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How to Recognize Plagiarism

Plagiarism Certification Tests


These tests are intended for undergraduate students in college or those under 18 years of age.

If you are a master's or doctoral level student, you should take the test for graduate students. Click here.

If you have difficulty passing this test, try the practice tests where you get specific feedback on each question.

Read these directions carefully!


Item 1

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

When instructors are creating discussion board activities for online courses, at least two questions must be answered. First, what is the objective of the discussions? Different objectives might be to create a "social presence" among students so that they do not feel isolated, to ask questions regarding assignments or topics, or to determine if students understand a topic by having them analyze and evaluate contextual situations. Based on the response to this question, different rules might be implemented to focus on the quality of the interaction more so than the quantity. The second question is, how important is online discussions in comparison to the other activities that students will perform? This question alludes to the amount of participation that instructors expect from students in online discussions along with the other required activities for the course. If a small percentage of student effort is designated for class participation, our results show that it can affect the quality and quantity of interactions.

References:
Moore, J. L., & Marra, R. M. (2005) A comparative analysis of online discussion participation protocols. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(2), 191-212.

 

According to Moore and Marra's (2005) case study, which observed two online courses, students in the first course implemented a constructive argumentation approach while students in second course had less structure for their postings. As they stated, when instructors create online discussion board activities, they must answer at least two questions. These questions are: "What is the objective of the discussions?" And "How important are online discussions in comparison to the other activities that students will perform?" According to their findings, the discussion activities that were designed based on the answers to these questions can influence the quality and quantity of interactions (Moore & Marra, 2005).

 

 

References:
Moore, J. L., & Marra, R. M. (2005) A comparative analysis of online discussion participation protocols. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(2), 191-212.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Instructional designers typically employ models to guide their day-to-day work. Due to the increased practice of the systematic design of instruction in a growing number of settings, available models become more and more proliferated, focusing on particular types and contexts of learning, particular groups of learners or designers, or particular instructional units (either whole curricula or individual modules or lessons.)

The main goal of any instructional design process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide learners with the conditions that support desired learning processes.

References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

"The main goal of any instructional design process is to construct a learning environment in order to provide learners with the conditions that support desired learning processes" (van Merriënboer, 1997, p. 2). Process models proliferate because more and more designers generate models that focus on specific contexts, learners, or even units of instruction, according to van Merriënboer.





References:
Merriënboer, J. J. van. (1997). Training complex cognitive skills. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Computer-mediated learning products-whether they are guided practice exercises, tutorials, simulations, games, hypertext, multimedia or Web documents merely carry out the directives (rules. programs, scripts. mark-ups) from a human tutor who originally designed the particular instructional or informational system and its subject matter. A computer system has no idea of the meanings of the messages (i.e., groups of "signs") being sent back and forth between the tutor and students. A computer system is a medium which conveys those human messages.

References:
Frick, T. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: what computers can and can't know. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107-124. Web supplement. [R&T]

 

The role of a computer-based instructional system is to deliver messages to learners. Those messages originated from human tutor who developed the instruction. Computer systems do not understand these messages which comprise the instruction, student responses, and feedback during the learning process. A computer is merely a conduit for the exchange of messages between student and teacher. A computer system has no idea of the meanings of the messages.

 

References:
Frick, T. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: what computers can and can't know. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107-124. Web supplement. [R&T]

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

A learning theory is made up of a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes. Therefore since learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur, it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

It is helpful to think in terms of two basic kinds of change: piecemeal and systemic. Piecemeal change leaves the structure of a system unchanged. It often involves finding better ways to meet the same needs, such as using an analogy to help your students learn the science concepts you taught in an otherwise similar manner last year. In contrast, systemic change entails modifying the structure of a system, usually in response to new needs.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional-design theory and how is it changing? Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. 2, pp. 5-29). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

 

Reiguleth (1999) mentions two different kinds of change: Piecemeal and Systemic change. Systemic change entails modifying the structure of a system, in order to meet new needs. In contrast, piecemeal change leaves the structure of a system unchanged. For example, new innovations instead of traditional methods could be used to engage students in learning.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

A learning theory is made up of a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes. Therefore since "learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur," it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning (Driscoll, 2000, p.10).

 

 

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Major changes within organizations are usually initiated by those who are in power. Such decision-makers sponsor the change and then appoint someone else - perhaps the director of training - to be responsible for implementing and managing change. Whether the appointed change agent is in training development or not, there is often the implicit assumption that training will "solve the problem." And, indeed, training may solve part of the problem....  The result is that potentially effective innovations suffer misuse, or even no use, in the hands of uncommitted users.

References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

When top-down major changes are initiated in organizations, people tend to assume that training is needed to help members of the organization change their behavior.  While training might help, if people in the organization lack commitment to accept the changes, they still might not do what management wants them to do.

 


References:
Dormant, D. (1986). The ABCDs of managing change. In Introduction to Performance Technology (p. 238-256). Washington, D.C.: National Society of Performance and Instruction.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The philosophical position known as constructivism views knowledge as a human construction. The various perspectives within constructivism are based on the premise that knowledge is not part of an objective, external reality that is separate from the individual. Instead, human knowledge, whether the bodies of content in public disciplines (such as mathematics or sociology) or knowledge of the individual learner; is a human construction.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Constructivist philosophers assert that knowledge is made by humans themselves. Knowledge is not "out there" in some external reality separate from us. It is we humans who create the content in disciplines such as math and biology. That knowledge would not exist without people making it.

 

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

APT was compared with numerous extant methodologies, including the linear models approach and event history analysis. The fundamental difference between APT and these other approaches is that no particular mathematical model is assumed in APT. In APT a model is viewed simply as a temporal pattern, whereas in most other approaches parameters of a mathematical model are estimated from data in which variables are measured separately. Moreover, in APT probabilities of temporal patterns are estimated by relative frequency and duration.

References:
Frick, T. (1990). Analysis of Patterns in Time (APT): A Method of Recording and Quantifying Temporal Relations in Education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.

 

The major difference between Analysis of Patterns in Time and linear statistical models is that APT does not assume any specific mathematical model. Linear models attempt to find statistical relations between variables that have been measured separately. In APT, temporal patterns indicate relationships. Those patterns are counted in order to estimate their likelihoods.

 

References:
Frick, T. (1990). Analysis of Patterns in Time (APT): A Method of Recording and Quantifying Temporal Relations in Education. American Educational Research Journal, 27(1), 180-204.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

To summarize, the elaboration model of instruction starts by presenting knowledge at a very general or simplified level in the form of a special kind of overview. Then it proceeds to add detail or complexity in "layers" across the entire breadth of the content of the course (or curriculum), one layer at a time, until the desired level of detail or complexity is reached.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). The elaboration theory: Guidance for scope and sequence decisions. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 425-453). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

They soon switched to a model based on the elaboration theory (Reigeluth, 1999). Using this approach, the game would begin with a level that offered the simplest version of the whole task (the epitome); subsequent levels would become increasingly more complex--an approach common to videogames--with opportunities for review and synthesis.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). The elaboration theory: Guidance for scope and sequence decisions. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 425-453). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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