsal. 1991. "Indigenous Systems of Forest Management: A Potential Asset for Implementing Community Forestry Programme in the Hills of Nepal (with Special Reference to Palpa District)." Community Forestry Development Project Hattisar, Kathmandu, Nepal. (Field Document, no. 17).

Janke, T. 2005. "Managing Indigenous Knowledge and Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):99-112.

Jeffery, M. 2007. "Substantive and Procedural Dimensions of Old and New Forms of Property: IPRs, the CBD and the Protection of Traditional Ecological Knowledge." In Sustainble Resource Use: Institutional Dynamics and Economics. A. Smajgl and S. Larson, eds. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Jena, M.K. et al. 2002. Forest Tribes of Orissa: Lifestyle and Social Condition of Selected Orissan Tribes (Vol. 1 The Dongaria Kondh). New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no. 2).

Jena, M.K. 1997. "Forest and Tribal Sacred Complex: A Comparison of Three Tribes of Orissa." In Local Knowledge of Forests and Forest Uses Among Tribal Communities in India: Proceedings of an International Seminar Jointly Organized by the Chair of Forest Policy and Forest Economics, ETH Zurich, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and Max Mueller Bhavan, New Delhi. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. Zurich: Departement Wald- und Holzforschung, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. (Forstwissenschaftliche Beiträge der Professur Forstpolitik und Forstökonomie 19).

Jentoft, S., H. Minde, and R. Nilsen, eds. 2005. Indigenous Peoples: Resource Management and Global Rights. Delft: Eburon.

Jianchu, X. 2003. "Indigenous Knowledge for Sustainable Livelihoods and Resources Governance in MMSEA Region." Presented at Politics of the Commons: Articulating Development and Strengthening Local Practices, Chiang Mai, Thailand, July 11-14, 2003. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1603

Jianchu, X. and M. Salas. 2003. "Moving the Periphery to the Centre: Indigenous People, Culture, and Knowledge in a Changing Yunnan." In Social Challenges for the Mekong Region. M. Kaosa-Ard and J. Dore, eds. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Social Research Institute.

Jiggins, J. 1994. "Quality Control, Method Transfer and Training." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Jiggins, J. 1989. "An Examination of the Impact of Colonialism in Establishing Negative Values and Attitudes Towards Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren, L.J. Slikkerveer, and S.O. Titilola, eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Jodha, N.S. 1997. "Poverty, Environmental Resource Degradation: Alternative Explanation and Possible Solutions." Presented at the conference "India-50," organised by the School of African and Asian Studies and Graduate Research Centre for the comparative Study of Culture, Development and Environment, University of Sussex, Brighton, England, September 24-27, 1997.

Jodha, N. and A. Bhatia. 1998. "Community Management of the Commons: Re-empowerment Process and the Gaps." Presented at "Crossing Boundaries," the seventh annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 10-14, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1014

Johannes, R.E. 1989. "Fishing and Traditional Knowledge." In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Collection of Essays. R.E. Johannes, ed. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge: IUCN.

Johannes, R.E., ed. 1989. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Collection of Essays. Gland, Switzerland: World Conservation Union (IUCN).

Johnston, A.M. 2006. Is the Sacred for Sale? Tourism and Indigenous Peoples. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Joiris, Daou V. 1997.  "La Nature des Uns et la Nature des Autres: Mythe et Réalité du Monde Rural Face aux Aires Protégées d'Afrique Centrale." In Les Peuples des Forêts Tropicales: Systèmes Traditionnels et Développement Rural en Afrique Équatoriale, Grande Amazonie et Asie du Sud-Est. D. V. Joiris and D. D. Laveleye, eds. Bruxelles: Institut de Sociologie de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles. (Civilisations vol. 44, no. 1-2).

Jones, A. et al. 1996. "Food Processing." In Biotechnology: Building on Farmers' Knowledge. J. Bunders, B. Haverkort, and W. Hiemstra, eds. London: Macmillan.

Jones, M. and J. Hunter. 2003. "Enshrining Indigenous Knowledge as a Public Good: Issues Arising from the Maori Case." Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 3(2):103-111.

Jones, M.E. and J. Hunter. 2004. "Enshrining Indigenous Knowledge as a Public Good: Indigenous Education and the Maori Sense of Place." Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems 3(2):103-113. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/407

Jones, N.B. and M.J. Konner. 1989. "!Kung Knowledge of Animal Behavior." In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Collection of Essays. R.E. Johannes, ed. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Joranson, K. 2008. "Indigenous knowledge and the knowledge commons." International Information and Library Review 40(1):64-72.

Joshi, S., M. Barrett, G. Walsham, and S. Cappleman. 2007. "Balancing Local Knowledge within Global Organisations through Computer-Based Systems: An Activity Theory Approach." Journal of Global Information Management 15(3):1-19.

Joyal, E. 1996. "The Palm has its Time: An Ethnoecology of Sabal Uresana in Sonora, Mexico." Economic Botany 50(4):446-462.

Jun, J.S. 2006. "Rethinking the Theoretical Perspective: Beyond the Quest for Indigenous Theory of Korean Public Administration." International Review of Public Administration 10(2):6-14.

Kahal, D.R. 1996. "People's Participation and Development: Lessons from the Forestry Programs in East Nepal." In Social Economy and National Development: Lessons from the Nepalese Experience. M.K. Dahal and H. Mund, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Nepal Foundation for Advanced Studies.

Kajembe, G.C. and D.F. Rutatora. 1999. "Perspectives on How Local Knowledge Can Be Utilized in Sustainable Natural Resource Management." (Working Paper)

Kajembe, G.C., J.Z. Katani, and R.E. Malimbwi. 1999. "The Role of Gender-Based Indigenous Knowledge in Developing Coping Strategies Against Deforestation." Presented at the Workshop on Off-Forest Tree Resources of Africa, Arusha, Tanzania, July 12-16, 1999.

Kajembe, G.C. and K.F. Wiersum. 1998. "Bridging the Gap Between Indigenous Initiatives and Externally Sponsored Forestry Interventions." In Proceedings of the First Annual Forestry Research Workshop. S.A. O. Chamashama, ed. Morogoro, Tanzania: Sokoine University of Agriculture.

Kamran, M.A. and G.P. Shivakoti. 2009. "Design Principles and Robustness of Spate Community Managed Irrigation Systems in the Punjab, Pakistan." Presented at Workshop on the Workshop 4, Indiana University Bloomington, June 3-6, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/224

Kanakulya, T.D. 2005. "Challenges to Development and Indigenous Knowledge Management: Informing University ICT Pedagogical Frameworks in Africa." In Universities: Taking a Leading Role in ICT Enabled Human Development. F.F. Tusubri and N.K. Mulira, eds. Kampala: Phantom Solutions.

Kane, R. and D. Turnham. 2000. "Sustainable Development and Community Mobilisation." In African Perspectives: Practices and Policies Supporting Sustainable Development. D. Turnham, ed. Gentofte, Denmark: Scandinavian Seminar College.

Kanyama-Phiri, G., S. Snapp, B. Kamanga, and K. Wellard. 2000. "Towards Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Malawi: Incorporating Participatory Approached in Agricultural Research." International Institute for Environment and Development- Drylands Programme, Edinburgh, UK. (Managing Africa's Soils, no. 11).

Kargbo, J.A. 2005. "Managing Indigenous Knowledge: What Role for Public Librarians in Sierra Leone?" International Information and Library Review 37(3):199-207.

Karlson, G.R. 1998. "Finding Fish: The Cognitive Foundation of Fishing." In Commons in a Cold Climate: Coastal Fisheries and Reindeer Pastoralism in North Norway: The Co-Management Approach. S. Jentoft, ed. Pearl River, NY: Parthenon. (Man and the Biosphere Series, no. 22).

Karp, I. 1995. "African Systems of Thought." In Africa. P.M. Martin and P. O'Meara, eds. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Kaschula, S., W.C. Twine, and M. Scholes. 2005. "Coppice Harvesting of Fuelwood Species on a South African Commons: Utilizing Scientific and Indigenous Knowledge in Community Based Natural Resource Management." Human Ecology 33(2):387-418.

Kasele, S. S., M.R.S. Mlozi, N. Hatibu, and H. Mahoo. 2005. "Knowledge Sharing and Communication Tools for Dialogue Issues on Productivity of Water in Agriculture: Case Study of Mkoji Sub Catchment in Usangu Plains, Tanzania." Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, Sweden. Presented at the East African River Basin Conference, Morogoro, Tanzania, March 7-9, 2005. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5038

Kashwan, P. 2006. "Traditional Water Harvesting Structure: Community behind 'Community'." Economic and Political Weekly 41(7):596-598. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2440

Kassam, K.-A. 2009. Biocultural Diversity and Indigenous Ways of Knowing: Human Ecology in the Arctic. Calgary: University of Calgary Press. (Northern lights series, 12).

Kassam, K.-A. 2009. "Viewing Change through the Prism of Indigenous Human Ecology: Findings from the Afghan and Tajik Pamirs." Human Ecology 37(6):677-690.

Katerere, Y.M. 1996. "Woodland Management Research in Southern Africa: Whose Agenda?" In Caring for the Forest: Research in a Changing World (Congress Report, Volume II). E. Korpilahti, H. Mikkelä, and T. Salonen, eds. Jyväskylä, Finland: Finnish IUFRO World Congress Organising Committee.

Kawamura, H. 2004. "Symbolic and Political Ecology among Contemporary Nez Perce Indians in Idaho, USA: Functions and Meanings of Hunting, Fishing, and Gathering Practices." Agriculture and Human Values 21(2-3):157-169.

Kay, C. and R.T. Simmons. 2002.  =Wilderness and Political Ecology: Aboriginal Influences and the Original State of Nature. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press.

Kelbessa, W. 2005. "The Rehabilitation of Indigenous Environmental Ethics in Africa." Diogenes 52(3):17-34.

Kellner, K. and A.S. Moussa. 2009. "A Conceptual Tool for Improving Rangeland Management Decision-Making at Grassroots Level: The Local-Level Monitoring Approach." African Journal of Range and Forage Science 26(3):139-147.

Kempton, W. 2001. "Cognitive Anthropology and the Environment." In New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. C.L. Crumley, ed. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.

Kendrick, A. 2000. "Learning Conceptual Diversity through Caribou Co-management." Presented at "Constituting the Commons: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millennium," the Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bloomington, IN, May 31-June 4, 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1424

Kerkhoff, E., A. Aryal, and S. Webster. 2008. "Defending Shifting Cultivators Rights to Common Property Resources: How Applicable is ILO Convention No. 111 (Employment and Occupation)?" Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1504

Kerr, J.M. and N.K. Sanghi. 1994. "Researchable Questions in Soil and Water Conservation." In Natural Resource Economics: Theory and Application in India.  J. M. Kerr et al., eds. Oxford: IBH.

Kibue, M.N. 1996. "A Farmer's View." In Biotechnology: Building on Farmers' Knowledge. J. Bunders, B. Haverkort, and W. Hiemstra, eds. London: Macmillan.

Kidd, R. 2005. "Indigenous Archival Records at Risk." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):159-168.

Kiiti, N. 2005. "Indigenous Knowledge: An Effective Communication and Education Resource for Addressing HIV / AIDS Among Young People in Eastern Kenya." Journal of Development Communication 16(1):40-50.

Kilahama, F.B. 1994. "Indigenous Ecological Knowledge: A Vital Tool for Rural Extension Strategies; A Case Study From Shinyanga Region, Tanzania." Forests, Trees and People Newsletter 24:30-35.

King, C. 2008. "Sustainable Management of Marginal Drylands (SUMAMAD): Sharing Success Stories from Indigenous, Adaptive and Innovative Approaches." In The Future of Drylands: International Conference on Desertification and Drylands Research, June 19-21, 2006, Tunis, Tunisia. Paris, France: UNESCO.

King, S.R. 1992. "Pharmaceutical Discovery, Ethnobotany, Tropical Forests, and Reciprocity: Integrating Indigenous Knowledge, Conservation, and Sustainable Development." In Sustainable Harvest and Marketing of Rain Forest Products. M.J. Plotkin and L. Famolare, eds. Washington, DC: Island Press.

King, S.J. 2011. "Conservation Controversy: Sparrow, Marshall, and the Mikmaq of Esgenoôpetitj." The International Indigenous Policy Journal 2(4) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/7817

Kiptot, E. 2007. "Eliciting Indigenous Knowledge on Tree Fodder Among Maasai Pastoralists via a Multi-method Sequencing Approach." Agriculture and Human Values 24(2):231-243.

Kipuri, N. 1996. "Pastoral Maasai Grassroots Indicators for Sustainable Resource Development." In Grassroots Indicators for Desertification: Experience and Perspective from Eastern and Southern Africa. H. Hambly and T.O. Angura, eds. Ottawa: IDRC Books.

Kissling-Näf, I., U. Baruffol, S. Biber-Klemm, and L. Merino. 2002. "The Contractual Regulation of Access to Biological Resources and Genetic Plant Information: An Agreement between Mexican Communities and a Multinational Bio-Prospecting Concern." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Globalisation," the Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, June 17-21, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/570

Kitson, J.C. 2002. "What Limits the Number of Titi (Puffinus Griseus) Harvested by Rakiura Maori?" Human Ecology 30(4):503-521.

Kjosavik, D.J., and N. Shanmugaratnam. 2004. "Integration or Exclusion? Locating Indigenous Peoples in the Development Process of Kerala, South India." Forum for Development Studies 31(2):231-274.

