Faery, Rebecca Blevins. "Teachers and Writers: The Faculty Writing Workshop and Writing Across the Curriculum." Writing Program Administration 17.1-17.2 (1993): 31-42.

Explains the importance of holding faculty writing workshops as part of WAC. Some of benefits include interdisciplinary interaction between faculty; discussion of the different kinds of writing expected in different disciplines; redefinition of what it means to "teach writing" as moving beyond grammar to rhetoric; and exploration of the role of scholar as writer.

Farris, Christine and Raymond Smith. "Writing-Intensive Courses: Tools for Curricular Change." Writing Across the Curriculum: A Guide to Developing Programs. Ed. Susan H. McLeod and Margot Soven. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. 1992. 71-86.

Writing-intensive courses help faculty to engage students' intellectual abilities beyond those required of the lecture/test/lecture course pattern commonly found in large research institutions. For these courses to be successful, they should be under the faculty member's ownership, but centrally coordinated by a WAC program that acts as in an administrative and advisory capacity. The WAC program can help establish criteria for writing-intensive courses, consult in the design of the courses, give incentives for teaching the courses, and provide grading support. In return, the cooperation between WAC program and faculty helps the WAC personnel in keeping the program vital and responsive to changing needs.

Farmer, D. W. "Achieving Excellence Through Change" and "Curriculum as anIntegrated Plan of Learning-I." Enhancing StudentLearning: Emphasizing Essential Competencies in Academic Programs. WilkesBarre, PA: King's College, 1988. 35-109.

Describes the outcomes-oriented core curriculumimplemented at King's College. Implementation of corecurriculum modeled on WAC program, with workshops, cross-dsciplinary facultycommittees, etc. Core curriculum includes transferable skills of liberallearning (critical thinking, creative thinking and problem solving, effectivewriting and oral communication, quantitative analysis, etc.) and core coursesin civilization, foreign cultures, social science, humanities, and naturalscience.

Fish, Stanley. "Being Interdisciplinary Is So Very Hard toDo." Profession (1989): 15-22.

Argues that interdisciplinarity is an outgrowth of "left cultural theory"--specificallythe idea that disciplines are distinct nonoverlapping entities. Interdisciplinarity seeks to eliminate the boundaries between disciplines. But this is impossible, Fish argues-- interdisciplinarity won't eliminate theboundaries; it will only redraw them. Either one discipline will annex another,or one discipline borrows methods or theories from another, or a new discipline is created, which takes as its subject the study of disciplines.

Freisinger, Randall R. "Cross-Disciplinary Writing Workshops: Theory andPractice." College English 42.2 (Oct. 1980): 154-166.

Begins withBritton's distinction between the poetic, expressive, and transactionalfunctions of language, focusing on the expressive and transactional functions. Students need experience with both functions of writing to become good writers. But most educational uses of writing are only transactional, not expressive. The lack of emphasis on expressive writing is related to the poor cognitive development of high school and college students. To get faculty to understand the importance of expressive writing, use a WAC workshop.

Fulwiler, Toby. "The Friends and Enemies of Writing Across theCurriculum" Presented at Conference of College Composition andCommunication,March 22, 1990. 1-6.

Disciplinarity, epistemology, mission, orthodoxy, and inertia--all conspire against the underlying principles of WAC. Because it deals with the basics of the composing process, and because teaching that process undergoes tremendous change, WAC is innovative by nature. It challenges passive learning, routine training, and rigid disciplinarity. Thus, the real friend to WAC is its ability to get into the nature of the academic process through its innovative practices.

Fulwiler, Toby. "How Well Does Writing Across the CurriculumWork?" College English 46.2 (Feb.. 1984): 113-125.

Discusses the author's experiences with WAC programs at several universities. Discusses what didn't work: use of "expressive" to mean journals; resistance of some faculty, or problematic disciplines (philosophy, English, math); how to incorporate writing into large classes; unwillingness to use peer review;where WAC works (and with whom) and where it doesn't. Also discusses unexpected benefits.

Fulwiler, Toby. "Journals Across the Disciplines." English Journal 69.9 (Dec.1980): 14-19.

