Practice Test for Expert Level

10 Questions: Level of difficulty comparable to items in Certification Tests

A Practice Test is similar to a Certification Test, but with two exceptions:


Item 1

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

Reference 1

Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Original Source Material 2

A learning theory, therefore, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

Reference 2

Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

A learning theory is made up of "a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes" (Driscoll, 2000, p. 9). Because learning processes vary based on the readiness of learners, the nature of tasks, and the learning contexts, one sole learning theory cannot explain all phenomenon involved in learning.

References

Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

 


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Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The study demonstrated that the DGBL (Digital Game-Based Learning) approach was both more effective in promoting students’ knowledge of computer memory concepts and more motivational for students than the non-gaming approach.

Reference 1

Papastergiou, M. (2009). Digital game-based learning in high school computer science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation. Computers & Education, 52(1), 1-12.

Original Source Material 2

Place learning activities and academic content within the video game’s fictional and entertainment context, maintaining a balance between fun and learning.

Reference 2

Featherstone, G., Aston, H., & Houghton, E. (2013). Game-based learning: latest evidence and future directions. Slough: NFER.

Papastergiou (2009) revealed that “DGBL (Digital Game-Based Learning) approach was both more effective in promoting students’ knowledge of computer memory concepts and more motivational for students than the non-gaming approach”.  However to make an effective educational game, one needs to maintain balance between pedagogical requirements and fun-factors embedded in games (Featherstone, Aston, & Houghton, 2013).

Reference

Papastergiou, M. (2009). Digital game-based learning in high school computer science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation. Computers & Education, 52(1), 1-12.


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Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The study demonstrated that the DGBL (Digital Game-Based Learning) approach was both more effective in promoting students’ knowledge of computer memory concepts and more motivational for students than the non-gaming approach.

Reference 1

Papastergiou, M. (2009). Digital game-based learning in high school computer science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation. Computers & Education, 52(1), 1-12.

Original Source Material 2

... the designs need to balance pedagogical requirements with an elusive fun-factor, with the second aspect being an issue even in the high-profile entertainment industry.

Reference 2

Moreno-Ger, P., Burgos, D., Martínez-Ortiz, I., Sierra, J. L., & Fernández-Manjón, B. (2008). Educational game design for online education. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(6), 2530-2540.

Papastergiou (2009) revealed that “DGBL (Digital Game-Based Learning) approach was both more effective in promoting students’ knowledge of computer memory concepts” (p.10).  The DGBL approach is superior to the non-gaming approach in terms of motivating students (Papastergiou, 2009). However the game designs need to balance pedagogical requirements with an elusive fun-factor, with the second aspect being an issue even in the high-profile entertainment industry.

Reference

Papastergiou, M. (2009). Digital game-based learning in high school computer science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation. Computers & Education, 52(1), 1-12.


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Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The term instructional design refers to the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation. An instructional designer is somewhat like an engineer.

Reference 1

Smith, P.L, & Ragan, T.J.(1999).Instructional design 2nd ed. Columbus,OH:Merrill

Original Source Material 2

First, learning from a given program will be promoted in direct proportion to its implementation of first principles. Second, first principles of instruction can be implemented in any delivery system or using any instructional architecture.

Reference 2

Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43 - 59.

Instructional design theories are design oriented and describe what instructional methods should be used in what situation in order to best achieve desired goals. Instructional design implies a reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans. For instance, Merrill identified the First Principles of Instruction by analyzing a variety of design theories and models and claims   learning from a given program will be promoted in direct proportion to its implementation of first principles (Merrill, 2002, p. 44).

References

Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43 - 59.

Smith, P.L, & Ragan, T.J.(1999).Instructional design 2nd ed. Columbus,OH:Merrill


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Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

MOOCs have become a label for many recent online course initiatives from institutions, individuals and commercial organizations. The original aim of MOOCs was to open up education and provide free access to university level education for as many students as possible.