Klee, G.A. 1996. "Traditional Concepts for 21st Century Living." In Etnoecológica, vol. 3, no. 4-5 (August 1996).  V.M. Toledo, ed. Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico: Centro de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

Klooster, D. 2000. "Towards Adaptive Community Forest Management: Integrating Local Forest Knowledge with Scientific Forestry." Presented at "Constituting the Commons: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millennium," the Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bloomington, IN, May 31-June 4, 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/250

Knudsen, S. 2004. "Is There Indigenous Knowledge in the Middle East? Towards a Reassesment of Knowledges in Management of Common Pool Resources." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risks and Opportunities," the Tenth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Oaxaca, Mexico, August 9-13, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/290

Kohler-Rollerfson, I. and H.S. Rathore. 2004. "Indigenous versus Official Knowledge, Concepts and Institutions: Raika Pastoralists and the Outside World." Nomadic Peoples 8(2):150-167.

Koivorova, T. and L. Heinamaki. 2006. "The Participation of Indigenous Peoples in International Norm-making in the Arctic." Polar Record 221:101-110.

Kolbert, E. 2005. "The Climate of Man - I." New Yorker:56-71.

Komwihangilo, D.M. et al. 2008. "Implications of Local Knowledge in the Utilization of Forage Resources in Mixed Livestock Systems of Eastern Tanzania." International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 5(4):269-279.

Komwihangilo, D.M., F.P. Lekule, G.C. Kajembe, and P.H. Petersen. 2007. "Role of Local Knowledge in Mixed Livestock Production Systems: Methodology and Implications for Research and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa." Outlook on Agriculture 36(3):187-192.

Korovkin, T. 2001. "Reinventing the Communal Tradition: Indigenous Peoples, Civil Society, and Democratization in Andean Ecuador." Latin American Research Review 36(3):37-68.

Kothari, B. 1995. "From Oral to Written: The Documentation of Knowledge in Ecuador." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 3(2):9-12.

Krishnayati, I., I. Tjitradaja, and B. Widjojanto. 1994. "Indonesia: Problems in Need of Solutions." In Common Problems, Uncommon Solutions. M.S. Berdan and J.P.A. Pasimio, eds. Quezon City, Philippines: The Center.

Kumasi, T.C., K. Obiri-Danso, and J.H. Ephraim. 2010. "Community Engagement in the Sustainable Management of Rivers: Barekese Catchment, Kumasi, Ghana." Environment, Development and Sustainability 12(6):927-943.

Kurniawan, I. and I. Hanafi. 2004. "Community Mapping, Natural Resources and Indigenous People Movement in Indonesia." Presented at the Regional Community Mapping Network Workshop, November 8-10, 2004, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5439

Kusch, R. 2010. Indigenous and Popular Thinking in America. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Kweka, D. 2004. "The Role of Local Knowledge and Institutions in the Conservation of Forest Resources in the East Usambara." (Working Paper)

Kyagaba, E. 2004. "Range Resource Assessment and Monitoring Techniques among the Pastoral Bahima in Uganda." Nomadic Peoples 8(1):81-98.

LaFrance, J. and R. Nichols. 2008. "Reframing Evaluation: Defining an Indigenous Evaluation Framework." Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation 23(2):13-31.

Lal, C. and L.R. Verma. 2007. "Indigenous Technological Knowledge (ITK) on Soil and Water Management from Himachal Himalaya." Ecology Environment and Conservation 13(4):787-794.

Lalonde, A. 1993. "African Indigenous Knowledge and its Relevance to Sustainable Development." In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases. Ottawa: Center for Traditional Knowledge, Canadian Museum of Nature.

Lalonde, A. 1991. "African Indigenous Knowledge and Its Relevance to Environment and Development Activities." Presented at the second annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Winnipeg, Manitoba, September 26-29, 1991. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/904

Lamanilao, J.M.A. 2008. "Interfacing of Indigenous and Modern Knowledge Towards Effective Community-based Natural Resource Management." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1057

Lamers, J.P.A., P.R. Feil, and A. Buerkert. 1995. "Spatial Crop Growth Variability in Western Niger: The Knowledge of Farmers and Researchers." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 3(3):17-19.

Lamers, J., M. Bruentrup, and A. Buerkert. 1998. "The Profitability of Traditional and Innovative Mulching Techniques Using Millet Crop Residues in the West African Sahel." Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 67:23-35.

Langton, M. and Z.M. Rhea. 2005. "Traditional Indigenous Biodiversity-Related Knowledge." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):47-72.

Latham, C.J.K. 2002. "Nyika Vanhu: The Land is the People: An Examination of Natural Resource Management in Zimbabwe's Communal Lands." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Globalisation," the Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, June 17-21, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/921

Lauriola, V. 2005. "Managing the Commons: Indigenous Rights, Economic Development and Identity: Thematic Introduction." In Managing the Commons: Indigenous Rights, Economic Development and Identity. L. Merino and J. Robson, eds. Mexico: Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible A.C.

Lawas, C.M. and H.A. Luning. 1996. "Farmers' Knowledge and GIS." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 4(1):8-11.

Lawrence, D., et al. 2010. "Untangling a Decline in Tropical Forest Resilience: Constraints on the Sustainability of Shifting Cultivation across the Globe." Biotropica 42(1):21-30.

Lawry, S.W. 1993. "Transactions in Cropland Held under Customary Tenure in Lesotho." In Land in African Agrarian Systems. T.J. Bassett and D.E. Crummey, eds. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Lea, D. 2008. Property Rights, Indigenous People and the Developing World: Issues from Aboriginal Entitlement to Intellectual Ownership Rights. Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.

Leach, J. 2005. "Modes of Creativity and the Register of Ownership." In CODE: Collaborative Ownership and the Digital Economy. R.A. Ghosh, ed. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Leach, M. and J. Fairhead. 2002. "Manners of Contestation: 'Citizen Science' and 'Indigenous Knowledge' in West Africa and the Caribbean." International Social Science Journal 54(173):299-311.

Lebbie, T.E.A. 2010. "Clear Challenges, Options." Samudra Report 55:11-14. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6015

Lee, Y. 2009. "Indigenous Knowledge Construction and Experiential Learning of Taiwanese Aborigines." International Education Studies 2(2):155-161. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6879

Leenders, J.K., S.M. Visser, and L. Stroosnijder. 2005. "Farmer's Perceptions of the Role of Scattered Vegetation in Wind Erosion Control on Arable Land in Burkina Faso." Land Degradation & Development 16(4):327-337.

Lenka-Bula, P. 2005. "The Social and Ethical Implications of Article 27 of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) on African Communities, Biodiversity and Indigenous Knowledge." Journal of Theology for Southern Africa 122:36-58.

Lepri, I. 2006. "Identity and Otherness among the Ese Ejja of Northern Bolivia." Ethnos 71(1):67-88.

Leungaramsri, P. 2001. Redefining Nature: Karen Ecological Knowledge and the Challenge to the Modern Conservation Paradigm. Chennai, India: Earthworm.

Lewis, H.T. 1982. "A Time for Burning." Boreal Institute for Northern Studies, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. (Occasional Publication, no.17).

Lewis, J.L. and S.R.J. Sheppard. 2005. "Ancient Values, New Challenges: Indigenous Spiritual Perceptions of Landscapes and Forest Management." Society and Natural Resources 18(10):907-920.

Li, T.M. 2002. "Ethnic Cleansing, Recursive Knowledge, and the Dilemmas of Sedentarism." International Social Science Journal 54(173):361-371.

Lilieholm, R.J. and W.P. Weatherly. 2010. "Kibale Forest Wild Coffee: Challenges to Market-Based Conservation in Africa." Conservation Biology 24(4):924-930.

Long Martello, M. 2001. "A Paradox of Virtue? 'Other' Knowledges and Environment-Development Politics." Global Environmental Politics 1(3):114-141.

Long, N. and M. Villareal. 1994. "The Interweaving of Knowledge and Power in Development Interfaces." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Lotz, M. 2002. "Colliding Worlds: Indigenous Rights, Traditional Knowledge, and Plant Intellectual Property." Business and Professional Ethics Journal 21(3/4):71-94.

Lozano-Montes, H.M., T.J. Pitcher, and N. Haggan. 2008. "Shifting Environmental and Cognitive Baselines in the Upper Gulf of California." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(2):75-80.

Lucero, J.A. 2008. Struggles of Voice: the Politics of Indigenous Representation in the Andes. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.

Lund, K.A. 2005. "Finding Place in Nature: Intellectual and Local Knowledge in a Spanish Natural Park." Conservation & Society 3(2):371-387. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2851

Lynam, T. 2002. "Scientific Measurements and Villagers' Knowledge: An Integrative Multi-Agent Model from the Semi-Arid Areas of Zimbabwe." In Complexity and Ecosystem Management: The Theory and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems. M.A. Janssen, ed. Northampton, MA: Elgar.

Lyon, S.M. and M. Fischer. 2006. "Anthropology and Displacement: Culture, Communication and Computers Applied to a Real World Problem." Anthropology in Action 13(3):40-53.

Ma, Y. et al. 2009. "What Motivates Farmers to Participate in Sustainable Agriculture? Evidence and Policy Implications." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 16(6):374-380.

Mackelworth, P., D. Holcer, and C. Fortuna. 2008. "Multiple Use Marine Protected Areas as Complex Commons." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1756

Maffi, L. 2002. "Endangered Languages, Endangered Knowledge." International Social Science Journal 54(173):385-393.

Maffi, L. 2001. "Linking Language and Environment: A Coevolutionary Perspective." In New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. C.L. Crumley, ed. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.

Magcale-Macandog, D. and L.J.M. Ocampo. 2005. "Indigenous Strategies of Sustainable Farming Systems in the Highlands of Northern Philippines." Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 26(2):117-138.

Magowan, F. 2002. "Ganma: Negotiating Indigenous Water Knowledge in a Global Water Crisis." Cultural Survival Quarterly 26(2):18-20.

Mahesh, G. and G. Hemlata. 2004. "Combating Desertification: Building on Traditional Knowledge Systems on the Thar Desert Communities." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 99(1-3):89-103.

Makaliwe, W.H. et al. 1985. "An Introduction to the Socio-economic Aspect of a Developing Coastal Area in South Sulawesi, Indonesia." In The Traditional Knowledge and Management of Coastal Systems in Asia and the Pacific. K. Ruddle and R.E. Johannes, eds. Jakarta, Indonesia: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Regional Office for Science and Technology for Southeast Asia.

Malm, T. 1999. Shell Age Economics: Marine Gathering in the Kingdom of Tonga, Polynesia. Lund, Sweden: Lund University Press. (Lund Monographs in Social Anthropology, 8).

Manandhar, N.P. and S Manandhar. 2002. Plants and People of Nepal. Portland, OR: Timber.

Manek, M. and R. Lettington. 2001. "Indigenous Knowledge Rights: Recognizing Alternative Worldviews." Cultural Survival Quarterly 24(4):8-9.

Mankiller, W. 2009. "Being Indigenous in the 21st Century." Cultural Survival Quarterly 33(1):32-37. http://www.culturalsurvival.org/ourpublications/csq/article/being-indigenous-21st-century

Maragia, B. 2006. "The Indigenous Sustainability Paradox and the Quest for Sustainability in Post-Colonial Societies: Is Indigenous Knowledge All that is Needed?" Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 18(2):197-248.

Marai, L., S. Haihuie, and D. Kavanamur. 2005. "Knowledge Flow and Capacity Development: A Case of Psychology in Papua New Guinea." Higher Education Policy 18(3):271-273.

Mararike, C.G. 1996. "The Use of Trees, Birds and Animal Behaviour as Measures of Environmental Change by the Shona People of Zimbabwe." In Grassroots Indicators for Desertification: Experience and Perspective from Eastern and Southern Africa. H. Hambly and T.O. Angura, eds. Ottawa: IDRC Books.

Marin, A. 2010. "Riders Under Storms: Contributions of Nomadic Herders' Observations to Analysing Climate Change in Mongolia." Global Environmental Change 20(1):162-176.

Marin, A. 2005. "Pastoral Dilemmas in a European Context: The Case of Reindeer in Sub-Arctic Norway." Co-Govern: Promoting Common Property in Africa. (Securing the Commons, no. 11).

Marin, G. and S. Vermeylen. 2005. "Intellectual Property, Indigenous Knowledge, and Biodiversity." Capitalism Nature Socialism 16(3):27-48.

Marinova, D. and M. Raven. 2006. "Indigenous Knowledge and Intellectual Property: A Sustainability Agenda." Journal of Economic Surveys 20(4):587-605.

Marsden, D. 1994. "Indigenous Management and the Management of Indigenous Knowledge." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Marzano, M. 2007. "Changes in the Weather: A Sri Lankan Village Case Study." Anthropology in Action 13(3):63-76.

Mascarenhas, O. 1994. Indigneous Knowledge in Resource Management: Irrigation in Msanzi, Tanzania. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. (From the Ground Up Case Study Series, no. 6).

Masolo, D.A. 2002. "Philosophy and Indigenous Knowledge." Presented at 'African Dialogues: Oral Heritage and Indigenous Knowledge,' Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, May 10-11, 2002.

Mathias-Mundy, E. 1989. "Techniques and Practices in Ethnoveterinary Medicine." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren, L.J. Slikkerveer, and S.O. Titilola, eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Mathias, E. 1994. "Importance and Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Sustainable Development." International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Cavite, The Philippines.