Argues for the use of journals, as a form of expressive writing, in all disciplines. Suggests that expressive writing is not valued, but should be as a way of increasing the amount of writing that students do and exposing them to different forms of writing. Describes academic journals and personal journals.

Fulwiler, Toby. "Showing, Not Telling, at a Writing Workshop." College English 43.1 (January 1981): 55-63.

Fulwiler discusses one strategy for getting professors in other disciplines besides English to incorporate writing into their classrooms: an off-campus workshop. In this workshop, the leader could "show" the other teachers the value of writing by having them do a variety of writing tasks rather than just "tell" them. Fulwiler describes 5 portions of a workshop: exploring, journal writing, theory, responding to writing, and composing.

Fulwiler, Toby. "Writing Across the Curriculum at Michigan Tech." WPA: Writing Program Administration 4.3 (Spring 1981): 15-20.

Fulwiler argues that students will value the importance of writing if it's valued in all the disciplines outside English. He then describes the WAC program at Michigan Tech by outlining the program requirements and offering a detailed description of the faculty workshops.

In addition, there is a "Comment" by Ann Raines that follows the article.

Geisler, Cheryl. "Literacy and Expertise in the Academy." Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 1.1 (1994): 35-57.

The difference between novice and expert lies in the ways in which they negotiate different "problem spaces," one which is used to explore domain content of a field and the other which is used to consider a field's rhetorical dimensions. These spaces are collapsed in the general education process, so that students see texts as meaning what they say, without considering the rhetorical dimensions of knowledge representation. The move across the "Great Divide" from lay knowledge to expertise comes with the realization of the interplay between the domain content and rhetorical processes within a field. An understanding of the institutional processes behind the acquisition of expertise will help to make real educational reform possible.

Glick, Milton D. "Writing Across the Curriculum: A Dean's Perspective." WPA: Writing Program Administration 11.3 (Spring 1988): 53-58.

Glick discusses the implementation of WAC at University of Missouri-Columbia. He explains the requirements of this program and discusses faculty response to the writing workshops.

Greenberg, Karen L. "Assessing Writing: Theory and Practice." Assessing Students' Learning. New Directions forTeaching and Learning, no. 34. Ed. J.H. McMillan. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988. 47-59.

Describes methods for assessing writing in any discipline: holistic scoring, evaluative grid, portfolios, peer review and self-evaluation. Includes examples of all methods except portfolio evaluation.

Greig, Wm. Smith. "They Write, Therefore They Think?" Vassar Quarterly (Summer 1990): 47-59.

Briefly describes the "Freshman Course Program" atVassar. These courses are at the introductory level and required of freshman. They are taught in a variety of departments, and all include a writing component. Argues that Vassar freshmen usually already know the mechanics of writing; these courses get them to think while writing.

Griffin, C.W. "Programs for Writing Across the Curriculum: AReport." College Composition and Communication 36.4 (Dec. 1985): 398-403.

Summarizes the results of a survey sent to 400 American colleges asking them to describe their WAC program. The origins and organization of the WACprograms differ, but all have several components in common: a writing center, faculty workshops, and curricular changes (creating new writing courses or incorporating writing into current courses; creating new requirements). TheWAC programs also share some assumptions: about the importance of writing in all disciplines, that writing is learning, and that all departments need to teach writing.

Hagemann, Julie. "Writing Centers as Sites for Writing Transfer Research."Writing Center Perspectives. Ed. Stay, Byron L., Christina Murphy, Eric H. Hobson. Emmitsburg, MD: NWCA Press, 1995. 120-131.

To understand how undergraduates learn to write, composition specialists need to focus research on interdisciplinary writing transfer. The writing center provides an ideal site for this research because students will come to the center for a variety of classes. The tutorial records of an international student who took five different courses from different disciplines during the same semester provides an illustration of the different types of demands made by each discipline, and offers insight into the student's reactions. As writing-across-the-curriculum gains more ground, more students will be faced with juggling the demands of different discourses. Writing centers can help in understanding how students learn to do so.

Hamilton-Weiler, Sharon. "Writing as a Thought Process: Site of a Struggle." Journal of Teaching Writing 7 (1988): 167-179.