Reference 1

Yuan, L., & Powell, S. (2013). MOOCs and open education: Implications for higher education. Bolton, United Kingdom: The University of Bolton.

Original Source Material 2

The point here is that a Mini-MOOC should be tightly focused in terms of scope and aimed at specific skills that can be developed and testing using automated means available through the Internet. Hopefully, as the MOOC fervor fades, there will be increasing interest in and development of Mini-MOOCs.

Reference 2

Spector, J. M. (2014). Remarks on MOOCS and Mini-MOOCS. Educational Technology Research and Development62(3), 385-392.

The main distinguishing features of MOOCs are that they are (a) open and free so that anyone can participate and (b) have a large number of participants (Yuan & Powell, 2013). MOOCs can vary based on their types. Spector (2014) introduced the concept of Mini-MOOCs, which are "tightly focused in terms of scope and aimed at specific skills that can be developed and testing using automated means available through the Internet" (p. 390).

References

Yuan, L., & Powell, S. (2013). MOOCs and open education: Implications for higher education. Bolton, United Kingdom: The University of Bolton.

Spector, J. M. (2014). Remarks on MOOCS and Mini-MOOCS. Educational Technology Research and Development62(3), 385-392.


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Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient is a nonparametric (distribution-free) rank statistic proposed by Charles Spearman as a measure of the strength of an association between two variables.

Reference 1

Hauke, J., & Kossowski, T. (2011). Comparison of values of Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients on the same sets of data. Quaestiones Geographicae, 30(2), 87-93.

Original Source Material 2

In APT a model is viewed simply as a temporal pattern, whereas in most other approaches parameters of a mathematical model are estimated from data in which variables are measured separately. Moreover, in APT probabilities of temporal patterns are estimated by relative frequency and duration.

Reference 2

Frick, T. W. (1990). Analysis of patterns in time: A method of recording and quantifying temporal relations in education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.

 

Spearman correlation coefficient measures the degree of relationship between two ordinal variables (Hauke & Kossowski, 2011). While quantitative methods characterize relationships of variables that are measured separately with mathematical models such as linear models, APT offers an alternative method without any mathematical model that measures temporal relations of variables in time directly by counting their occurrences in temporal maps (Frick, 1990).

Reference

Hauke, J., & Kossowski, T. (2011). Comparison of values of Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients on the same sets of data. Quaestiones Geographicae, 30(2), 87-93.

 


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Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

...literacies crucially entails sense making within a rich, multimodal semiotic system, situated in a community of practice that renders that system meaningful.

Reference 1

Steinkuehler C. (2007) Massively multiplayer online gaming as a constellation of literacy practices. eLearning 4(3), 297–318.

Original Source Material 2

…noted a favorable reaction to the game of those students preferring more social styles of learning [and] ... active involvement was the only affective factor significantly linked to learning.

Reference 2

Corbeil, P., & Laveault, D. (2011).  Validity of a Simulation Game as a Method for History Teaching.  Simulation & Gaming, 42(4), 462-475.

Steinkuehler (2007) points out that “...literacies crucially entails sense making within a rich, multimodal semiotic system, situated in a community of practice that renders that system meaningful” (p.300). In a multimodal semiotic system, "...active involvement was the only affective factor significantly linked to learning" (Corbeil & Laveault, 2011, p. 474).

References

Steinkuehler C. (2007) Massively multiplayer online gaming as a constellation of literacy practices. eLearning 4(3), 297–318.

Corbeil, P., & Laveault, D. (2011).  Validity of a Simulation Game as a Method for History Teaching.  Simulation & Gaming, 42(4), 462-475.


Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

 

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Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Our traditional secondary curriculum is largely an experience of mastering a pre-defined set of objectives, mostly through listening or participating in structured activities with well-defined, pre-determined outcomes. In post-secondary schools, the activities are more open-ended, but mostly mediated through secondary accounts of phenomena through the use of textbooks and lectures. College students mostly listen to lectures, read texts, and if they are lucky, discuss them with peers or an instructor. Those who prefer to develop understandings through building, tinkering, or more direct experience are left behind.