Mathias, E. and C.M. McCorkle. 1996. "Animal Health." In Biotechnology: Building on Farmers' Knowledge. J. Bunders, B. Haverkort, and W. Hiemstra, eds. London: Macmillan.

Matose, F. and B. Mukamuri. 1994. "Rural People's Knowledge and Extension Practice: Trees, People and Communities in Zimbabwe's Communal Lands." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Matowanyika, J.Z.Z., V. Garibaldi, and E. Musimwa, eds. 1995. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa. Harare, Zimbabwe: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. (Indigenous Knowledge Systems Series, no. 1).

Matsuoka, J.K., D.P. McGregor, and L. Minerbi. 1998. "Molokai: A Study of Hawaiian Subsistance and Community Sustainability." In Sustainable Community Development: Studies in Economic, Environmental, and Cultural Revitalization. M.D. Hoff, ed. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis.

Maurstad, A. and J.H. Sundet. 1998. "The Invisible Cod: Fishermen's and Scientists' Knowledge." In Commons in a Cold Climate: Coastal Fisheries and Reindeer Pastoralism in North Norway: The Co-Management Approach. S. Jentoft, ed. Pearl River, NY: Parthenon. (Man and the Biosphere Series, no. 22).

Mbuvi, D. and E. Boon. 2009. "The Livelihood Potential of Non-Wood Forest Products: The Case of Mbooni Division in Makueni District, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability 11(5):989-1004.

McAinsh, C.V., J. Kusina, J. Madsen, and O. Nyoni. 2004. "Traditional Chicken Production in Zimbabwe." World Poultry Science Journal 60(2):233-246.

McCabe, T.J. 1990. "Success and Failure: The Breakdown of Traditional Drought Coping Institutions Among the Pastoral Turkana of Kenya." Journal of Asian and African Studies XXV(3-4):146-160.

McCall, M.K. 1994. Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Farming Systems of Eastern Africa: A Bibliography. Ames, IA: Center for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development. (Bibliographies in Technology and Social Change Series, no. 9).

McCorkle, C.M. 1987. "Punas, Pastures, and Fields: Grazing Strategies and the Agropastoral Dialectic in an Indigenous Andean Community." In Arid Land Use Strategies and Risk Management in the Andes: A Regional Anthropological Perspective. D.L. Browman, ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

McCorkle, C.M. 1994. Farmer Innovation in Niger. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change Series, no. 21).

McDaniel, J., D. Kennard, and A. Fuentes. 2005. "Smokey the Tapir: Traditional Fire Knowledge and Fire Prevention Campaigns in Lowland Bolivia." Society and Natural Resources 18(10):921-931.

McDonald, M. 1988. "An Overview of Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources." In Traditional Knowledge and Renewable Resource Management. M.M.R. Freeman and L.N. Carbyn, eds. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta. (Occasional Publication, no. 23).

McDonald, M. and B. Fleming. 1991. "The Role of Traditional Knowledge in Community-Based Management of an Eiderdown Industry Developing in Northern Canada." Presented at the second annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Winnipeg, Manitoba, September 26-30, 1991. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5430

McGinnis, M.D. 2006. "Strategizing for the Lord and for Self-Governance: What IGOs and NGOs Can Learn from the Missionary Experience of the Indigenization of African Christianity." Presented at the 47th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association, San Diego, California, March 22-25, 2006.

McKiernan, G. 1990. "Preserving the Wisdom of the Ages." Garden 14(5):10-15.

McKiernan, G. 1989. "The CIKARD International Documentation Unit and Library of Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren et al., eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

McLuhan, T.C. 1994. The Way of the Earth: Encounters with Nature in Ancient and Contemporary Thought. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Mehra, D. and R. Ghate. 2004. "Significance of Traditional Practices and Indigenous Institutions in Forest Management: A Case Study from India." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risks and Opportunities," the Tenth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Oaxaca, Mexico, August 9-13, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/490

Mehta, A.S. 1997. "The Context of Indigenous Knowledge and Forests: The Experience of Seva Mandir." In Local Knowledge of Forests and Forest Uses Among Tribal Communities in India: Proceedings of an International Seminar Jointly Organized by the Chair of Forest Policy and Forest Economics, ETH Zurich, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and Max Mueller Bhavan, New Delhi. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. Zurich: Departement Wald- und Holzforschung, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. (Forstwissenschaftliche Beiträge der Professur Forstpolitik und Forstökonomie 19).

Meier, W.N., J. Stroeve, and S. Gearheard. 2006. "Bridging Perspectives from Remote Sensing and Inuit Communities on Changing Sea-Ice Cover in the Baffin Bay Region." Annals of Glaciology 44(1):433-438.

Melkania, N.P. 2000. "Indigenous Knowledge in Traditional Modes of Forest and Tree Management in the Central Himalaya, India." In Man in the Forest. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld.

Melnyk, M. 1993. "The Effects of Sedentarization on Agriculture and Forest Resources in Southern Venezuela." Rural Development Forestry Network, Overseas Development Institute, London. (Network Paper 16b). http://www.odi.org.uk/networks/rdfn/rdfn-16b.pdf

Mercer, J., I. Kelman, L. Taranis, and S. Suchet-Pearson. 2010. "Framework for Integrating Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge for Disaster Risk Reduction." Disasters 34(1):214-239.

Merino, L. and J. Robson, eds. 2005. Managing the Commons: Indigenous Rights, Economic Development and Identity. Mexico: Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible A.C. et al.

Messerschmidt, D.A. 1990. "Forest Resource Management and Local Knowledge: An Overview of Community Forestry Research in Nepal." Presented at the Second International Congress on Ethnobiology, Kunming, Yunnan, China, October 22-26, 1990.

Miller, C.A. 2004. "Resisting Empire: Globalism, Relocalization, and the Politics of Knowledge." In Earthly Politics: Local and Global in Environmental Governance. Sheila Jasanoff and Marybeth Long Martello Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Miller, R. and P. Nair. 2006. "Indigenous Agroforestry Systems in Amazonia: From Prehistory to Today."

Minerbi, L. 1994. "Sanctuaries, Places of Refuge, and Indigenous Knowledge in Hawai'i." In Land Use and Agriculture: Science of Pacific Island Peoples Volume II. J. Morrison et al., eds. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies.

Minzhigdorj, B. and B. Erdenebaatar. 1993. "Why Mongolians Say Sheep Herders Are Lucky." Nomadic Peoples 33:47-49.

Misa, M. and A.M. Vargo. 1993. "Indigenous Agroforestry in American Samoa." In Proceedings of the Workshop on Research Methodologies and Applications for Pacific Island Agroforestry July 16-20, 1990, Kolonia, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia Workshop on Research Methodologies and Applications for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station.

Misbahuzzaman, K., S. Ghosh, and M.A. Alam. 2008. "Are Village Common Forests (VCFs) a Model for Sustainable Natural Resources Management in Uplands of Bangladesh?" Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1921

Mishra, S. 1994. "Women's Indigenous Knowledge of Forest Management in Orissa." Indigenous Knowledge & Development Monitor 2(3):3-5.

Mittra, B. and P. Bhattacharya. 2002. "Self-Initiated Efforts in Medicinal Plant Conservation: A Case Study from Madhya Pradesh in India." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Globalisation," the Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, June 17-21, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1863

Mlenge, W. 2002. "Revival of Customary Landcare in Shinyanga Region, Tanzania." Forests, Trees and People Newsletter 46:21-28.

Moahi, K.H. 2004. "Copyright in the Digital Era and Some Implications for Indigenous Knowledge." African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science 14(1):1-14.

Moahi, K.H. 2007. "Globalization, Knowledge Economy and the implication for Indigenous Knowledge." International Review of Information Ethics 7 http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5725

Mokua, M.A. 2002. "Globalisation, Culture and Common Property Resource Management." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Globalisation," the Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, June 17-21, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1825

Moller, H., F. Berkes, P.O'B. Lyver, and M. Kislalioglu. 2004. "Combining Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Monitoring Populations for Co-Management." Ecology and Society 9(3) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2996

Monroy-Ortiz, C. et al. 2009. "Participative Generation of Local Indicators for Conservation in Morelos, Mexico." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 16(6):381-391.

Mooney, P.R. 1993. "Exploiting Local Knowledge: International Policy Implications." In Cultivating Knowledge: Genetic Diversity, Farmer Experimentation and Crop Research. W. de Boef et al., eds. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Moorcroft, H. et al. 2012. "Conservation Planning in a Cross-Cultural Context: The Wunambal Gaambera Healthy Country Project in the Kimberley, Western Australia." Ecological Management and Restoration 13(1):16-25.

Moorehead, R.M. 1991. "Structural Chaos: Community and State Management of Common Property in Mali." (Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Sussex, 1991).

Morales, R. 2006. "New Treaty, Same Old Problems." Cultural Survival Quarterly 30(1):22-25.

Moran, E.F. 1995. "Socio-economic Aspects of Acid Soil Management." In Plant Soil Interactions at Low pH. R.A. Date et al., eds. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

Moran, E.F., E.S. Brondizio, and S. McCracken. 1999. "Trajectories of Land Use: Soils, Succession, and Crop Choice (Manuscript Draft)." In Patterns and Processes of Land Use and Forest Change in the Amazon. C. Wood, ed. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press.

Moreno-Baez, M., B.J. Orr, R. Cudney-Bueno, and W.W. Shaw. 2010. "Using Fishers' Local Knowledge to Aid Management at Regional Scales: Spatial Distribution of Small-Scale Fisheries in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico." Bulletin of Marine Science 86(2):339-353.

Msuya, J. 2007. "Challenges and Opportunities in the Protection and Preservation of Indigenous Knowledge in Africa." International Review of Information Ethics 7 http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5726

Mudimbe, V.Y. 1988. The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy, and the Order of Knowledge. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Mudiwa, M. 2002. "Global Commons: The Case of Indigenous Knowledge, Intellectual Property Rights and Biodiversity." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Globalisation," the Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, June 17-21, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/428

Mueller, JG., I.H.B. Assanou, I.D. Guimbo, and A.M. Almedom. 2010. "Evaluating Rapid Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Assessment of Ethnoecological Knowledge and Local Biodiversity Patterns." Conservation Biology 24(1):140-150.

Mugabe, J. 1999. Intellectual Property Protection and Traditional Knowledge. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS). (Biopolicy International Series, no. 21).

Muller, J. 1980. Liquidation or Consolidation of Indigenous Technology: A Study of the Changing Conditions of Production of Village Blacksmiths in Tanzania. Aalborg, Denmark: Aalborg University Press.

Munyanziza, E. and K.F. Wiersum. 1999. "Indigenous Knowledge of Miombo Trees in Morogoro, Tanzania." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 7(2):10-13.

Murombo, T. 2002. "Community Based Natural Resource Management and Community Based Property Rights in Land Reform Law: Zimbabwe's Case." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Globalisation," the Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, June 17-21, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/916

Murphree, M.W. 2005. "Congruent Objectives, Competing Interests, and Strategic Compromise: Concept and Process in the Evolution of Zimbabwe's CAMPFIRE, 1984-1996." In Communities and Conservation: Histories and Politics of Community-Based Natural Resource Management. J.P. Brosius, A.L. Tsing, and C. Zerner, eds. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira. (Globalization and the Environment, no. 3).

Mutta, D. et al. 1994. "An Ethnobotanical Study of Indigenous Medicinal Nutritious Plant Species of Kajiado District in Kenya." In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Capacity Building in Forestry Research in Africa. S.L. Kwaje and F.B. Mwaura, eds. Nairobi, Kenya: African Academy of Sciences.

Mwangi, E. 1998. "Indigenous Knowledge and Environmental Conservation in East Africa." (Working Paper) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5778

Mwangi, E. and B. Swallow. 2005. "Invasion of Prosopis Juliflora and Local Livelihoods: Case Study from the Lake Baringo Area of Kenya." World of Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya. (ICRAF Working Paper, no. 3). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4277

Myer, F. 2005. "Some Properties of Culture and Persons." In CODE: Collaborative Ownership and the Digital Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Nadasdy, P. 2003. "Reevaluating the Co-Management Success Story." Arctic 56(4):367-380. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2777

Nadasdy, P. 2003. Hunters and Bureaucrats: Power, Knowledge, and Aboriginal-State Relations in the Southwest Yukon. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Nagengast, C. 1997. "Women, Minorities, and Indigenous Peoples: Universalism and Cultural Relativity." Journal of Anthropological Research 53(3):349-.

Nakashima, D., L. Prott, and P. Bridgewater. 2000. "Tapping into the World's Wisdom." Sources 125:11-15. http://portal.unesco.org/science/en/ev.php-URL_ID=3522&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

Nakata, M., A. Byrne, V. Nakata, and G. Gardiner. 2005. "Indigenous Knowledge, the Library and Information Service Sector, and Protocols." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):9-24.

Nakata, M., A. Byrne, V. Nakata, and G. Gardiner. 2005. "Libraries, Indigenous Australians and a Developing Protocols Strategy for the Library and Information Sector." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):195-210.

Narayan, B. 2006. "Memories, Saffronising Statues and Constructing Communal Politics." Economic and Political Weekly 41(45):4695-4701.

Narvhus, J.A. 2001. "Research and Development of Indigenous Fermented Foods for Small Scale Commercial Processing in East and Southern Africa." In Successes in Rural Development. R. Haug and J. Teurlings, eds. Ås, Norway: Centre for International Environment and Development Studies, Agricultural University of Norway.