Grounded in the context of the British educational system, in which students study subjects in-depth over a period of 2-3 years before sitting a series of exams assessed by an external examiner, Hamilton-Weiler describes the various ways in which students and teachers in A-level coursework (equivalent to lower-level U.S. college courses) are forced to grapple with the conflict between individual response and authorized discourse. Through a series of anecdotes by students and teachers, Hamilton-Weiler shows that teachers are aware that examinations do allow for individual response and insight, but that examiners assume that such responses will be within the conventions of the specific discipline. As a result, students may feel frustrated because their responses, while commonsensical, are judged to be inadequate because they fail to bring the specific semantic and syntactic conventions to their work. A goal of the teachers, therefore, is to enable students to understand that the discipline-specific conventions can act as heuristics, allowing students to engage more fully with the material. Another result is that students may feel as if their own interests in a topic are immaterial, because they should study for the types of questions asked in the examination itself. Hamilton-Weiler concludes with an example from a biology class in which students were given tasks that asked for their intuitive responses, but then guided the students to transforming those responses into the discourse of the discipline, therefore using the tension between choice and convention as a dialectic.>

Harris, Muriel. "The Writing Center and Tutoring in WAC Programs." Writing Across the Curriculum: A Guide to Developing Programs. Eds. McLeod, Susan H. and Margot Soven. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1992. 154-174.

Argues that WAC instruction becomes more effective if it utilizes the resources of the Writing Center. The Writing Center can help facilitate WAC projects by coordinating projects involving various interests in the university constituency. Harris gives examples of how different Writing Centers help contribute to WAC goals, and offers suggestions on how to set up an effective Writing Center for WAC tutoring.

Herrington, Anne J. "Writing to Learn: Writing Across the Disciplines." College English 43.4 (Apr. 1981): 379-387.

Describes a project designed to train faculty from a variety of disciplines to integrate writing into their courses. Summarizes successful strategies: link writing assignments to course objectives, hopefully ones that go beyond recall of facts; sequence assignments and make a variety of assignments; carefully design assignment in advance; use evaluation that helps students learn from the writing.

Holt, Dennis. "Holistic Scoring in Many Disciplines." College Teaching 41.2 (1993): 71-74.

Outlines two methods used in holistic scoring: determining general standards for an assignment and making comparative judgements about quality. Explains adaptations for assessing writing in particular circumstances and across disciplines.

Huot, Brian. "Finding Out What They Are Writing: A Method, Rationale and Sample for Writing-Across-the-Curriculum Research." WPA: Writing Program Adminstration 15.3 (Spring 1992): 31-40.

Huot proposes a systematic means for talking to faculty in disciplines outside English to find out what students write for other course, what purpose these writing assignments have, and what faculty expectations are. The article describes a methodology based on "focused dialogues," or group interviews, with 4-6 faculty members from a department/school. Huot gives a detailed example of the results of his interviews with the School of Social Work.

Jeske, Jeff. "Creating the Institution-Specific Writing Guide." WPA: Writing Program Administration 16.3 (Spring 1993): 27-36.

Describes the creation and table of contents of a writing guide created for the author's college. Also mentions the benefits of creating such a guide (offers important information and resources, promotes a common language about writing, articulates common standards, encourages collaboration among departments.).

Jones, Robert and Joseph J. Comprone. "Where Do We Go Next in Writing Across the Curriculum?" College Composition and Communication 44.1 (February 1993): 59-68.

Jones and Comprone define and suggest solutions to the major problems facing WAC programs. They claim that one reason that WAC is not permanent is its failure to coordinate the administrative, pedagogical, and research aspects of programs. Their solutions include: centrally administering the program; linking faculty, grad students, and discipline-specific research across the curriculum with program development in WAC; and conducting interdisciplinary research into writing conventions and processes. In addition, Jones and Comprone describe a collaboration between engineering and humanities faculty at Michigan Technological University.

Kiniry, Malcolm and Ellen Strenski. "Sequencing Expository Writing: A Recursive Approach." College Composition and Communication 36.2 (May 1985): 191-202.

