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How to Recognize Plagiarism

Examples

Word for Word | Paraphrasing

Example 1 of 5

A paraphrased example must be cited. You cite a paraphrased example as you would a word-for-word quote. Paraphrasing is a condensed version of another author's work, or putting the author's words into your own words.

Read the example carefully!

Original Source Material: Developing complex skills in the classroom involves the key ingredients identified in teaching pigeons to play ping-pong and to bowl. The key ingredients are: (1) inducing a response, (2) reinforcing subtle improvements or refinements in the behavior, (3) providing for the transfer of stimulus control by gradually withdrawing the prompts or cues, and (4) scheduling reinforcements so that the ratio of reinforcements in responses gradually increases and natural reinforcers can maintain their behavior.

Source: Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Plagiarized Version Correct Version

Inducing a response, providing for the transfer of stimulus control by gradually withdrawing prompts or cues, reinforcing subtle improvements in the behavior, and scheduling reinforcements so that natural reinforcers can maintain their behavior are the key ingredients identified both in teaching pigeons to play ping-pong and in developing complex skills in the classroom.

References: Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

According to Gredler (2001), the same factors apply to developing complex skills in a classroom setting as to developing complex skills in any setting. A response must be induced, then reinforced as it gets closer to the desired behavior. Reinforcers have to be scheduled carefully, and cues have to be withdrawn gradually so that the new behaviors can be transferred and maintained.

References: Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Explanation: This example has been plagiarized. The student has only moved the original author's words around, inserting and deleting small portions as needed. The student has not used quotation marks for the portions that are still identical to the original, and has not credited the original author.

Note that this example is also word-for-word plagiarism, as well as paraphrasing plagiarism.

 

Explanation: This example has been paraphrased and is not considered plagiarized. The author was cited at the beginning of the passage as well as in the bibliographic section.  Since paraphrasing occurred, quotation marks are not used.  Nothing was directly quoted.

If the attribution to Gredler at the beginning of the paragraph had been ommitted, then this WOULD be paraphrasing plagiarism. The reader would not know that the writer was summarizing Gredler's thinking and expression.

Examples 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5