National Research Council. 1989. Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation; Report of an ad hoc Panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Nawab, B. and I.L.P. Nyborg. 2009. "Institutional Challenges in Water Supply and Sanitation in Pakistan: Revealing the Gap Between National Policy and Local Experience." Water Policy 11(5):582-597.

Nazarea-Sandoval, V.D. 1991. "Ethnoagronomy and Ethnogastronomy: On Indigenous Typology and Use of Biological Resources." Agriculture and Human Values 8(1-2):121-131.

Nazarea, V.D., ed. 1999. Ethnoecology: Situated Knowledge, Located Lives. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.

Nesheim, T. 1995. "The Cultural Construction of Nature--Including Resources." Presented at "Reinventing the Commons," the fifth annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, May 24-28, 1995, Bodoe, Norway. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1429

Ngandu, M. 1996. "Aliments et Interdits Alimentaires Chez les Balega (Kivu, Est du Zaïre)." In Etnoecológica, vol. 3, no. 4-5 (August 1996).  V.M. Toledo, ed. Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico: Centro de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

Ngara, C. 2006. "Indigenous Conceptions of Giftedness in Zimbabwe: A Comparison of Shona and Ndebele Cultures' Conceptions on Giftedness." International Education 36(1):46-62.

Nhira, C., ed. 1995. Proceedings of the Conference on Indigenous Woodlands Management. Harare, Zimbabwe: Centre for Applied Social Sciences. (CASS Occasional Papers Series, NRM, 1995).

Nichol, R.M. 2005. Socialization, Land, and Citizenship among Aboriginal Australians: Reconciling Indigenous and Western Forms of Education. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.

Nichols, T. et al. 2004. "Climate Change and Sea Ice: Local Observations from the Canadian Western Arctic." Arctic 57(1):68-79. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3315

Nietschmann, B. 1972. "Hunting and Fishing Focus Among the Miskito Indians, Eastern Nicaragua." Human Ecology 1(1):41-67.

Nijar, G.S. 2010. "Incorporating Traditional Knowledge in an International Regime on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing: Problems and Prospects." European Journal of International Law 21(2):457-475.

Nirmal, P. 2011. "Understanding Global Knowledge-dynamics: A Case-study of NFSCs Project, Digital Community Archiving--Does it Protect or Plunder the Indigenous Knowledge of the Nari Kuravar Community?" Sustaining Commons: Sustaining Our Future, the Thirteenth Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Hyderabad, India, January 10-14, 2011. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/7135

Njaya, F. 2008. "Practical Challenges of Governing Shared Commons: The Lake Chiuta Small-Scale Fisheries Resources." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/630

Njie, N.-I. and K. Muir-Leresche. 2000. "Overview of Important Issues for Sustainable Development in Sub-Saharan Africa." In African Perspectives: Practices and Policies Supporting Sustainable Development.  D. Turnham, ed. Gentofte, Denmark: Scandinavian Seminar College.

Nkhata, B. 2002. "Setting up an Information Resource Centre and the Management of Indigenous Knowledge at the Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre." South African Journal of Library and Information Science 68(1):21-28.

Nooteboom, G. and E.B.P. de Jong. 2010. "Against 'Green Development Fantasies': Resource Degradation and the Lack of Community Resistance in the Middle Mahakam Wetlands, East Kalimantan, Indonesia." Asian Journal of Social Science 38(2):258-278.

Norchi, C.H. 2000. "Indigenous Knowledge as Intellectual Property." Policy Sciences 33(3/4):387-398.

Norem, R.H., R. Yoder, and Y. Martin. 1989. "Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge and Gender Issues in Third World Agricultural Development." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren et al., eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Normann, H., I. Snyman, and M. Cohen, eds. 1996. Indigenous Knowledge and its Uses in Southern Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council.

Nsamenang, A.B. 2005. "Educational Development and Knowledge Flow: Local and Global Forces in Human Development in Africa." Higher Education Policy 18(3):275-288.

Ntemga, G.M. and B.T. Mugongo. 1991. "Honey Hunters and Beekeepers; A Study of Traditional Beekeeping in Babati District, Tanzania." Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden. (Forests, Trees and People, Working Paper 161).

Nwokeabia, H. 2006. "Linking Agricultural Innovations to Knowledge Sharing in Africa." World Bank. (IK Notes, no. 88). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5967

Nyaba, P.A. 2002. "The Grassroots Peace Making in South Sudan: A Resort to Indigenous African Justice System." East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights 8(1):97-110.

Nyeko, P., J. Stewart, S. Franzel, and P. Barklund. 2004. "Farmers' Experiences in the Management and Utilisation of Calliandra Calothyrsus, a Fodder Shrub, in Uganda." Agricultural Research and Extension Network (AgREN), Overseas Development Institute, London. (Network Paper, no. 140). http://www.odi.org.uk/networks/agren/papers/agrenpaper_140.pdf

O'Donnell, K.P., M.G. Pajaro, and A.C.J. Vincent. 2010. "How Does the Accuracy of Fisher Knowledge Affect Seahorse Conservation Status?" Animal Conservation 13(6):526-533.

O'Donnell, K.P., M.G. Pajaro, and A.C. J. Vincent 2010. "Improving Conservation and Fishery Assessments with Local Knowledge: Future Directions." Animal Conservation 13(6):539-540.

O'Faircheallaigh, C. 2008. "Negotiating Cultural Heritage? Aboriginal-Mining Company Agreements in Australia." Development and Change 39(1):25-52.

O'Flaherty, R.M., I.J. Davidson-Hunt, and M. Manseau. 2008. "Indigenous Knowledge and Values in Planning for Sustainable Forestry: Pikangikum First Nation and the Whitefeather Forest Initiative." Ecology and Society 13(1) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2801

Oakes, J. and R. Riewe, eds. 1998. Issues in the North, Volume 3. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta. (Occasional Publication Series, no.1).

Oba, G., E. Sjaastad, and H.G. Roba. 2008. "Framework for Participatory Assessments and Implementation of Global Environmental Conventions at the Community Level." Land Degradation and Development 19(1):65-76.

Oba, G. and D.G. Kotile. 2001. "Assessments of Landscape Level Degradation in Southern Ethiopia: Pastralists vs. Ecologists." Presented at the International Conference on Policy and Institutional Options for the Management of Rangelands in Dry Areas, Hammamet, Tunisia, May 5-11, 2001. http://www.capri.cgiar.org/wks_envrisk.asp

Odochao, J., D. Nakashima, and C. Vaddhanaphuti. 2006. "An Education Rooted in Two Worlds: The Karen of Northern Thailand." International Social Science Journal 187(58):117-120.

Oguamanam, C. 2008. "Local Knowledge as Trapped Knowledge: Intellectual Property, Culture, Power and Politics." Journal of World Intellectual Property 11(1):29-57.

Ohmagari, K. and F. Berkes. 1997. "Transmission of Indigenous Knowledge and Bush Skills Among the Western James Bay Cree Women of Subarctic Canada." Human Ecology 25(2)

Okali, D.U.U. and F.O. Amubode. 1995. "Resource Conservation in Oboto, Nigeria." In Towards Common Ground: Gender and Natural Resource Management in Africa. A. Sigot et al., eds. Nairobi, Kenya: African Centre for Technology Studies. (ACTS Environmental Policy Series, no. 6).

Okere, T.I., C.A. Njoku, and R. Devisch. 2005. "All Knowledge is First of All Local Knowledge: An Introduction." Africa Development 30(3):1-19. http://www.codesria.org/Links/Publications/ad3_05/njoku_devisch.pdf

Okoba, B.O. and J. DeGraff. 2005. "Farmers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Soil Erosion and Conservation Measures in the Central Highlands, Kenya." Land Degradation and Development 16(5):475-488.

Okoth-Owiro, A. and C. Juma. 1996. "Property Rights, Medicinal Plants and Indigenous Knowledge." In In Land We Trust: Environment, Private Property and Constitutional Change. C. Juma and J.B. Ojwang, eds. Nairobi, Kenya: Initiatives Publishers. (ACTS Environmental Policy Series, no. 7).

Oksanen, M. 1998. "Authorship, Communities and Intellectual Property Rights." Presented at "Crossing Boundaries," the seventh annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 10-14, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/419

Olsen, J. 1995. "Common Property or Flexible Resource Use Management: Access to Faiddherbia Albida in Southern Zambia." Presented at "Reinventing the Commons," the fifth annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, May 24-28, 1995, Bodoe, Norway. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5563

Olson, P.A. 1990. The Struggle for the Land: Indigenous Insight and Industrial Empire in the Semiarid World. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Opéolá, S.M. 2001. "Ifá as an Esoteric Knowledge." In Ifá and Related Genres. L.O. Adéwolé, ed. Cape Town, South Africa: Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies. (CASAS Book Series, no. 13).

Opole, M. 1993. "Revalidating Women's Knowledge on Indigenous Vegetables:  Implications for Policy." In Cultivating Knowledge: Genetic Diversity, Farmer Experimentation and Crop Research. W. de Boef et al., eds. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Orlove, B.S., J.C.H. Chiang, and M.A. Cane. 2000. "Forescasting Andean Rainfall and Crop Yield from the Influence of El Niño on Pleiades Visibility." Nature 403:68-71.

Ortiz, O. 1999. "Understanding Interactions between Indigenous Knowledge and Scientific Information." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 7(3):7-10.

Osemeobo, G.J. 2007. "Who Decides on Access to Genetic Resources? Towards Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Nigeria." Small-scale Forestry 6(1):93-109.

Ostrom, E. 1998. "Institutional Analysis, Design Principles, and Threats to Sustainable Community Governance and Management of Commons." In Law and the Governance of Renewable Resources: Studies from Northern Europe and Africa. E. Berge and N.C. Stenseth, eds. Oakland, CA: ICS Press.

Osunwolé, S.A. 2001. "Oral Sources of Traditional Medicine Among the Yorubá of Nigeria." In Ifá and Related Genres. L.O. Adéwolé, ed. Cape Town, South Africa: Centre for Advanced Studies of African Societies. (CASAS Book Series, no. 13).

Ottiger, N. 2003. "Joint Forest Management: Merger of Two Traditions?" In Indigenous Knowledge, Forest Management and Forest Policy in South Asia (Proceedings of an International Seminar held in Kathmandu, Nepal in 1998). K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld.

Otu, U.R. 2003. "Knowledge-Sharing through Radio and Newsletters as a Catalyst to Grassroot Participation and Management for Rural Water-Related Environmental Problems in Ebo Itumbonuso, in Local Government Areas, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria." International Information and Library Review 35(2-4):311-317.

Oyerinde, O.K. 2009. "Why Differing Patterns of Land Rights Transformation and Land Conflict among the Yoruba of Nigeria?" Presented at Workshop on the Workshop 4, Indiana University, Bloomington, June 3-6, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1543

Oygard, R., T. Vedeld, and J. Aune. 1999. Good Practices in Drylands Management. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank.

Pacari, N. 1998. "The Ecuadorian Water Legislation and Policy Analysed from the Indigenous-Peasant Point of View." In Searching for Equity: Conceptions of Justice and Equity in Peasant Irrigation. R. Boelens and G. Dávila, eds. Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum.

Palmer, L. 2004. "Fishing Lifestyles: 'Territorians,' Traditional Owners and the Management of Recreational Fishing in Kakadu National Park." Australian Geographical Studies 42(1):60-76.

Pálsson, G. 1995. "Learning by Fishing: Practical Science and Scientific Practice." In Property Rights in a Social and Ecological Context; Case Studies and Design Principles. S. Hanna and M. Munasinghe, eds. Washington, DC: The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics and the World Bank. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1290

Pandey, D.N. 1998. Ethnoforestry: Local Knowledge for Sustainable Forestry and Livelihood Security. New Delhi: Himanshu Publications. (Asia Forest Network and Forestry Development Project, Rajasthan).

Pandey, I.R. 1993. "Some Indigenous Practices of Vegetable Production by Jyapu Farmers Around the Kathmandu Valley." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang et al., eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Parlee, B., F. Berkes, and Teetlit Gwichin Renewable Resources Council. 2006. "Indigenous Knowledge of Ecological Variability and Commons Management: A Case Study on Berry Harvesting from Northern Canada." Human Ecology 34(4):515-528. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1872

Parthasarathy, D. 2002. "Globalization, New Agricultural Technologies and IPRS: Implications of Modern Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering for Capabilities, Exclusion, and Livelihoods in Developing Countries." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Globalisation," the Ninth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, June 17-21, 2002. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2137

Pasquale, S., P. Schröder, and U. Schultze, eds. 1998. Lokales Wissen für Nachhaltige Entwicklung: Ein Praxisführer. Saarbrücken, Germany: Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik Saarbrücken GmbH.

Patel, H. 1995. "Institutional Innovation in Underground Water Management in Saurashtra Region of Western India." Presented at "Reinventing the Commons," the fifth annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, May 24-28, 1995, Bodoe, Norway. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5560

Pathi, P. 1997. "Symbolic Representation of Being in the Sacred Art of the Saora." In Local Knowledge of Forests and Forest Uses Among Tribal Communities in India: Proceedings of an International Seminar Jointly Organized by the Chair of Forest Policy and Forest Economics, ETH Zurich, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and Max Mueller Bhavan, New Delhi. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. Zurich: Departement Wald- und Holzforschung, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. (Forstwissenschaftliche Beiträge der Professur Forstpolitik und Forstökonomie 19).

