Figure 1  

Figure 1.

Urban forests can be best understood and studied as a Social-Ecological System (SES) of interlinked human and natural components. The production of ecosystem services in urban forests is affected by the attributes of the “Biophysical Resource” (trees and vegetation structure), the characteristics of the “Community” of resource users and beneficiaries, and the “Institutions” (formal and informal rules, norms and strategies governing how people and groups of people interact with one another and with the physical world) that affect how the community manages trees. The interactions between the community, the biophysical resource and institutions influence the types and magnitude of ecosystem services provided by the urban forest.