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How to Recognize Plagiarism

Plagiarism Pattern: Crafty Cover-Up

Definition

A crafty cover-up includes a proper paraphrase, but also includes word-for-word plagiarism that lacks quotation marks, and the locator.

Original Source Material:

Five first principles are elaborated: (a) Learning is promoted when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems. (b) Learning is promoted when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge. (c) Learning is promoted when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner. (d) Learning is promoted when new knowledge is applied by the learner. (e) Learning is promoted when new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world.

Source:

Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43-59.

Plagiarized Version: Correct Version: Not plagiarized

Merrill (2002) claims that learning is promoted when first principles of instruction are implemented. Students should solve authentic problems, arranged from simple to complex. For each problem, existing knowledge should first be activated, then new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner, new knowledge is applied by the learner, and new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world.

Reference:

Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43-59.

Merrill (2002) claims that learning is promoted when first principles of instruction are implemented. Students should solve authentic problems, arranged from simple to complex. For each problem, existing knowledge should first be activated, then "new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner, ... new knowledge is applied by the learner, and ... new knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world" (p. 43).

Reference:

Merrill, M. D. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50(3), 43-59.

Explanation: This is word-for-word plagiarism because seven or more words are copied from the source, and quotation marks are missing. The locator for the full in-text citation is also missing.

Part of the text is properly paraphrased and includes the in-text citation and reference, but another part is still word-for-word plagiarism.

Explanation: Merrill is credited by use of quotation marks around his words (punctuation and ellipses added), full in-text citation with the locator, and by the full bibliographic reference. Merrill's ideas are paraphrased properly, since the in-text citation and reference are included.

See full list of plagiarism patterns.