Patnaik, G.B. 1997. "Inaugurative Speech." In Local Knowledge of Forests and Forest Uses Among Tribal Communities in India: Proceedings of an International Seminar Jointly Organized by the Chair of Forest Policy and Forest Economics, ETH Zurich, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and Max Mueller Bhavan, New Delhi. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. Zurich: Departement Wald- und Holzforschung, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. (Forstwissenschaftliche Beiträge der Professur Forstpolitik und Forstökonomie 19).

Patnaik, K.K. 2000. "Folk Medicines and Plants Used by Tribals of Phulbani and Koraput Districts of Orissa and Their Future." In Man in the Forest. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld.

Patnaik, N. 2003. Essential Forest Produce in Orissa. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no. 4).

Patnaik, N. 2003. "Man-Nature Relationship of the Juang of Juangpirh (Kendujhar District, Orissa)." In Indigenous Knowledge, Forest Management and Forest Policy in South Asia (Proceedings of an International Seminar held in Kathmandu, Nepal in 1998). K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no. 5).

Patnaik, N. 2000. "Eco-Diversity and Indigenous Knowledge of Forests." In Man in the Forest. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no. 1).

Payne, H. and H. Nepinak. 1996. "The Significance of First Nations' Access to Natural Resources and Economic Development." In Issues in the North; Volume I. J. Oakes and R. Riewe, eds. Edmonton, Canada: Canadian Circumpolar Institute. (Occasional Publication Series).

Pedersen, S. 2009. "Salmon Sans Borders." Samudra Report 54:4-7. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6218

Peloquin, C. and F. Berkes. 2009. "Local Knowledge, Subsistence Harvests, and Social-Ecological Complexity in James Bay." Human Ecology 37(5):533-545.

Pichón, F.J., J.E. Uquillas, and J. Frechione. 1999. Traditional and Modern Natural Resource Management in Latin America. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Pictou, S. 2009. "How Deep Are Our Treaties." Samudra Report 54:8-9. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6227

Pierce Colfer, C.J., ed. 2005. The Equitable Forest: Diversity, Community, and Resource Management. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Pilot, J. 2005. "Developing Indigenous Knowledge Centres." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):39-46.

Poole, P. 2005. "Ye'kuana Mapping Project." In Communities and Conservation: Histories and Politics of Community-Based Natural Resource Management. J.P. Brosius, A.L. Tsing, and C. Zerner, eds. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira. (Globalization and the Environment, no. 3).

Posey, D.A. 1992. "Interpreting and Applying the 'Reality' of Indigenous Concepts: What is Necessary to Learn from Natives?" In Conservation of Neotropical Forests: Working from Traditional Resource Use. K. Redford and C. Padoch, eds. New York: Columbia University Press.

Posey, D.A. and G. Dutfield. 1996. Beyond Intellectual Property: Toward Traditional Resource Rights for Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities. Ottawa, Ontario: International Development Research Centre.

Posey, D.A. and K. Plenderleith, eds. 2004. Indigenous Knowledge and Ethics: A Darrell Posey Reader. New York: Routledge.

Posey, D.A. 2001. "Interpretando e Utilizando a 'Realidade' dos Conceitos Indígenas: O Que é Preciso Aprender dos Nativos?" In Espaços e Recursos Naturais de Uso Comum. A.C. Diegues and A.D.C. Moreira, eds. Sao Paulo: Nucleo de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre Populaçoes Humanas e Areas Umidas Brasileiras (NUPAUB).

Pottier, J. 1994. "Agricultural Discourses: Farmer Experimentation and Agricultural Extension." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Poudyal, P.P. 1993. "Indigenous Management of Natural Bamboo Resources in Nepal." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang, G.J. Gill, and G.B. Thapa, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Preuss, K. and M. Dixon. 2012. "'Looking After Country Two-Ways': Insights into Indigenous Community-based Conservation from the Southern Tanami." Ecological Management and Restoration 13(1):2-15.

Price, L.L. 1998. "Wild Plant Food in Agricultural Environments: A Study of Occurrence, Management, and Gathering Rights in Northeast Thailand." Human Organization 56(2):209-221.

Prober, S.M., M.H. O'Connor, and F.J. Walsh. 2011. "Australian Aboriginal Peoples Seasonal Knowledge: A Potential Basis for Shared Understanding in Environmental Management." Ecology and Society 16(1) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/7588

Proctor, R. 2001. "Tourism Opens New Doors, Creates New Challenges for Traditional Healers in Peru." Cultural Survival Quarterly 24(4):14-16.

Puffer, P. 1995. "The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in Development Programs Concerning Somali Pastoralists and their Camels." Center for Indigenous Knowledge and Rural Development, University of Iowa, Ames, IA. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4552

Purcell, T.W. 1998. "Indigenous Knowledge and Applied Anthropology: Questions of Definition and Direction." Human Organization 57(3):258-.

Puri, S.K. 2007. "Integrating Scientific with Indigenous Knowledge: Constructing Knowledge Alliances for Land Management in India." Management Information Systems Quarterly 31(2):355-380.

Purkey, D.R. and D. Vermillion. 1995. "Lift Irrigation in West Africa: Challenges for Sustainable Local Management." International Irrigation Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. (IIMI Working Paper, no. 33). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4922

Quiroz, C. 1996. "Local Knowledge Systems Contribute to Sustainable Development." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 4(1):3-5.

Raffles, H. 2002. "Intimate Knowledge." International Social Science Journal 54(173):325-335.

Rajaram, D.C., D.C. Erbach, and D.M. Warren. 1991. "The Role of Indigenous Tillage Systems in Sustainable Food Production." Agriculture and Human Values 8(1-2):149-155.

Raju, K.V. and C.V.S.K. Sarma. 2005. "Water Rights in India and Water Sector Reforms in Andhra Pradesh." In Water Rights Reform: Practical Strategies for Improving Water Management. B.R. Bruns, C. Ringler, and R. Meinzen-Dick, eds.

Ramakrishnan, P.S. et al., eds. 2000. Mountain Biodiversity, Land Use Dynamics, and Traditional Ecological Knowledge. New Dehli: Oxford & IBH. (Man and the Biosphere Programme).

Ramanjaneyulu, G.V. and V.R. Rao. 2008. "Sustaining Agriculture-Based Livelihoods: Experiences with Non-Pesticidal Management in Andhra Pradesh." Development 51(4):541-546.

Ramisch, J.J., M.T. Misiko, I.E. Ekise, and J.B. Mukalama. 2007. "Strengthening 'Folk Ecology': Community-Based Learning for Integrated Soil Fertility Mangement, Western Kenya." International Journal of Agricultural Sustainablility 4(2):154-168.

Ramstad, K.M. et al. 2007. "Species and Cultural Conservation in New Zealand: Maori Traditional Ecological Knowledge of Tuatara." Conservation Biology 21(2):455-464.

Ranasinghe, H. 1995. "Traditional Tree-Crop Practices in Sri Lanka." Indigenous Knowlege and Development Monitor 3(3):7-9.

Rangnekar, S. 1993. "Studies of Indigenous Knowledge, Work-Sharing and Perceptions of Livestock Production by Women from Pastoralist Families." In Proceedings of the Workshop on Transhumant Pastoralism in Gujarat. R.P. Cincotta and G. Pangare, eds. Gujarat, India: Institute of Rural Management.

Rao, K.S., S. Nautiyal, R.K. Maikhuri, and K.G. Saxena. 2003. "Local Peoples' Knowledge, Aptitude and Perceptions of Planning and Management Issues in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India." environmental policy 31(2):168-181.

Rasaily, N.R., R. Pokharel, and D.A. Messerschmidt. 1990. "Village Voices from the Himalayan Forest." Unasylva 41(163):28-33.

Rasmus, S.M. 2002. "Repatriating Words: Local Knowledge in a Global Context." American Indian Quarterly 26(2):286-307.

Rastogi, A. 1998. "Intellectual, Biological, and Cultural Property Rights in the HKH (Hindu Kush-Himalayas)." International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Raw Materials Research and Development Council (Nigeria). 1992. Audit of Indigenous Technologies for Processing Raw Materials in Nigeria. Lagos, Nigeria: RMRDC.

Raychaudhuri, B. 1980. The Moon and the Net: Study of a Transient Community of Fishermen at Jambudwip. Calcutta, India: Government of India Press, Anthropological Survey of India.

Read, D.W. 1998. "Kinship Based Demographic Simulation of Societal Processes." Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 1(1)

Reid, H. and K. Swiderska. 2008. "Biodiversity, Climate Change and Poverty: Exploring the Links." International Institute for Environment and Development, London. (IIED Briefing). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6277

Reij, C., I. Scoones, and C. Toulmin, eds. 1996. Sustaining the Soil: Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation in Africa. London: Earthscan.

Remmers, G.G.A. and E.U. Ek. 1996. "La Roza-Tumba-Quema Maya: Un Sistema Agroecológico Tradicional Frente al Cambio Tecnológico." In Etnoecológica, vol. 3, no. 4-5 (August 1996). V.M. Toledo, ed. Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico: Centro de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

Reyes-Garcia, V. et al. 2003. "Ethnobotanical Knowledge Shared Widely Among Tsimane' Amerindians, Bolivia." Science 299(5613):1707.

Reyes-Garcia, V. et al. 2007. "Economic Development and Local Ecological Knowledge: A Deadlock? Quantitative Research from a Native Amazonian Society." Human Ecology 35(3):371-377.

Reyes-Garcia, V. et al. 2004. "Measuring Culture as Shared Knowledge: Do Data Collection Formats Matter? Cultural Knowledge of Plant Uses Among Tsimane' Amerindians, Bolivia." Field Methods 16:135-156.

Rhoades, R.E. and V. Nazarea. 2006. "Reconciling Local and Global Agendas in Sustainable Development: Participatory Research with Indigenous Andean Communities." Journal of Mountain Science 3(4):334-346.

Richards, P. 1993. "Cultivation: Knowledge or Performance?" In An Anthropological Critique of Development: The Growth of Ignorance. M. Hobart, ed. New York: Routledge.

Richards, P. 1979. "Community Environmental Knowledge in African Rural Development." IDS Bulletin 10(2):28-36.

Richards, P. and L. Wolpert. 1997. "Indigenous Knowledge and Science." Science and Public Affairs.

Riches, C.R. et al. 1993. "Roles for Farmers' Knowledge in Africa." Overseas Development Institute, London, Agricultural Research and Extension Network (AGREN), London. (Network Paper, no. 42).

Riesman, P. 1984. "The Fulani in a Development Context: The Relevance of Cultural Traditions for Coping with Change and Crisis." In Life before the Drought. E. Scott, eds. Boston: Allen and Unwin.

Riley, M. 2001. "The Traditional Medicine Research Center (TMRC): A Potential Tool for Protecting Traditional and Tribal Medicinal Knowledge in Laos." Cultural Survival Quarterly 24(4):21-24.

Riseth, J.Å. 2009. "Indigenous Interests Challenging Conventional Protection Typologies: Norwegian Conservation vs. Sámi Subsistence." Presented at Workshop on the Workshop 4, Indiana University, Bloomington, June 3-6, 2009. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1283

Rist, S. 1991. "Participation, Indigenous Knowledge and Trees." Forests, Trees and People Newsletter 13:30-36.

Roba, H.G. and G. Oba. 2008. "Integration of Herder Knowledge and Ecological Methods for Land Degradation Assessment around Sedentary Settlements in a Sub-humid Zone in Northern Kenya." International Journal for Sustainable Development & World Ecology 15(3):251-264.

Robinson, P. 1993. "Indigenous Knowledge in Yak/Cattle Cross Breeding and Management in High Altitude Nepal." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang, G.J. Gill, and G.B. Thapa, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Rodrigues, S.B., R.G. Duarte, and A.P. Carrieri. 2012. "Indigenous or Imported Knowledge in Brazilian Management Studies: A Quest for Legitimacy?" Management and Organization Review 8(1):211-232. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2027768

Rodriguez, I. 2007. "Pemon Perspectives of Fire Management in Canaima National Park, Southeastern Venezuela." Human Ecology 35(3):331-343.

Roling, N. and P. Engel. 1989. "IKS and Knowledge Management: Utilizing Indigenous Knowledge in Institutional Knowledge Systems." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren et al., eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Roncoli, C., K. Ingram, and P. Kirshen. 2002. "Reading the Rains: Local Knowledge and Rainfall Forecasting in Burkina Faso." Society and Natural Resources 15(5):409-428.

Rosewine, J. 2008. "Global Dynamics and Institutional Changes for Resource Management Along Cochin Estuaries." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2291

Rosler, M. 1997. "Shifting Cultivation in the Ituri Forest (Haut-Zaïre): Colonial Intervention, Present Situation, Economic and Ecological Prospects." In Les Peuples des Forêts Tropicales: Systèmes Traditionnels et Développement Rural en Afrique Équatoriale, Grande Amazonie et Asie du Sud-Est. D.V. Joiris and D.D. Laveleye, eds. Bruxelles: Institut de Sociologie de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles. (Civilisations vol. 44, no. 1-2).

Ross, F., S. McKemmish, and S. Faulkhead. 2006. "Indigenous Knowledge and the Archives: Designing Trusted Archival Systems for Koorie Communities." Archives and Manuscripts 34(2):112-151.

