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How to Recognize Plagiarism

Examples

Word for Word | Paraphrasing

Example 3 of 5

A paraphrased example must be cited. You cite a paraphrased example as you would a word-for-word quote. Paraphrasing is a condensed version of another author's work, or putting the author's words into your own words.

Read the example carefully!

Original Source Material: 

Assess: determine the value of one or more properties of some entity.

Cognitive Assesment:  the entity is a person's state of mind, and the property concerns what he or she does or does not know.

Since mental states cannot be directly observed, we need to plan stimulus situations and observe responses of persons (i.e., test them).

Plan stimulus situations:

  • Does the assessment match the the learning objective? (See Mager book, Measuring Instructional Results.)
  • Is it safe to infer from the behaviors observed, and in the context observed, that the learner does or does not have the cognitive property?
    • Is it possible that the learner could have this property and not be able to perform successfully?
    • Is it possible that the learner could not have this property and yet be able to perform successfully?
    • In other words, is the assessment valid in terms of its congruence with the property under consideration?

Source: Frick, T. (1997).  Assessment. Bloomington, IN:  Indiana University School of Education, unpublished lecture notes.

Plagiarized Version Correct Version

In order to do cognitive assessment, we need to create observable situations in which we can infer learning achievement.  This is necessary  since we cannot read people's minds directly.  The observable situations need to be congruent with instructional objectives, such that valid inferences can be made concerning learning achievement.

Frick (1997) explains that in order to do cognitive assessment, we need to create observable situations in which we can infer learning achievement.  This is necessary since we cannot read people's minds directly.  The observable situations need to be congruent with instructional objectives,  such that valid inferences can be made concerning learning achievement, according to Frick.

References: Frick, T. (1997).  Assessment. Bloomington, IN:  Indiana University School of Education, unpublished lecture notes.

Explanation: This example has been plagiarized. Although the student has paraphrased correctly, no credit has been given to the original author of the ideas. Although the ideas were presented in lecture format and the student's own words are being used to express them, the student is still obligated to credit the original author for them.

Explanation: This example has been paraphrased and is not considered plagiarized. The student credits the original author at the beginning of the paraphrased passage and again at the end to indicate that the ideas continue to be drawn from this author's work. The original material in this case was from a presentation delivered in a guest lecture at Indiana University - the student may have worked from a reproduction of an overhead, as shown above, or from the notes taken during the presentation. In either case, the original author of the ideas must be credited.

Examples 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5