A Short Description and Analysis of Paradigmatic Clitics in Bulgarian

Steven Franks


This paper offers a brief survey and analysis of the placement and ordering of Bulgarian paradigmatic clitics within the finite clausal domain. These are either personal pronouns in objective/accusative or oblique/dative case or auxiliary/agreement forms of be. First, the question of what general properties define a clitic is addressed, and it is suggested that canonically they are minimal lexical items with respect to both form and meaning. Within a derivational model in which PF filters syntactic representations, clitics can impose tight requirements. For Bulgarian, I argue that these elements may not be initial in their Utterance (a large prosodic domain), a constraint which gives rise to ToblerMussafia effects in this language. I also argue that Bulgarian pronominal clitics are K(ase) head which adjoin to T, while the auxiliary clitics are Agr heads (above T). This head movement account handles clitic doubling and locality effects in that language. Finally, I show how the interrogative/focus particle li, which is a simple enclitic, interacts with the paradigmatic clitics in a way that exploits iterative and prosodically-­--conditioned linearization.


paradigmatic clitics; syntax; head movement; prosody; Bulgarian

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