Roth, R. 2004. "Scale, Knowledge and Space: Spatial Organization of Environmental Knowledge in Northern Thailand." Presented at "Bridging Scales and Epistemologies: Linking Local Knowledge and Global Science in Multi-Scale Assessments," Alexandria, Egypt, March 17-20, 2004. http://www.iapad.org/publications/ppgis/roth.robin.pdf

Roth, R. 2004. "Spatial Organization of Environmental Knowledge: Conservation Conflicts in the Inhabited Forest of Northern Thailand." Ecology and Society 9(3) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2572

Roué, M. and D. Nakashima. 2002. "Knowledge and Foresight: The Predictive Capacity of Traditional Knowledge Applied to Environmental Assessment." International Social Science Journal 54(173):337-347.

Rozzi, R. et al. 2006. "Ten Principles for Biocultural Conservation at the Southern Tip of the Americas: The Approach of the Omora Ethnobotanical Park." Ecology and Society 11(1) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2398

Ruddle, K. 1994. "Local Knowledge in the Folk Management of Fisheries and Coastal Marine Environments." In Folk Management in the World's Fisheries: Lessons for Modern Fisheries Management. C.L. Dyer and J.R. McGoodwin, eds. Niwot, CO: The University Press of Colorado.

Ruddle, K. 1988. "The Transmission of Traditional Ecological Knowledge." In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases. J.T. Inglis, ed. Ottawa: Canadian Museum of Nature and IDRC. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1494

Ruddle, K. and R.E. Johannes, eds. 1985. The Traditional Knowledge and Management of Coastal Systems in Asia and the Pacific. Jakarta, Indonesia: UNESCO.

Rumsey, A. and J. Weiner, eds. 2001. Emplaced Myth: Space, Narrative, and Knowledge in Aboriginal Australia and Papua New Guinea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Ruppert, D. 1996. "Intellectual Property Rights and Environmental Planning." Landscape and Urban Planning 36:117-123.

Rural Advancement Foundation International. 1994. Conserving Indigenous Knowledge: Integrating Two Systems of Innovation. New York: United Nations Development Programme.

Russell, L. 2005. "Indigenous Knowledge and the Archives: Accessing Hidden History and Understandings." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):169-180.

Rutatora, D.F. 1997. "Strength and Weaknesses of the Indigenous Farming System of the Matengo People of Tanzania." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 5(2):6-9.

Ruttan, L.M. and M.B. Mulder. 1999. "Are East African Pastoralists Truly Conservationists?" Current Anthropology 40(5):621-652. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5027

Saenmi, S. and T. Tillman. 2006. "ACBC: Affirmation of Cultures and Biodiversity Conservation." International Social Science Journal 187(58):97-108.

Safrin, S. 2004. "Hyperownership in a Time of Biotechnological Promise: The International Conflict to Control the Building Blocks of Life." American Journal of International Law 98:641-685.

Sahai, S. 2003. "Indigenous Knowledge and Its Protection in India." In Trading in Knowledge: Development Perspectives on TRIPS, Trade, and Sustainability. C. Bellman et al., eds. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Saini, H. and B. van Koppen. 2001. "Gender in Lift Irrigation Schemes in East Gujarat, India." International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. (IWMI Working Paper, no. 11). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4894

Salas, M.A. 1994. "'The Technicians only Believe in Science and Cannot Read the Sky': The Cultural Dimension of the Knowledge Conflict in the Andes." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Salazar, J.F. 2005. "Digitising Knowledge: Anthropology and New Practices of Digitextuality." Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy 116:64-74.

Sambo, E. and M. Munyenyembe. 1999. "Indigenous Knowledge Systems in the Natural Resources Management Plan for the Lake Chilwa Basin, Southern Malawi." In Issues and Responses: Land Use Planning in Eastern and Southern Africa. W.J. Caldwell, ed. Harare, Zimbabwe: Weaver. (Environmental Roundtable Series).

Santasombat, Y. 2003. Biodiversity, Local Knowledge and Sustainable Development. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Regional Center for Social Science and Sustainable Development. (RCSD Monograph Series, no. 3).

Santha, S. 2008. "Local Ecological Knowledge and Fisheries Management: A Study among Riverine Fishing Communities in Kerala, India." Local Environment 13(5):423-435.

Sarangi, S. 2004. "Unlocking the Scientific and Unscientific Debate in Community Forestry." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risks and Opportunities," the Tenth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Oaxaca, Mexico, August 9-13, 2004.
http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1711

Sardjono, M.A. and I. Samsoedin. 2001. "Traditional Knowledge and Practice of Biodiversity Conservation: The Benuaq Dayak Community of East Kalimantan, Indonesia." In People Managing Forests: The Links Between Human Well-Being and Sustainability. C.J.P. Colfer and Y. Byron, eds. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Sastikannan, A. and S. Govind. 2005. "Adoption of Indigenous Plant Protection Practices by Paddy Farmers." Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 18(1):196-199.

Saul, R. 1994. "Indigenous Forest Knowledge: Factors Influencing its Social Distribution." In Anthropology of Nepal: Peoples, Problems, and Processes. M. Allen, ed. Kathmandu, Nepal: Mandala Book Point.

Savyasaachi, D. 1993. "An Alternative System of Knowledge: Fields and Forests in Abujhmarh." In Who Will Save the Forests? Knowledge, Power and Environmental Destruction. T. Banuri and F.A. Marglin, eds. London: ZED.

Schafer, J. 1989. "Utilizing Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge in the Planning of Agricultural Research Projects Designed to Aid Small-Scale Farmers." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren et al., eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Schlippe, P. 1956. Shifting Cultivation in Africa: The Zande System of Agriculture. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Schmithüsen, F. 2000.  "The Socio-Cultural and Political Context of Sustainable Forestry Practices." In Man in the Forest. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no. 1).

Schoenhoff, D.M. 1993. The Barefoot Expert: The Interface of Computerized Knowledge Systems and Indigenous Knowledge Systems. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Schultes, R.E. 1989. "Reasons for Ethnobotanical Conservation." In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: A Collection of Essays. R.E. Johannes, ed. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN.

Schwartz, A. 1996. "Pratiques Paysannes et Gestion de la Fertilité des Terres sur les Exploitations Cotonnières dans L'ouest du Burkina Faso." In Les ressources naturelles renouvelables; Pratiques et representations. J.-Y. Weigel, ed. Paris: Orstom. (Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, vol. 32, no. 1).

Scoones, I. et al. 1996. Hazards and Opportunities: Farming Livelihoods in Dryland Africa: Lessons from Zimbabwe. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Zed Books.

Scoones, I. and J. Thompson, eds. 1994. Beyond Farmer First: Rural People's Knowledge, Agricultural Research and Extension Practice. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications for the International Institute for Environment and Development.

Scott, C. 2006. "Spirit and Practical Knowledge in the Person of the Bear among Wemindji Cree Hunters." Ethos 71(1):51-66.

Scott, S. 2008. "Drawing on Indigenous Ways of Knowing: Reflections from a Community Evaluator." Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation 23(2):73-92.

Sears, R.R., C. Padoch, and M. Pinedo-Vasquez. 2008. "Amazon Forestry Transformed: Integrating Knowledge for Smallholder Timber Management in Eastern Brazil." Human Ecology 36(1):147.

Secretariat of the World Intellectual Property Organization. 2003. "Comparative Summary of Existing National Sui Generis Measures and Laws for the Protection of Traditional Knowledge." World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.wipo.int/documents/en/meetings/2003/igc/pdf/grtkf_ic_5_inf_4.pdf

Sedhain, D. 1993. "A Study of the Transhumance System of Management of Sheep in Rasuwa and Nuwakot Districts." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang et al., eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Seeger, A. 2005. "Who Got Left Out of the Property Grab Again? Oral Traditions, Indigenous Rights, and Valuable Old Knowledge." In CODE: Collaborative Ownership and the Digital Economy. R.A. Ghosh, ed. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Seeland, K. 2003. "Indigenous Knowledge and Tribal Forest Life in Orissa." In Indigenous Knowledge, Forest Management and Forest Policy in South Asia (Proceedings of an International Seminar held in Kathmandu, Nepal in 1998). K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no. 5).

Seeland, K. 2000. "What Is Indigenous Knowledge and Why Does It Matter Today?" In Man in the Forest. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no. 1).

Seeland, K. and F. Schmithüsen, eds. 2003. Indigenous Knowledge, Forest Management and Forest Policy in South Asia: Proceedings of an International Seminar held in Kathmandu, Nepal in 1998. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no. 5).

Seeland, K. and F. Schmithüsen, eds. 2000. Man in the Forest. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no.1).

Seeland, K. and F. Schmithüsen, eds. 1997. Local Knowledge of Forests and Forest Uses Among Tribal Communities in India: Proceedings of an International Seminar Jointly Organized by the Chair of Forest Policy and Forest Economics, ETH Zurich, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and Max Mueller Bhavan, New Delhi. Zurich: Departement Wald- und Holzforschung, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. (Forstwissenschaftliche Beiträge der Professur Forstpolitik und Forstökonomie 19).

Sefa Dei, G.J. 2002. "Learning Culture, Spirituality, and Local Knowledge: Implications for African Schooling." International Review of Education 48(5):335-360.

Semali, L.M. and J.L. Kincheloe, eds. 1999. What is Indigenous Knowledge? Voices from the Academy. New York: Garland Publishing.

Sen, A.K. 2005. "Indian Traditions and the Western Imagination." Daedalus 134(4):168-185.

Sengupta, N. 1995. "Salvaging 'Traditional' Knowledge." Economic and Political Weekly 30(50):3207-3211.

Shackeroff, J.M. and L.M. Campbell. 2007. "Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Conservation Research: Problems and Prospects for their Constructive Engagement." Conservation & Society 5(3):343-360. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3182

Shackleton, C.M., M.W. Pasquini, and A.W. Drescher, eds. 2009. African Indigenous Vegetables in Urban Agriculture. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Shahvali, M., H. Moinizadeh, and M.A. Ardekani. 2000. "Local Poultry Management Practices in Southwest Iran." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 8(3):8-12.

Shahvali, M. and K. Zarafshani. 2002. "Using PRA Techniques as Metacognitive Strategies to Develop Indigenous Knowledge: A Case Study." International Social Science Journal 54(173):413-419.

Shanley, P. et al. 1997. "Translating Dry Data for Forest Communities." People and Plants Handbook 3:30-33.

Sharma, C. 2009. "The Wisdom of Tradition." Samudra Report 54:43-49. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6219

Sharma, N. 1991. Folk Tales of Nepal. New Delhi, India: Sterling Publishers Private Limited.

Sheehan, J. 2000. "Compensation for the Taking of Indigenous Common Property: The Australian Experience." Presented at "Constituting the Commons: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millennium," the Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bloomington, IN, May 31-June 4, 2000. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/460

Shell, D. et al. 2002. Exploring Biological Diversity, Environment and Local People's Perspectives in Forest Landscapes: Methods for a Forest Landscape Assessment. Jakarta, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research.

Shemdoe, R., I. Kikula, P. Damme, and W. Cornelis. 2009. "Tillage Practices and Their Impacts on Soil Fertility in Farmer' Fields in Semi-Arid Central Tanzania." Arid Land Research and Management 23(2):168-181.

Sherman, K.P., J. Van Lanen, and R.T. Sherman. 2010. "Practical Environmentalism on the Pine Ridge Reservation: Confronting Structural Constraints to Indigenous Stewardship." Human Ecology 38(4):507-520.

Shiva, V. 1997. Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge. Boston: South End Press.

Shivakoti, G. et al., eds. 1997. People and Participation in Sustainable Development: Understanding the Dynamics of Natural Resource Systems. Bloomington, Indiana and Kathmandu, Nepal: Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University, and Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University.

Shivakoti, G., Y. Ghale, and B. Upreti. 2005. "The Ecological Dynamics of Low External Input Agriculture: A Case Study of Hill Farming in a Developing Country." International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 12(4):685-697.

Shohibuddin, M. 2006. "Discursive Strategies and Local Power in the Politics of Natural Resource Management: Case of Toro Community in the Western Margin of Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP), Central Sulawesi." Presented at "Survival of the Commons: Mounting Challenges and New Realities," the Eleventh Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bali, Indonesia, June 19-23, 2006. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1202

Showers, K.B. 2006. "From Forestry to Soil Conservation: British Tree Management in Lesotho's Grassland Ecosystem." Conservation & Society 4(1):1-35. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3322

Shrestha, P.M. and S.S. Dhillion. 2006. "Diversity and Traditional Knowledge Concerning Wild Food Species in a Locally Managed Forest in Nepal." Agroforestry Systems 66(1):55-63.

Shrestha, R. 2001. "Brief Notes on Integrated Watershed Development Research Planning in the Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management of Nepal." In Integrated Watershed Development and Management in Asia: Training and Research Needs and Priorities. G.B. Thapa et al., eds. Klong Luang, Thailand: Integrated Watershed Development and Management (IWDM) Program.

Sigot, A., L.A. Thrupp, and J. Green, eds. 1995. Towards Common Ground: Gender and Natural Resource Management in Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: African Centre for Technology Studies. (ACTS Environmental Policy Series, no. 6).

Sikana, P. 1994. "Indigenous Soil Characterization in Northern Zambia." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: Intermediate Technologies Publications.

Sillitoe, P. 2007. "Introduction: Indigenous Knowledge in Development." Anthropology in Action 13(3):1-12.

Sillitoe, P., P. Dixon, and J. Barr. 2005. Indigenous Knowledge Inquiries: A Methodologies Manual For Development. Rubgy, UK: ITDG.

Simpson, R.D. and R.A. Sedjo. 1999. "Contracts for Transferring Rights to Indigenous Genetic Resources." In The RFF Reader in Environmental and Resource Management. W.E. Oates, ed. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.

