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How to Recognize Plagiarism

Paraphrasing

Example 1 of 5

Paraphrasing plagiarism is committed when a writer summarizes an idea taken from another source and fails both to cite the author(s) and to provide the corresponding reference.

If the summary contains a sequence of 7 or more words taken from that source which is not properly acknowledged, then word-for-word plagiarism is also committed.

Read the example carefully!

Original Source Material: Developing complex skills in the classroom involves the key ingredients identified in teaching pigeons to play ping-pong and to bowl. The key ingredients are: (1) inducing a response, (2) reinforcing subtle improvements or refinements in the behavior, (3) providing for the transfer of stimulus control by gradually withdrawing the prompts or cues, and (4) scheduling reinforcements so that the ratio of reinforcements in responses gradually increases and natural reinforcers can maintain their behavior. Source: Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Plagiarized Version Correct Version

The same factors apply to developing complex skills in a classroom setting as to developing complex skills in any setting. A response must be induced, then reinforced as it gets closer to the desired behavior. Reinforcers have to be scheduled carefully, and cues have to be withdrawn gradually so that the new behaviors can be transferred and maintained.

 

According to Gredler (2001), the same factors apply to developing complex skills in a classroom setting as to developing complex skills in any setting. A response must be induced, then reinforced as it gets closer to the desired behavior. Reinforcers have to be scheduled carefully, and cues have to be withdrawn gradually so that the new behaviors can be transferred and maintained.

Reference:

Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Explanation: This example is paraphrasing plagiarism. The student has only moved the original author's words around, while summarizing the main ideas. The student did not credit the original author by an in-text citation, nor did she or he provide the bibliographic reference.

A reader would not have a direct way of recognizing that this idea came from another source, since, without clear acknowledgement of that source, the writing appears to be the student's own ideas expressed in his or her own words.

 

Explanation: This example has been paraphrased properly and is not considered plagiarism. The author was cited at the beginning of the passage, and the full reference for the citation was provided.  Since paraphrasing occurred, quotation marks were not used.  Nothing was directly quoted.

 

 

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