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How to Recognize Plagiarism

Plagiarism Certification Tests


These tests are intended for undergraduate students in college or those under 18 years of age.

If you are a master's or doctoral level student, you should take the test for graduate students. Click here.

If you have difficulty passing this test, try the practice tests where you get specific feedback on each question.

Read these directions carefully!


Item 1

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

The theory we have constructed originates with the three phases of learning described above. We have organize and adapted the features of simulations to provide the learner with the most effective and efficient presentations in order to achieve successful acquisition, application and assessment. Our general model describes five aspects of simulations and provides prescriptions for the implementation of each. It applies to all simulations for teaching principles or procedures. Specific conditions or types of simulations require their own characteristic prescriptions that are described G3 variations on the general model.

 

References:

Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

Another ID theory that could be useful in the design of educational games is a model presented by Reigeluth and Schwartz (1989) intended for designing instruction in educational simulations. This model provides a more specific approach to designing instruction. Reigeluth and Schwartz propose three phases of the learning process which educational simulations should activate. They are: (1) acquisition of basic knowledge, (2) application of knowledge to the full range of scenarios, and (3) assessment of what has been learned. Their model for designing educational simulations is comprised of heuristics intended to inform the designer in following a set of prescriptions.

References:

Reigeluth, C., & Schwartz, E. (1989). An instructional theory for the design of computer-based simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 16(1), 1-10.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 2

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a design methodology called rapid prototyping, which has been used successfully in software engineering. Given similarities between software design and instructional design, we argue that rapid prototyping is a viable method for instructional design, especially for computer-based instruction.

References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Tripp and Bichelmeyer (1990) suggested that rapid prototyping could be an advantageous methodology for developing innovative computer-based instruction. They noted that this approach has been used successfully in software engineering; hence, rapid prototyping could also be a viable method for instructional design due to many parallels between software design and instructional design.


References:
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 3

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

A learning theory is made up of a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes. Therefore since "learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur," it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning (Driscoll, 2000, p.10).

 

 

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 4

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners agree that educational research is often divorced from the problems and issues of everyday practice--a split that creates a need for new research approaches that speak directly to problems of practice (National Research Council [NRC], 2002) and that lead to the development of "usable knowledge" (Lagemann, 2002). Design-based research (Brown, 1992; Collins, 1992) is an emerging paradigm for the study of learning in context through the systematic design and study of instructional strategies and tools. We argue that design-based research can help create and extend knowledge about developing, enacting, and sustaining innovative learning environments.

References:
DBRC (Design-Based Research Collective). (2003). Design-based research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5-8.

A decade later, researchers interested in studying learning in naturalistic settings (inspired by Brown's approach) began a concerted effort to define the standards and argue the legitimacy of this type of research through design. For example, the Design-Based Research Collective defined design-based research (DBR) as "an emerging paradigm for the study of learning in context, through the systematic design and study of instructional strategies and tools" (DBRC, 2003, p. 5).

 

References:
DBRC (Design-Based Research Collective). (2003). Design-based research: An emerging paradigm for educational inquiry. Educational Researcher, 32(1), 5-8.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 5

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Computer-mediated learning products-whether they are guided practice exercises, tutorials, simulations, games, hypertext, multimedia or Web documents merely carry out the directives (rules. programs, scripts. mark-ups) from a human tutor who originally designed the particular instructional or informational system and its subject matter. A computer system has no idea of the meanings of the messages (i.e., groups of "signs") being sent back and forth between the tutor and students. A computer system is a medium which conveys those human messages.

References:
Frick, T. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: what computers can and can't know. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107-124. Web supplement. [R&T]

 

The role of a computer-based instructional system is to deliver messages to learners. Those messages originated from human tutor who developed the instruction. Computer systems do not understand these messages which comprise the instruction, student responses, and feedback during the learning process. A computer is merely a conduit for the exchange of messages between student and teacher. A computer system has no idea of the meanings of the messages.

 

References:
Frick, T. (1997). Artificially intelligent tutoring systems: what computers can and can't know. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 16(2), 107-124. Web supplement. [R&T]

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 6

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur. As already indicated, no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning.