Singh, N. and L. Ham, eds. 1995. Community-Based Resources Management and Sustainable Livelihoods: The Grass-Roots of Sustainable Development. Winnipeg, MB: International Institute of Sustainable Development.

Singh, R.K. 2008. "Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Institutions in Conservation of Critically Endangered Biodiversity: Learning from the Monpa Community in Eastern Himalaya, Arunachal Pradesh." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/818

Siriboe, N.O. 2002. "Indigenous Knowledge as a Basis of Contemporary Traditional Rule: My Experience as Juabenhene, 1971-2002." Presented at 'African Dialogues: Oral Heritage and Indigenous Knowledge,' Indiana University, Bloomington, May 10-11, 2002.

Sithole, P. 2004. "Environmental Cultures of Development and Indigenous Knowledge: The Erosion of Traditional Boundaries in Conserving Wetlands in Rural Zimbabwe." Presented at "The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risks and Opportunities," the Tenth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Oaxaca, Mexico, August 9-13, 2004. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1138

Skoufias, E., T. Lunde, and H.A. Patrinos. 2009. "Social Networks among Indigenous Peoples in Mexico." The World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network, Poverty Reduction Group, New York. (Research Working Papers, WPS4949).

Slikkerveer, L.J. 1989. "Changing Values and Attitudes of Social and Natural Scientists Towards Indigenous Peoples and their Knowledge Systems." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren et al., eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Smith, C. 2006. "Reclaiming the Commons, One Tune at a Time." New Hibernia Review 10(4):9-20. http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/new_hibernia_review/v010/10.4smith.html

Smith, J.P. 1991. "Cultural Preservation of the Sea Island Gullah: A Black Social Movement in the Post-Civil Rights Era." Rural Sociology 56(2):284-298.

Smith, L.C. 1997. "Introducing MIKS: A Methodology for the Utilization of Indigenous Knowledge." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 5(2):17-18.

Smith, P. 2004. "Indigenous Rights, Traditional Knowledge and Identity." Common Property Resource Digest 71:1-3. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3351

Smith, P., G. Scott, and G. Merke.l. 1995. "Aboriginal Forest Land Management Guidelines: A Community Approach." National Aboriginal Forestry Association, Golden Lake, ON.

Soeftestad, L.T. 1997. "Voices from Below and from Within: Institutions and Resource Management in Coastal Ghana." Presented at "Voices from the Commons," the sixth annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Berkeley, CA, June 5-8, 1996.

Sogbohossou, E., H.A. Akpona, and B. Sinsin. 2008. "Traditional Botanical Gardens as a Tool for Preserving Plant Diversity, Indigenous Knowledge and Last Threatened Relic Forest in Northern Benin." Presented at "Governing Shared Resources: Connecting Local Experience to Global Challenges," 12th Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Commons, Cheltenham, England, July 14-18, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/701

Sorensen, C. 1995. "Controls and Sanctions over the Use of Resources in the Kafue Flats of Zambia." Presented at "Reinventing the Commons," the fifth annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, May 24-28, 1995, Bodoe, Norway. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/973

Sponsel, L.E., ed. 1995. Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

Srinivas, K.R. 2007. "Intellectual Property Rights and Traditional Knowledge: The Case of Yoga." Economic and Political Weekly 42(27/28):2866-2870.

Stavi, I., G. Kressel, Y. Gutterman, and A.A. Degen. 2006. "Flock Use among Bedouin in 'Spontaneous' Settlements in the Negev Desert, Southern Israel." Nomadic Peoples 10(1):53-70.

Stead, S., T. Daw, and T. Gray. 2006. "Uses of Fishers' Knowledge in Fisheries Management." Anthropology in Action 13(3):77-86.

Stevenson, M.G. 1996. "Indigenous Knowledge in Environmental Assessment." Arctic 49(3):278-291. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2681

Stewart, O.C. 2002. Forgotten Fires, Native Americans and the Transient Wilderness. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Stoffle, B. and R. Stoffle. 2004. "At the Sea's Edge: Elders and Children in the Littorals of Barbados and the Bahamas." (Working Paper)

Stoll, P.-T. 2004. "Biotechnologische Innovationen: Konflikte und Rechtliche Ordnung." In European and International Regulation after the Nation State: Different Scopes and Multiple Levels. A. Héritier et al., eds. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft. (Common Goods: Law, Politics and Economics, no. 12).

Stranger, L.C., C. Twyman, and L.M. Gibbs. 2008. "Learning from the South: Common Challenges and Solutions for Small-Scale Farming." Geographical Journal 174(3):235-250.

Sturgess, N.H. and H. Wijaya. 1983. "Rice Harvesting: A View from the Theory of Common Property." Bulletin of Indonesian Studies 19(2):27-45.

Subba Rao, S. 2006. "Indigenous Knowledge Organization: An Indian Scenario." International Journal of Information Management 26(3):224-233.

Subedi, B.P. 1991. "Indigenous Management of Common Property Forest Resource in the Middle Hills of Nepal." (Working Paper)

Subedi, R. and U. Gautam. 2005. "Innovative Mechanism for Effective FMIS Communication." In Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems and Governance Alternatives: Proceedings of the Third International Seminar, Kathmandu, Nepal, September 9-10, 2004. P. Pradhan and U. Gautam, eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Farmer Managed Irrigation Systems Promotion Trust.

Sukula, S.K. 2006. "Developing Indigenous Knowledge Databases in India." Electronic Library 24(1):83-93.

Sumberg, J. and C. Okali. 1997. Farmers' Experiments: Creating Local Knowledge. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Sundar, N. 2002. "'Indigenise, Nationalise and Spiritualise': An Agenda for Education?" International Social Science Journal 54(173):373-383.

Sunder, M. 2007. "The Invention of Traditional Knowledge." Law and Contemporary Problems 70(2):97-124. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3522

Surendra, L., K. Narayan, and R. Hebbar. 2004. "Adivasis of India and Development Strategies: A Policy Working Paper in Progress." Humanist Institute for Co-operation with Developing Countries, Netherlands.

Svarstad, H. 1995. "Tropical Genes for Sale: Who Benefits?" Presented at "Reinventing the Commons," the fifth annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, May 24-28, 1995, Bodoe, Norway. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5599

Sveiby, K.-E. 2009. "Aboriginal Principles for Sustainable Development as Told in Traditional Law Stories." Sustainable Development 17(6):341-356.

Swiderska, K. 2009. "Protecting Traditional Knowledge from the Grassroots Up." International Institute for Environment and Development, London. (IIED Briefing). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6268

Swiderska, K. 2006. "Banishing the Biopirates: A New Approach to Protecting Traditional Knowledge." International Institute for Environment and Development, London. (Gatekeeper, no. 129). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5948

Taita, P. 1997. "Flora and Vegetation Study of 'Mare Aux Hippopotames' Biosphere Reserve (Western Burkina Faso)." (Working Paper)

Tamang, D., G.J. Gill, and G.B. Thapa, eds. 1993. Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Taylor, J.J. 2007. "Rendering the Land Visible." Cultural Survival Quarterly 31(4):10-15.

Tehan, M. 1996. "To Be or Not to Be (Property): Anglo-Australian Law and the Search for Protection of Indigenous Cultural Heritage." University of Tasmania Law Review 15(2)

Tejwani, K.G. 1997. "Indigenous Knowledge in Soil, Water and Forest Management." In Local Knowledge of Forests and Forest Uses Among Tribal Communities in India: Proceedings of an International Seminar Jointly Organized by the Chair of Forest Policy and Forest Economics, ETH Zurich, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and Max Mueller Bhavan, New Delhi. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. Zurich: Departement Wald- und Holzforschung, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. (Forstwissenschaftliche Beiträge der Professur Forstpolitik und Forstökonomie 19).

Thapa, G.B. 1993. "Workshop on Indigenous Management of Agriculture and Natural Resources." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang et al., eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Thapa, M.B. 1993. "Indigenous Pasture Management Systems in High Altitude Nepal: A Review." In Indigenous Management of Natural Resources in Nepal. D. Tamang et al., eds. Kathmandu, Nepal: Winrock International.

Thorpe, K. 2005. "Indigenous Knowledge and the Archives." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):189-194.

Thorpe, K. 2001. "Indigenous Records: How Far Have We Come in Bringing the History Back Home?" Archives and Manuscripts 29(2):10-31.

Thrupp, L.A. 1989. "Legitimizing Local Knowledge: From Displacement to Empowerment for Third World People." Agriculture and Human Values 6:13-24.

Tipa, G. and K. Nelson. 2008. "Introducing Cultural Opportunities: A Framework for Incorporating Cultural Perspectives in Contemporary Resource Management." Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning 10(4):313-337.

Titilola, S.O. et al. 1989. "Changing Values of Nigerian Agricultural Scientists and Government Officials Towards Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren et al., eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Tobin, B. and E. Taylor. 2009. "Across the Great Divide: A Case Study of Complementarity and Conflict Between Customary Law and TK Protection Legislation in Peru." Peruvian Society for Environmental Law, Lima. (Initiative for the Prevention of Biopiracy, Year IV, no. 11). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6132

Togtokh, C. 2008. "Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Pastoral Communities of Mongolia's Central Mountainous Region." IHDP Update 2:53-58. http://www.ihdp.unu.edu/file/IHDP+Updates/IHDP_Update_2008_2

Toledo, V.M., ed. 1996. Etnoecológica, vol. 3, no. 4-5 (August 1996). Mexico City: Centro de Ecológico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.

Toledo, V.M. 1991. "Patzcuaro's Lesson: Nature, Production, and Culture in an Indigenous Region of Mexico." In Biodiversity: Culture, Conservation, and Ecodevelopment. M.L. Oldfield and J.B. Alcorn, eds. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Topatimasang, R. 2005. "Mapping as a Tool for Community Organizing against Power: A Moluccas Experience." In Communities and Conservation: Histories and Politics of Community-Based Natural Resource Management. J. P. Brosius et al., eds. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira. (Globalization and the Environment, no. 3).

Torres, H. et al. 1993. "Traditional Uses of Native Shrubs in the South of Puno." Rural Development Forestry Network, Overseas Development Institute, London. (Network Paper 16e). http://www.odi.org.uk/networks/rdfn/rdfn-16e-ii.pdf

Townley, C. 2002. "Intellectual Property and Indigenous Knowledge." Philosophy & Public Policy Quarterly 22(4):21-26.

Townsend, W.R. 2000. "Holding on to the Land: The Long Journey of the Sirionó Indians of Eastern Lowland Bolivia." In Indigenous Peoples and Conservation Organizations: Experiences in Collaboration. R. Weber et al., eds. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.

Treseder, L. and J. Honda-McNeil. 1999. "The Evolution and Status of Wildlife Co-Management in Canada." In Northern Eden: Community-Based Wildlife Management in Canada. L. Treseder et al., eds. Edmonton, Canada: Canadian Circumpolar Institute. (Evaluating Eden Series, no. 2).

Trosper, R. 2009. Resilience, Reciprocity and Ecological Economics: Northwest Coast Sustainability. New York: Routledge. (Routledge Studies in Ecological Economics).

Tuck-Po, L. 2005. "The Meanings of Trees: Forest and Identity for the Batek of Pahang, Malaysia." The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 6(3):249-261.

Turbay, S. 2004. "Folklore and Popular Conceptions Regarding the Fauna of a Wetland Area on the Caribbean Coast of Colombia." Agriculture and Human Values 21(2-3):105-110.

Turnbull, D. 2009. "Futures for Indigenous Knowledges." Futures 41(1):1-5.

Turner, N.J. 2001. "'Keeping It Living': Applications and Relevance of Traditional Plant Management in British Columbia to Sustainable Harvesting of Non-Timber Forest Products." In Forest Communities in the Third millennium: Linking Research, Business, and Policy toward a Sustainable Non-timber Forest Product Sector. I. Davidson-Hunt et al., eds. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station.

Turner, N.J. and F. Berkes. 2006. "Coming to Understanding: Developing Conservation through Incremental Learning in the Pacific Northwest." Human Ecology 34:495-513. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/1600

Uberhuaga, P. and P. Turner. 1995. "Indigenous Knowledge and Forest Condition: Exploring the Interplay of Local and External Forces; A Research Design." Presented at the Spring Mini-Conference, Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

van der Ploeg, J.D. 1998. "Peasants and Power." In Searching for Equity: Conceptions of Justice and Equity in Peasant Irrigation. R. Boelens and G. Dávila, eds. Assen, Netherlands: Van Gorcum.

Van Dijk, J.A. and M.H. Ahmed. 1993. "Opportunities for Expanding Water Harvesting in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of the Teras of Kassala." International Institute for Environment and Development, London, England. (Gatekeeper Series, no. 40).

van Dissel, S.C. and J. de Graaff. 1998. "Differences between Farmers and Scientists in the Perception of Soil Erosion: A South African Case Study." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 6(3):8-9.

Van Dusseldorp, D. and L. Box. 1993. "Local and Scientific Knowledge: Developing a Dialogue." In Cultivating Knowledge: Genetic Diversity, Farmer Experimentation and Crop Research. W. de Boef et al., eds. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

van Griethuysen, P. and F. Nuoffer. 2005. "Towards an Institutional Analysis of Socially Responsible Conservation." The World Conservation Union, Geneva, Switzerland. Presented at the '3rd IUCN World Conservation Congress', Bangkok, Thailand, 17-25 November 2004.