Kiniry and Strenski draw on their experience in UCLA's writing program to describe a new approach to sequencing assignments in composition courses. They describe 8 typical tasks that undergraduate writers do in all their courses, in a developmental sequence requiring more complex skills: listing, definition, seriation, classification, summary, comparison/contrast, analysis, and academic argument. Each successive skills requires repeating and reinforcing the earlier skills. In addition, they provide sample assignments which would require varying levels of each skill.

Kinneavy, James L. "Writing Across the Curriculum." Association of Departments of English Bulletin 76 (Winter 1983): 13-20.

Describes advantages and disadvantages of two major approaches to WAC: the single subject approach, in which students write in and for specific disciplines, and the centralized writing department approach, in which teachers (with backgrounds in rhetoric) teach general principles of argument, explanation, etc. that transcend disciplines and enable writers to write for general audiences. Argues for programs that offer aspects of both models.

Kirsch, Gesa. "Writing Across the Curriculum: The Program at Third College, University of California, San Diego." WPA: Writing Program Administration 12.1-2 (Fall/Winter 1988): 47-55.

Describes the WAC program at UCSD. Operates at lower-division level. Kirsch describes the types of courses offered, assignments, and standards. Summarizes students' evaluation of program and administrative issues, such as job descriptions of Teaching Assistants and Coordinator, and the role of faculty.

Knoblauch, C.H., and Lil Brannon. "Writing as Learning Through the Curriculum." College English 45.5 (Sept. 1983): 465-474.

Argues that WAC that emphasizes correct English, or that forces students to write only in prefabricated forms, ignores the idea of writing to learn. Points out discrepancies between views of knowing as active and actual teaching practices. Argues for the use of expressive rather than transactional writing, to avoid burden of correction and restriction on form and content of writing. Discusses value of journal assignments.

Lamb, Catherine E. "Initiating Change as a Writing Consultant." College English 45.3 (March 1983): 296-300.

Describes the author's experience as a consultant to faculty using writing in their courses. Mentions the types of services she has done and the feedback she has received.

Law, Joe. "Evaluating Writing Across the Curriculum."Composition Studies 26.1 (1998): 73-82.

Reviews William C. Rice, Public Discourse and Academic Inquiry (Garland Studies in American Popular History and Culture. New York: Garland, 1996); Barbara E. Walvoord, Linda Lawrence Hunt, H. Fil Dowling, Jr., and Joan D. McMahon, In the Long Run: A Study of Faculty in Three Writing-Across-the-Curriculum Programs. Urbana: NCTE, 1997; Kathleen Blake Yancey and Brian Huots, eds., Assessing Writing Across the Curriculum: Diverse Approaches and Practices. Perspectives on Writing: Theory, Research, Practice. Greenwich: ABlex, 1997. WAC assessment is often discussed from an insider's perspective, and both Walvoord et. al's and Yancey and Blake's text show this perspective with all of its inherent contradictions. Rice's book approaches WAC from an outsider's view.

Law, Joe. "Notes from Other Programs: Learning from Harvard." Writing Across the Curriculum 7 (January 1998): 2-3.

The 1992 Harvard Assessment Seminars report that students feel more engaged in courses for which writing is required. The responses from a survey of 365 undergraduates showed that most believe that writing should be emphasized during the junior and senior years, and that learning is most effective when writing is organized around a specific discipline. WAC programs need to take note of the Harvard findings.

Law, Joe. "Ongoing Writing Center Tutorials as Directed Studies: New Directions in Graduate Studies." no citation. Internal evidence points to this as part of a roundtable presentation.

Graduate student tutorials, especially those on a dissertation or thesis, are very similar to directed study in that the student often will meet with the same tutor over several sessions. By conceiving such tutorials as directed study, and perhaps by offering these sessions as directed study courses, writing centers may gain more allies from departments which might not otherwise consider the writing center as useful. Furthermore, such institutionalization of these types of tutorials may help improve the quality of graduate education.

Law, Joe. "Response to "Writing Center Theory and Practice" Session (Texas Association of Writing Centers, 2 Mar. 1990); or I'm Just a Postmodern Writing Center in a Modernist World." Texas Association of Writing Centers, 2 Mar. 1990. Presentation.

Responds to particular papers given at a roundtable session. Focuses upon how a writing center can "subvert the old order."

