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How to Recognize Plagiarism

Word-for-word

Example 5 of 5

Word-for-word plagiarism is committed when a writer takes a sequence of 7 or more words from another source, but fails to identify the quoted passage, fails to provide the full in-text citation crediting the author(s), and fails to provide the bibliographic reference.

Read the example carefully!

Original Source Material: An important characteristic of instructional-design theories is that they are design oriented (or goal oriented). This makes them very different from what most people usually think of as theories. Theories can be thought of as dealing with cause-and-effect relationships or with flows of events in natural processes, keeping in mind that those effects or events are almost always probabilistic (i.e., the cause increases the chances of the stated effect occurring) rather than deterministic (i.e., the cause always results in the stated effect). Source: Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory, (pp. 1-29). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Plagiarized Version Correct Version

Whether they are probabilistic (i.e., the cause increases the chances of the stated effect occurring) or they are deterministic (i.e., the cause always results in the stated effect), we can think of theories as dealing with cause-and-effect relationships or with flows of events in natural processes.

References

Reigeluth, C.M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory, (pp. 1-29). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth (1999) states that we can think of theories "... as dealing with cause-and-effect relationships or with flows of events in natural processes," and goes on to say that they may be "probabilistic (i.e., the cause increases the chances of the stated effect occurring) rather than deterministic (i.e., the cause always results in the stated effect)" (p. 7).

References:

Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory, (pp. 1-29). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Explanation: This version is word-for-word plagiarism. The student re-organized the original material, and inserted portions of the original material in different places within the student's writing, but it is still word-for-word plagiarism. Since, the original author was not cited in the student's text and quotation marks were not used, these words appear to be those of the student.

A reader cannot tell that some of the words in the passage are Reigeluth's, let alone where to find them in the reference provided.

Explanation: Note in this example that the passage begins by citing the author and year of the publication. Quotation marks are used to indicate that the several passages are taken word-for-word from the original document. The reference tells us where to find the original author's work; and the page number at the end of the quote locates exactly where these words came from.

Therefore, a reader can tell whose words are whose, and where to find the original author's ideas and words.

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