References:
Gredler, M. E. (2001). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (4th Ed.). Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice-Hall.


A learning theory, there, comprises a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with what is thought to bring about those changes.

References:
Driscoll, M. P. (2000). Psychology of learning for instruction (2nd Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

A learning theory is made up of "a set of constructs linking observed changes in performance with whatever is thought to bring about those changes" (Driscoll, 2000). Therefore, since "learning is a complex set of processes that may vary according to the developmental level of the learner, the nature of the task, and the context in which the learning is to occur, it is apparent that no one theory can capture all the variables involved in learning" (Gredler, 2001).

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 7

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

There is a desperate need for theorists and researchers to generate and refine a new breed of learning-focused instructional design theories that help educators and trainers to meet those needs, (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity). The health of instructional-design theory also depends on its ability to involve stakeholders in the design process.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reigeluth (1999) maintains that we "need theorists and researchers to generate and refine learning-focused instructional design theories...." Such theories will "help educators and trainers to meet those needs (i.e., that focus on learning and that foster development of initiative, teamwork, thinking skills, and diversity)" (p. 27).



References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). What is instructional design theory and how is it changing? In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 8

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

To summarize, the elaboration model of instruction starts by presenting knowledge at a very general or simplified level in the form of a special kind of overview. Then it proceeds to add detail or complexity in "layers" across the entire breadth of the content of the course (or curriculum), one layer at a time, until the desired level of detail or complexity is reached.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). The elaboration theory: Guidance for scope and sequence decisions. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 425-453). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

They soon switched to a model based on the elaboration theory (Reigeluth, 1999). Using this approach, the game would begin with a level that offered the simplest version of the whole task (the epitome); subsequent levels would become increasingly more complex--an approach common to videogames--with opportunities for review and synthesis.

References:
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). The elaboration theory: Guidance for scope and sequence decisions. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II, pp. 425-453). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 9

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

First, the potential of digital games is discussed using the tutor/tool/tutee framework proposed by Taylor (1980). Second, the potential of digital games to enhance learning by connecting game worlds and real worlds is stated. Third, the possibility of digital games to facilitate collaborative problem-solving is addressed. Fourth, the capability of digital games to provide an affective environment for science learning is suggested. Last, the potential of using digital games to promote science learning for younger students is indicated.

References:
Li, M. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2013). Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-22.

 

There are five advantages of using games in science learning stated in the literature. Games can be used as tools; make connections between virtual worlds and the real world; promote collaborative problem solving; provide affective and safe environments; and encourage younger students for science learning.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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Item 10

In the case below, the original source material is given along with a sample of student work. Determine the type of plagiarism by clicking the appropriate radio button.

Original Source Material

Student Version

Other major issues involve the accepted methods by which fidelity is measured. There are two major methods described in the literature for fidelity measurement. The first is through mathematical measurement that calculates the number of identical elements shared between the real world and the simulation; the greater the number of shared identical elements, the higher the simulation fidelity. A second method to measure fidelity is through a trainees' performance matrix.

 

References:
Liu, D., Blickensderfer, E. L., Macchiarella, N. D., & Vincenzi, D. A. (2009). Simulation fidelity. In D. A. Vincenzi, J. A. Wise, M. Mouloua & P. A. Hancock (Eds.), Humanfactors in simulation and training (pp. 61-73). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Liu et al. (2009) identified two major methods for measuring fidelity. The first is a mathematical (objective) method that requires counting "the number of identical elements shared between the real world and the simulation; the greater the number of shared identical elements, the higher the simulation fidelity" (p. 62). The second method involves a performance matrix that compares a human's performance in the simulation with that person's real-world performance, producing an indirect measure of fidelity.

References:
Liu, D., Blickensderfer, E. L., Macchiarella, N. D., & Vincenzi, D. A. (2009). Simulation fidelity. In D. A. Vincenzi, J. A. Wise, M. Mouloua & P. A. Hancock (Eds.), Humanfactors in simulation and training (pp. 61-73). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Which of the following is true for the Student Version above?

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