Reference 1

Squire, K. (2005). Changing the game: What happens when video games enter the classroom. Innovate: Journal of online education1(6).

Original Source Material 2

In addition, proponents of games in school also have to overcome the objections of those parents, teachers and administrators who see games as insufficiently serious, that they are just play.

Reference 2

Klopfer, E., Osterweil, S., & Salen, K. (2009). Moving learning games forward. Cambridge, MA: Education Arcade.

One of the reasons that reduce the use of games in schools is that the belief that games are the part of informal settings and their purpose is fun not learning. Parents, teachers and administrators “see games as insufficiently serious, that they are just play” (Klopfer, Osterweil, & Salen, 2009, p.2). Squire states that traditional curriculum vary based on the school levels, which do not support skills that might be gained through using games.

Reference

Squire, K. (2005). Changing the game: What happens when video games enter the classroom. Innovate: Journal of online education1(6).

 


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Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

In today’s conception, educational technology can be defined as an abstract concept or as a field of practice. Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.

Reference 1:
Januszewski, A., & Molenda, M. (Eds.). (2008). Educational technology: A definition with commentary. Routledge.

Original Source Material 2

…emerging educational technology design methods put emphasis on understanding social-cultural practices and motives of those using technology for teaching and learning in addition to enhancing communication between technology users, designers, and technology developers in order to get feedback on user experiences.

Reference 2

Mwanza-Simwami, D. (2013). Activity theory and educational technology design. In R. Luckin, S. Puntambekar,  P. Goodyear, B. Grabowski, J. Underwood, and N. Winters, (Eds.), Handbook of Design in Educational Technology. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 176–188.

 

Educational technology is defined as the study “of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources” (Januszewski & Molenda, 2008, p.1). With the rapid advances in technology, new educational technologies have been introduced and used in learning settings. Mwanza-Simwami (2013) emphasizes that educational technology design methods should provide frameworks and models that address social-cultural practices and motives, interactions among users of technology for those who design and develop technology.  

Reference

Januszewski, A., & Molenda, M. (Eds.). (2008). Educational technology: A definition with commentary. Routledge.

Mwanza-Simwami, D. (2013). Activity theory and educational technology design. In R. Luckin, S. Puntambekar,  P. Goodyear, B. Grabowski, J. Underwood, and N. Winters, (Eds.), Handbook of Design in Educational Technology. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 176–188.


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Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

No deep learning takes place unless learners make an extended commitment of self. Learning a new domain, whether it be physics or furniture-making, requires the learner to take on a new identity: to make a commitment to see and value work and the world in the ways in which good physicists or good furniture makers do.

Reference 1

Gee, J. P. (2005). Semiotic social spaces and affinity spaces. Beyond communities of practice language power and social context, 214-232.

Original Source Material 2

Constructionism --the N word as opposed to the V word-- shares constructivism's connotation of learning as "building knowledge structures" irrespective of the circumstances of the learning. It then adds the idea that this happens especially felicitously in a context where the learner is consciously engaged in constructing a public entity, whether it's a sand castle on the beach or a theory of the universe.

Reference 2

Papert, S., & Harel, I. (1991). Situating constructionism. Constructionism, 36, 1-11.

Gee (2005) claims that “no deep learning takes place unless learners make an extended commitment of self”. According to Gee (2005), deep learning comes along through taking on new identities, which makes learners more motivated to value their work.  In addition to taking on new identities, the knowledge construction occurs well when children build and create artifacts of social relevance with interacting others.

References

Gee, J. P. (2005). Semiotic social spaces and affinity spaces. Beyond communities of practice language power and social context, 214-232.

Papert, S., & Harel, I. (1991). Situating constructionism. Constructionism, 36, 1-11.


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