Law, Joe. "Serving Faculty and Writing Across the Curriculum." The Writing Center Resource Manual. National Writing Centers Association Press. no date.

This is section IV.4 - IV.10 of the Writing Center Resource Manual. Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) programs generally involve the writing center at some level, and thus will bring faculty into closer (and more frequent!) contact with the writing center. This section covers six key areas that should be negotiated in working with faculty. These areas are: 1) defining the relationship between the writing center and WAC; 2) shaping faculty attitudes and expectations concerning the writing center; 3) providing special training to faculty and students; 4) locating and training tutors to work with specific disciplines; 5) dealing with increased workload as a result of WAC; 6) locating WAC resources for both the writing center and WAC faculty.

Law, Joe. "Starting New: Using Assessment to Shape and Promote a WAC Program." conference paper. n.d. 9 pp.

Part of what appears to be a roundtable discussion. Gives an example of how Wright State University drew up criteria for WAC assessment based on WAC goals, as perceived by a committee of ten faculty members drawn from a variety of disciplines. These assessment guidelines fell into three phases. The first phase, gathering data, was designed to focus on student writing outcomes while making instructor participation easy. In the next phase, data used from the assessment would be given to focus groups drawn from various university constituencies. The final phase would involve adapting the WAC program in light of what the groups would suggest. The phases would be ongoing and overlapping. Opposition to the plan showed a need to address positivism within the WAC context.

Law, Joe. Writing Across the Curriculum at Wright State University. A Brief Guide for Faculty.Wright State University. 1997. 31pp.

An introduction to the Writing Across the Curriculum program at Wright State University. Aimed at faculty, the guide explains the underlying assumptions of a WAC program, states WAC program policies, gives suggestions about assignments and grading, and lists resources for WAC teachers and students.

Law, Joe and Christina Murphy. "Writing Centers and WAC Programs as Infostructures: Relocating Practice within Futurist Theories of Social Change."unpublished conference paper. np. nd. Internal evidence suggests 1998.

New technology will affect the ways in which various university structures operate. Traditionally, WAC programs and writing centers have been housed in concrete, physical structures and work one-to-one with individuals. In the early 90s, however, information technology made it possible for people to interact virtually instead of physically. As educational institutions take more advantage of this technology, new pedagogical techniques will be needed to address the new environment. WAC programs and writing centers may be more adaptable to the new conditions simply because these programs have had a history of adapting pedagogy to individuals.

Leki, Ilona. "Coping Strategies of ESL Students in Writing Tasks Across the Curriculum." Tesol Quarterly 29.2 (Summer 1995): 235-260.

This study follows 5 ESL students in their first semester at a U.S. university in a variety of courses across several disciplines to identify 10 strategies these students use to complete their writing assignments. The bulk of the article presents specific examples from the students' experiences to illustrate the strategies.

Maimon, Elaine P. "Collaborative Learning and Writing Across the Curriculum." WPA: Writing Program Administration 9.3 (Spring 1986): 9-15.

Maimon follows Bruffee's definition of learning as an interactive socializing process in which teachers introduce students to the "conversation of culture." She suggests that collaborative learning is part of WAC, if we define writing as a process of critical thinking rather than merely "grammar across the curriculum". Maimon suggests that WAC can transform the college into a "collegium" by using collaborative learning in different forms: among faculty members; as a classroom procedure to help instructors in all disciplines handle paper load; to help students internalize the concept of audience; to create a community through writing acknowledgements; and as a means for creating partnerships between colleges and school districts.

Maimon, Elaine P. "Writing Across the Curriculum: Past, Present, and Future." Teaching Writing in all Disciplines. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, no. 12. Ed. C. W. Griffin. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1982. 67-73.

Discusses the history of the WAC movement from the mid-1970's. Relates WAC to changes in composition theory: new emphasis on process and on writing as a mode of learning. WAC workshops promote the idea of collaborative learning.

Maimon, Elaine P. "Writing in all the Arts and Sciences: Getting Started and Gaining Momentum." WPA: Writing Program Administration 4.3 (Spring 1981): 9-13.