Van Oosterhout, S. 1993. "Sorghum Genetic Resources of Small-scale Farmers in Zimbabwe." In Cultivating Knowledge: Genetic Diversity, Farmer Experimentation and Crop Research. W. de Boef et al., eds. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Van Overwalle, G. 2005. "Protecting and Sharing Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge: Holder and User Tools." Ecological Economics 53(4):585-607.

Vanek, E. 1989. "Enhancing Environmental Resource Management in Developing Nations through Improved Attitudes Towards Indigenous Knowledge Systems: The Case of the World Bank." In Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development. D.M. Warren et al., eds. Ames, IA: Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, No. 11).

Vasan, S. 2000. "Natural Resource Management and the Role of Local Knowledge in the Western Himalayas." In Man in the Forest. K. Seeland and F. Schmithüsen, eds. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. (Man and Forest Series, no. 1).

Veitayaki, J. 2002. "Taking Advantage of Indigenous Knowledge: The Fiji Case." International Social Science Journal 54(173):395-401.

Ventocilla, J., H. Herrera, and V. Nunez. 1995. Plants and Animals in the Life of the Kuna. H. Roeder, ed. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Verger, P.F. 1995. Ewe: The Use of Plants in Yoruba Society. Rio de Janeiro: Odebrecht.

Verlinden, A. and A.S. Kruger. 2007. "Changing Grazing Systems in Central North Namibia." Land Degradation and Development 18(2):179-197.

Verma, S. 2007. "IWRM Challenges in Developing Countries: Lessons from India and Elsewhere." International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. (Water Policy Briefing, no. 24). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4681

Verma, S. 2007. "Rethinking Tribal Development: Water Management Strategies for Revitalizing Tribal Agriculture in Central India." International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka. (Water Policy Briefing, no. 27). http://hdl.handle.net/10535/4673

Verran, H. et al. 2007. "Designing Digital Knowledge Management Tools with Aboriginal Australians." Digital Creativity 18(3):129-142.

Villiers, A.K. 1996. "Quantifying Indigenous Knowledge: A Rapid Method for Assessing Crop Performance Without Field Trials." Overseas Development Institute, London, Agricultural Research and Extension Network (AGREN), London. (Network Paper, no. 66).

Vivekanandan, V. 1999. "A Little Help from South India." Samudra Report 22:3-9. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3429

von Liebenstein, G. and A. van Marrewijk. 1998. "Indigenous Knowledge: The Proof is in the Eating of the Pudding." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 6(3):12-13.

Wachsmann, K. 1970. "Ethnomusicology in Africa." In The African Experience: Volume 1: Essays. J.N. Paden and E.W. Soja, eds. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Walker, P.J.C. 1995. "Indigenous Knowledge and Famine Relief in the Horn of Africa." In The Cultural Dimension of Development: Indigenous Knowledge Systems. D.M. Warren et al., eds. London: Intermediate Technology. (IT Studies in Indigenous Knowledge and Development).

Wall, D. 1992. "Thoughts on the Theory of Community and Distance Education: The Significance for Maintenance and Sustainability of Development Programs." In Distance Education and Sustainable Community Development: Selected Articles from a Conference on Distance Education and Sustainable Community Development, Canadian Circumpolar Institute, December 1990. D. Wall and M. Owen, eds. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta.

Wallace, H. 2009. "Mixing Metaphors: Differences in the Language and Understanding of Development Policy in the Pacific Islands." Development 52(4):525-530.

Walle, A.H. 2009. "Pro-Choice." Cultural Survival Quarterly 33(1):22-31. http://www.culturalsurvival.org/ourpublications/csq/article/pro-choice

Wallis, R.J. 2009. "Book Review: Do Glaciers Listen? Local Knowledge, Colonial Encounters and Social Imagination." Time and Mind 2(1):93-97.

Walljasper, J. 2008. "Reclaiming Barren Lands, Promoting Sustainable Agriculture with Indigenous Knowledge." (Working Paper) On the Commons. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5990

Walter, P. 2009. "Local Knowledge and Adult Learning in Environmental Adult Education: Community Based Ecotourism in Southern Thailand." International Journal of Lifelong Education 28(4):513-532.

Wane, N.N. 2005. "African Indigenous Knowledge: Claiming, Writing, Storing, and Sharing the Discourse." Journal of Thought 40(2):27-46.

Wang, K., L.T. Hong, and V.R. Rao. 2002. "Diversity and Indigenous Utilization of Bamboo in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, Southwest China." Journal of Bamboo and Rattan 1(3):263-273.

Warren, D.M., L.J. Slikkerveer, and S.O. Titilola. 1989. "Indigenous Knowledge Systems: Implications for Agriculture and International Development." Technology and Social Change Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA. (Studies in Technology and Social Change, 11).

Warren, D.M. 1992. "Indigenous Knowledge, Biodiversity Conservation and Development." Keynote Address presented at the International Conference on Conservation of Biodiversity in Africa: Local Initiatives and Institutional Roles, 30 August-3 September 1992, Nairobi, Kenya. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2334

Warren, D.M. and J. Pinkston. 1998. "Indigenous African Resource Management of a Tropical Rainforest Ecosystem: A Case Study of the Yoruba of Ara, Nigeria." In Linking Social and Ecological Systems: Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. F. Berkes and C. Folke, eds. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Waters-Bayer, A., F. Abay, and M. Haile. 1999. "Local Research and Higher Action." Forests, Tress and People Newsletter 39:7-9.

Watkins, C. 2002. "Cultural Ecological Philosophies and Perceptions of the Forest as a Finite Resource: An Evolutionary Analysis." (Working Paper)

Watson, A., L. Alessa, and B. Glaspell. 2003. "The Relationship between Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Evolving Cultures, and Wilderness Protection in the Circumpolar North." Conservation Ecology 8(1) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/7614

Wavey, R. 1993. "International Workshop on Indigenous Knowledge and Community-based Resource Management: Keynote Address." In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases. Ottawa: Center for Traditional Knowledge, Canadian Museum of Nature.

Weatherhead, E., S. Gearheard, and R.G. Barry. 2010. "Changes in Weather Persistence: Insight from Inuit Knowledge." Global Environmental Change 20(3):523-528.

Weigel, J.-Y. 1996. "Grandes manoeuvres autour des ressources naturelles renouvelables: Présentation." In Les ressources naturelles renouvelables; Pratiques et representations. J.-Y. Weigel, ed. Paris: Orstom. (Cahiers des Sciences Humaines, vol. 32, no. 1).

Weinstein, M.S. 1998. "Sharing Information or Captured Heritage: Access to Community Geographic Knowledge and the State's Responsibility to Protect Aboriginal Rights in British Columbia." Presented at "Crossing Boundaries," the seventh annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 10-14, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/805

Wells, G. 2011. "Native American Forestry Combines Traditional Wisdom with Modern Science." The Solutions Journal 2(6) http://www.thesolutionsjournal.com/node/1012

Westman, P. 1990. "Trees and Shrubs of Babati District, Tanzania: A Checklist." Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, International Rural Development Centre, Uppsala, Sweden. (Forests, Trees and People, Working Paper, no. 137).

Westra, L. 2008. Environmental Justice and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

Wezel, A. and A.M. Lykke. 2006. "Woody Vegetation Change in Sahelian West Africa: Evidence from Local Knowledge." Environment, Development and Sustainability 8(4):553-567.

Wheeler, P. 1988. "State and Indigenous Fisheries Management: The Alaska Context." In Traditional Knowledge and Renewable Resource Management. M.M.R. Freeman and L.N. Carbyn, eds. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta. (Occasional Publication, no. 23).

Whiteman, G. 1998. "Tallymen Talking: 'On Work in the Land' -- The Cree Tallyman as an Ecologically Embedded Business Manager." Presented at "Crossing Boundaries," the seventh annual conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 10-14, 1998. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/679

Willet, F. 1970. "Visual Art in Africa." In The African Experience: Volume 1: Essays. J.N. Paden and E.W. Soja, eds. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Williams, N.M., and G. Baines, eds. 1993. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Wisdom for Sustainable Development. Canberra: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University.

Williams, S.B., A.-M. Hochet-Kibongui, and C.E. Nauen. 2005. "Gender, Fisheries and Aquaculture: Social Capital and Knowledge for the Transition Towards Sustainable Use of Aquatic Ecosystems." European Commission, Brussels, Belgium. (ACP-EU Fisheries Research Report Series, no. 16).

Wills-Johnson, N. 2010. "Lessons for Sustainability from the World's Most Sustainable Culture." Environment, Development and Sustainability 12(6):909-925.

Wilshusen, P.R., L. Raleigh, and V.A. Russell. 2002. "By, For and Of the People: The Development of Two Community-Managed Protected Areas in Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Sustainable Forestry 15(1):113-126.

Wilson, A. 2005. "Accessing State Records on Indigenous People." Australian Academic and Research Libraries 36(2):181-188.

Wilson, E. 2007. "Indigenousness and the Mobility of Knowledge: Promoting Canadian Governance Practices in the Russian North." Sibirica 6(2):26-50.

Winarto, Y.T. 1994. "Encouraging Knowledge Exchange: Integrated Pest Management in Indonesia." In Beyond Farmer First. I. Scoones and J. Thompson, eds. London: International Technologies Publications.

Winkler-Prins, A. and N. Barrera-Bassols. 2004. "Latin American Ethnopedology: A Vision of its Past, Present, and Future." Agriculture and Human Values 21(2-3):139-156.

Wisner, B. 2010. "Climate Change and Cultural Diversity." International Social Science Journal 61(199):131-140.

Witt, J. and D. Wiles. 2006. "Nature in Asian Indigenous Traditions: A Survey Article." World Views: Environment, Culture, Religion 10(1):40-68.

Wohling, M. 2009. "The Problem of Scale in Indigenous Knowledge: A Perspective from Northern Australia." Ecology and Society 14(1) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/2603

Wonders, W.C, ed. 1988. Knowing the North: Reflections on Tradition, Technology, and Science. Edmonton, Alberta: Boreal Institute for Northern Studies. (Occasional Publication Series, no. 21).

Wood, R. and S. Garnett. 2009. "An Assessment of Environmental Sustainability in Northern Australia Using the Ecological Footprint and with Reference to Indigenous Populations and Remoteness." Ecological Economics 68(5):1375-1384.

Woodley, Ellen. 1991.  "Indigenous Ecological Knowledge Systems and Development." Agriculture and Human Values 8(1-2):173-178.
IUB Wells Library

Woodrom Rudrud, R. 2010. "Forbidden Sea Turtles: Traditional Laws Pertaining to Sea Turtle Consumption in Polynesia (Including the Polynesian Outliers)." Conservation and Society 8(1):84-97. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/6035

Woodward, E., S. Jackson, M. Finn, and P.M. McTaggart. 2012. "Utilising Indigenous Seasonal Knowledge to Understand Aquatic Resource Use and Inform Water Resource Management in Northern Australia." Ecological Management and Restoration 13(1):58-64.

Worede, M. and H. Mekbib. 1993. "Linking Genetic Resource Conservation to Farmers in Ethiopia." In Cultivating Knowledge: Genetic Diversity, Farmer Experimentation and Crop Research. W. de Boef et al., eds. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Wright, D.A. and A.D. Leighton. 2002. "Forest Utilization in Oaxaca: The Comparison of Two Communities." Journal of Sustainable Forestry 15(1):67-79.

Wu, N. 1998. "Indigenous Knowledge of Yak Breeding and Cross-Breeding among Nomads in Western Sichuan, China." Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 6(1):7-9.

Wyckoff-Baird, B. 2000. "Environmental Governance: Lessons from the Ju/'hoan Bushmen in Northeastern Namibia." In Indigenous Peoples and Conservation Organizations: Experiences in Collaboration. R. Weber et al., eds. Washington, DC: World Wildlife Fund.

Wynberg, R., D. Schroeder, and R. Chennells, eds. 2009. Indigenous Peoples, Consent and Benefit Sharing: Lessons from the San-Hoodia Case. New York: Springer.

Xu, J. et. al. 2005. "Integrating Sacred Knowledge for Conservation: Cultures and Landscapes in Southwest China." Ecology and Society 10(2) http://hdl.handle.net/10535/3112

Young, D.E., ed. 1988. Health Care Issues in the Canadian North. Edmonton, Alberta: Boreal Institute for Northern Studies. (Occassional Publication Series, no. 6).

Zambia Land Alliance and International Land Coalition. 2005. "Communities' Views on the Land Policy." Zambia Land Alliance, Lusaka, Zambia; International Land Coalition, Rome. http://hdl.handle.net/10535/5482

Zerbe, N. 2005. "Biodiversity, Ownership, and Indigenous Knowledge: Exploring Legal Frameworks for Community, Farmers, and Intellectual Property Rights in Africa." Ecological Economics 53(4):493-506.

Zhaolu, W. and O. Xiaokun. 1995. "The Xishuangbanna Biosphere Reserve (China): A Tropical Land of Natural and Cultural Diversity." South-South Cooperation Programme on Environmentally Sound Socio-Economic Development in the Humid Tropics, Paris. (Working Paper Series no. 2).

Ziervogel, G., S. Bharwani, and T.E. Downing. 2006. "Adapting to Climate Variability: Pumpkins, People and Policy." Natural Resources Forum 30(4):294-305.

Zufferey, F.S. 1986. "A Study of Local Institutions and Resource Management Inquiry in Eastern Central District." Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. (LTC Research Paper no. 88).