Maimon notes the importance of reminding scholars in all departments that writing is a mode of scholarship in every discipline, that all instructors are responsible for teaching apprentice students the conventions of their discipline, and that eventually all teachers are teachers of composition. She goes on to suggest that we should revise composition courses to focus on the process of writing -- invention, drafting, and rewriting -- and to use cross-disciplinary readings.

Marius, Richard. "Writing Across the Curriculum."How Writers Teach Writing. Ed. Nancy Kline. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992. 191-206.

Argues that to teach reasoning we should have students write papers that require them to show that they've thought about an issue. Points out that many students are not good readers, and that their prose is boring and incomprehensible. Author describes how he changed his teaching--adding more writing and covering less, scoring papers holistically-- to address these problems.

McCleary, William J. "A Case Approach for Teaching Academic Writing." College Composition and Communication 36.2 (1985): 203- 212.

Introduces the "academic case approach" to assignment design, which uses case studies in a variety of disciplines. In each case study, some facts are presented, rules given, and questions asked which demand interpretation or analysis. Presents a theory for why this works: it forces the student to use, and hence grapple with and learn, semantic concepts.Article presents a number of example assignments, and discusses how to construct such an assignment.

McLeod, Susan. "Defining Writing Across the Curriculum." WPA: Writing Program Administration 11.1-2 (Fall 1987): 19-24.

McLeod defines the philosophical bases for WAC programs and how they exist in different institutions. The two approaches are cognitive, which focues on writing as a mode of thinking and learning, and rhetorical, which focuses on the contextual and social constraints of writing. Cognitive approaches lead to using journals and lots of ungraded writing assignments in the classroom; the rhetorical approach makes extensive use of collaborative learning and peer review. These approaches need not be mutually exclusive; program may incorporate both emphases. The remainder of the article outlines some of the elements of a WAC. She describes three types of courses, and three faculty roles.

McLeod, Susan H. "Writing Across the Curriculum: The Second Stage, and Beyond." College Composition and Communication 40.3 (Oct. 1989): 337- 343.

Presents results of a survey of all WAC programs in the US. States that half of respondents' programs were more than 3 yrs old, hence "second stage." Highlights importance of continued funding and faculty interest. Discusses how to follow up on early workshops, and how to develop other strategies for supporting faculty. Also describes WAC's impact on curriculum reform and administrative structure.

McLeod, Susan H. and Margot Soven. "What Do You Need to Start -- and Sustain -- a Writing-Across-the-Curriculum Program?" WPA: Writing Program Adminstration 15.1-2 (Fall/Winter 1991): 25-33.

McLeod and Soven note that as WAC is becoming institutionalized, it is often initiated by university administration. They present a variety of items needed for a WAC program to succeed: time, a program coordinator, money to reward faculty participation in workshops, a writing lab or tutoring program to serve as a support system for students and faculty, and an administrative structure to curricular change happens and remains in place. In addition, McLeod and Soven provide several steps for setting up a WAC program.

Mohrwels, Lawrence C. "The Impact of Writing Assignments on Accounting Students' Writing Skills." Journal of Accounting Education 9 (1991): 309-325

This article describes how writing was incorporated into two upper-level accounting courses, and compares the improvement in student writing between students in the writing-intensive course and students in a non-writing course. Using two different types of assessments (multiple choice test of writing skills and holistic rating of essay quizzes) Students in the writing courses showed statistically significant improvement in their writing , while students in the non-writing courses showed no such improvement. The article describes how writing was incorporated into the courses, how writing consultants were used, and the significance of the research results. Appendices include examples of writing assignments, as well as the pre- and post-writing quizzes used to assess improvement.

Moore, Leslie E., and Linda H. Peterson. "Convention as Connection: Linking the Composition Course to the English and College Curriculum." College Composition and Communication 37.4 (Dec. 1986): 466-xxx.

Presents an approach to WAC, and a model for a freshman year composition course, that involves teaching students how to use conventions in various disciplines. Points out that convention assumes shared knowledge between reader and audience, between writer and other writers, between writer and literature. Argues that faculty in English can teach conventions of other disciplines. Article describes a course that uses these principles, drawing on expertise of other faculty in various disciplines, but taught by English department faculty.


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